NATURE OR NURTURE

1.Introduction

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For
a long time now, there has been an argument on nature versus nurture in the
development of human, which is the one of the biggest problems in Development
Psychology. Some people argue that inherited genes have an enormous impact on
human development. For example, kid’s stature, eye shading, and facial
appearance are generally controlled by genetic factors. As Rothbart, Ahadi, and
Evans (2000) and D. C.Rowe, Almeida, and Jacobson (1999) says, “Children’s
temperament – their characteristic ways of responding to emotional events,
novel stimuli, and their own impulses – seems to be in part  affected by their individual genetic make-up”
Nonetheless there are those who claim that we are effected by our environment
such as cultural experiences, social interactions with other people, etc.
Clearly, support influences youngsters’ advancement through various channels:
physically through sustenance, exercises, and stress; mentally through casual
encounters and formal guidelines; and socially through grown-up good examples
and companion connections. Therefore, there has always been a continuing
controversy whether innate or environment gains a more dominant influence on
individual growth. However the role of heredity and nurture must be
reconsidered in light of the Human Genome Project’s surprised results.
According to result of the Human Genome Project, “Since 95% of the population
possess “fit” genes, dysfunctions in this population are attributable to
environmental influences (nurture)”. Therefore, this paper, with the purpose of
sharing three key points to explain why human improvement depends essentially
on ecological variables, not hereditary elements.

1.     
Discussion
of findings

2.1.Background information about
nature and nurture

Before
this issue can be fully discussed, it is necessary to understand what nature
and nurture actually are. The definition of nature derives from  the genetic inheritance or the genetic
make-up, which a person inherits from both parents at the time of conception
and carries it throughout life (Stephanie Mojica,2017). As Kail, and Cavanaugh
(2013) said that “nature is concerned with traits that are genetically
inherited”. There are many things in an individual, which are heredity factors
such as sex, shade of eyes, hair and skin, hazards for specific infections,
tallness and different qualities. On the other hand, in a 2017 article “How do
nature and nurture influence human development”, Stephanie Mojica claims that  “nurture can be defined as the different environmental
factors to which person is subjected from birth to death”. Obviously,
environmental elements include a host of dimensions. They involve both physical
environments and social environments. For instance, an individual has to suffer
from and expose to not just pressure from their friends but also parental ideals
or preconception of society.

2.2.Heredity dimension depends on
environmental factors

It
is essential to realize that nature as the form of inherited traits does exist
but in general, an individual’s behavior is effected significantly by nurture
or upbringing. In the past years, “genetics were able to persuade most
psychologists that genetic traits plays an effective role in influencing
intelligence” (Plomin and Defries, 1998). Nevertheless, “a high degree of
heredity does not mean that the environment has no influence on the development
of any trait” (Neisser et al, 1995). The heredity characteristics are not
always evidently expressed at birth. Many physical features are revealed when
people go through the process of “maturation”- the term used by T.M McDevitt
J.E.Ormrod. According to his study, through the course of development,  nature elements are just improved completely.
For example, traits such as weight can be inherited, but it can also be
enhanced by the  exterior conditions –
surrounding environment. Another trait is height which is “an inherited trait,
but it has increased in recent generations in the United States” (Sternberg, 1996).
According to this study, environmental supports such as food, reasonably safe
and toxin-free surroundings, and responsive care from others, which are necessary
for maturation to occur; inherited traits never works alone.

 Many recent surveys carried out on the infant
and children behavior have shown that there is significant evidence to support
the fact that environmental factors strongly impact human development,
especially in the early years. In today’s world, almost all parents encourage
their kids to participate in some supplemental activities such as learning
music, dancing, and sports  in order to
enhance and develop talents or interests of kids. Probably, those talents have
been given by nature, but they can only be developed into fluent skills when
they have experienced the severe work of environment elements. Hence, in the
article “Myths, Countermyths, and truth about intelligence”, Sternberg states
that “intelligence could be partially or even highly heritable and, at the same
time, partially or even modifiable” (Sternbeg, p.14). Moreover, in other words,
nature’s partner is nurture –  the
environmental conditions. “Nature and nurture are partners also in the
transactions between the gene and the variety of internal environments that
surround it within the body (Greenough, 1991; Greenough and Black, 1992). Since
then, it is timed to reconsider about both terms of  nature and nurture that they are inseparable
and complementary to each other. Especially, it is not nature versus nurture,
it is rather nature through nurture.

2.3.Environmental factors have a
more dominant influence on people

Undoubtedly,
nurture plays a really massive role in early human development. Nurture in
several methods or another encourage individual’s competence to learn and study
new things. There is the common proverb that ” practice makes perfect”. Hence,
a person can pick up knowledge by exercising to adapt to all or any creations
in these circumstances or conditions. The section that nurture plays in human
development has been proved by psychologists in experiments where stepping
observe was administered to a cohort of presumption for a few minutes
repeatedly during a day. These youngsters were able to walk many days earlier
than some infants who had not been stepped exercise.(Zalazo, Zelazo and
Kolb,1972). Everyone was born with a detailed set of potential, however if not
put in the right situation, those potentials can never flourish. This will,
then, hinder human development. Inherited factors do not guarantee a person’ progressive
process. Environments factors, on the opposite aspect of the argument, shape
who someone is, how people work together with others, and how they behave. John
Watson, who established the Psychological School of Behaviorism, emphasized
that despite a child’s inherent potentials, people will be able to be conditioned
and trained to become anyone, which is not requires a specific a set of
experiences. Because that development is influenced and stimulated by the
atmosphere they live in.

Obviously, it is evident
that genetic factors is responsible for manufacturing healthy, well-developed
babies. It is also environmental elements that play a pivotal role within early
stages of human development. Analysis has ended certainly that early human
development is faster because environment conditions are formed on the
competence  provided by inherited.
Moreover genetic elements are responsible for the conventional development of
the craniate into a standard and healthy baby, but it cannot entirely develop
that craniate into an intelligent, knowledgeable or athletic adult. This can be
potential solely through the exposure that nurture provides someone. Thus, it
would be correct to mention that even though the character has a point of
influence, nurture powerfully influences early human development