180The figure of people who are cognizant of the bing of sources all around the topographic points has been increased as compared to the past. Most of the people understand the importance of place hygiene and personal hygiene. Hence, they wash and cook the nutrient before they eat. Hand lavation is a must whenever they think that they are soiled or after they touch something dirty. However, the addition in cognition about sources causes sources to go an compulsion with some people. Over compulsion of people with sources can be labeled as phobic disorder. Germophobia which is besides known as mysophobia is defined as “ an anxiousness upset characterised by an overreaction to the slightest uncleanliness or an irrational fright of soil, taint, or befoulment ” ( Mosby ‘s Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing & A ; Health Professions, 2009 ) . The modern life manner and development in scientific discipline and engineering cause human existences to halt exposing to some bacteriums and worms as we no longer walk barefoot and will refrigerate our nutrient. ( Real Food Forager, 2012 ) When people are seeking to maintain themselves every bit clean as possible, the debut of hygiene hypothesis causes people to inquire are they acquiring ‘too clean ‘ ?

Discovery of Germs

178The betterment made in microscopic optics allowed us to detect bantam life beings better. ( Pommerville, 2010 ) The germ theory of disease which was introduced by Louis Pasteur, a great chemist and life scientist, causes great impact for us. The theory stated that microscopic beings such as bacteriums or sources could do serious diseases. Peoples started to cognize that sources might look in everyplace and could be spread easy. Sources can be found in soil, nutrient and drinks, pets, refuse and can be spread through dirty custodies and flies. ( Levenstein, 2012 ) The find of sources and the realisation about disease causation sources led to germ revolution. The cognition sing sources enabled people to seek to cut down the disease transmittal by bettering hygiene and sanitation. Health attention professionals besides cognizant of this and hence tried to do themselves and the environment free of sources while taking attention of patients. The wellness attention system improved a batch after recognizing the injuriousness of sources. Safe surgery and large-scale inoculation plans were carried out after the find of sources. This find besides led to the development of antibiotics. ( Waller, 2003 )

Negative Consequences of Germophobia

117It is true that as we improve our hygiene and sanitation patterns through inoculations, pasteurisation of dairy merchandises, manus lavation, and imbibing treated H2O, we are free from diseases which killed many people in the yesteryear. A batch of lives are saved from chronic diseases and decease. However, there are besides negative effects due to compulsion with sources. The American Academy of Dermatologists claimed that manus rinsing pattern can do dermatitis. From a survey at University Hospital ‘s Case Medical Centre in Cleveland, among 60 wellness attention workers who washed hands 10 times daily, 63 per cent developed manus dermatitis. ( Yeates, 2008 ) Dermatitis is the annoyance of tegument due to overexposure of H2O and overexploitation of soaps and cleaning agents. ( Dermatology Consultants, [ no day of the month ] )

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163In order to destruct disease-causing micro-organisms, Cl has been added to handle drinking H2O. ( Chlorine Chemistry Division of the American Chemistry Council, 2010 ) Antimicrobial agent triclosan reacts readily with Cl in imbibing H2O to organize trichloromethane. Besides, dioxin can be formed under presence of sunshine. ( Rule et. Al, 2005 ) Although exposure to low degree of trichloromethane is non carcinogenic, high doses of it can do malignant neoplastic disease for research lab animate beings. ( Chlorine Chemistry Division of the American Chemistry Council, 2010 ) Therefore, it is non safe for human to expose to chloroform though it has non been proved that it is harmful towards human. Many people use antibacterial sanitizers or soaps while rinsing custodies in order to do certain that they are free of sources but the safety of triclosan which is a chief ingredient in toothpaste, antibacterial soaps and organic structure washes has been argued. It is certain that triclosan in toothpaste can forestall gingivitis as reviewed by FDA in 1997 but the recent carnal proving proved that triclosan can change hormone ordinance. Other surveies besides showed that triclosan may be one of the causes for antibiotic opposition. ( FDA, 2012 )

125Antibiotics have been regarded as marvelous compound particularly when penicillin, the first antibiotic, was introduced to battle infection. However, the effectivity of antibiotics is reduced due to overdrive. The figure of bacteriums immune towards antibiotics additions as the figure of antibiotics used additions. ( Salyers and Whitt, 2005 ) The irrational usage of disinfectants leads to the outgrowth of multidrug immune ‘superbugs ‘ such as methicillin immune Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ) and New Delhi metallo-?-lactamase 1 ( NDM-1 ) . ( Thomas and Nandave, 2011 ) Antibiotic opposition becomes job all over the universe. At the 8th International Symposium on Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance held in Korea in April 2011, the job in Asia was highlighted to derive concern all over the universe. ( Deresinski, 2011 ) In a recent study of the World Health Organisation, the deficiency of available interventions for superbugs has been emphasized. ( Pharmawatch, 2007 )

Hygiene Hypothesis

181Hygiene hypothesis was foremost introduced by David P. Strachan. This theory suggested that immune-related wellness jobs such as allergic reactions could be caused by deficiency of early exposure to sources and stimulations which people used to hold. ( Smith, 2010 ) The immature kids now are nurtured in environment which is “ excessively clean ” that prevent their immune system to be stimulated efficaciously and mature. This causes the kids ‘s immune system can non respond decently when they encounter sources after turning up. ( Davis, 2012 ) Harmonizing to epidemiological surveies, kids of husbandmans have lower hazard of acquiring asthma as their blood cells express higher sum of CD14 as compared to kids of non-farmers. ( Lauener et al, 2002 ) Furthermore, kids with senior siblings at place have less opportunity to develop asthma as their siblings expose sources to them and do them to develop stronger immune system. The happening of asthma additions today as the household sizes lessening. ( Mutius, 2001 )

Number of Older Siblings

Number of Children

Percentage of Children with Asthma ( % )













Table 1. Percentage of Children with Asthma Harmonizing to the Number of Older Siblings and the Age at Entry into Day Care. ( Ball et al, 2000 )

The research has been done among 1035 kids. The consequences showed that the per centum of kids with asthma decreased as the figure of older siblings increased. Children with more exposure to other kids had lower hazard of developing asthma. ( Ball et al, 2000 )

“ Old Friends ” Hypothesis

240Even though it has been discussed for a long clip that being excessively clean may do immune-related diseases after the debut of hygiene hypothesis, there is no grounds which can turn out that cleanliness increases hazard of acquiring those diseases. Hence, “ Old Friends ” hypothesis was proposed by Rook in 2003 as hygiene hypothesis can non explicate the right thoughts and it is misdirecting. This hypothesis stated that we should expose to microbes which evolved long clip ago during the development of human immune system for immune ordinance but non bugs which cause infection diseases. ( Bloomfield et al, 2012 ) Hygiene, sanitation and use of antibiotics protect us from infective diseases but at the same clip these cause us to lost touch with “ old friends ” . It is non right that cleaning wonts or “ unfertile ” places can do diseases as even the cleanest looking place has microbes. After thorough cleansing, bugs still can be replaced shortly through dust, air, human organic structures, pets and nutrient. ( News-Medical.Net, 2012 ) The truth is that the modern houses now in urban countries have different and less diverseness of bugs as compared to the past when people stayed in rural milieus. The diets, life styles and outside environment now are really different compared to the yesteryear. All of these lead us to less exposure towards bugs which we co-evolved. Besides allergic reactions, lack in exposure to microbes can do chronic inflammatory diseases ( CIDs ) such as type 1 diabetes and multiple induration, inflammatory intestine disease ( IBD ) , some malignant neoplastic diseases and depression. ( Bloomfield et al, 2012 )

Useful bugs unsure

The Right Ways

193Starting from the fright and terror after the find of sources until the recent proposes about the importance of certain bugs, worlds are ever in a quandary on whether we should be clean or non. In facts, we need to be clean so that we can maintain ourselves off from infective diseases such as GI and respiratory unwellnesss. Personal hygiene and place hygiene should non be abandoned as they are critical in battling diseases which spread and kill many lives. Many people are inquiring about the use of antimicrobic merchandises.


Rate % ( n/n )

Antibacterial Group

Non-antibacterial Group


2.2 ( 31/1396 )

3.0 ( 30/1341 )


2.4 ( 33/1396 )

2.9 ( 36/1341 )


10.2 ( 142/1396 )

11.9 ( 159/1341 )

Sore Throat

10.0 ( 140/1396 )

10.3 ( 138/1341 )

Runny Nose

26.8 ( 374/1396 )

25.6 ( 343/1341 )


23.2 ( 324/1396 )

23.6 ( 316/1341 )


0.01 ( 7/1396 )

0.01 ( 14/1341 )

Table 2. Ratess of at Least One Infectious Disease Symptom for Each Household-Month by Group. ( Larson et al, 2004 )

From the research that was conducted in 2004, there was no important difference between antibacterial and non-antibacterial group on infective disease symptoms. Plain soap is every bit effectual as antibacterial soaps. ( Lanson et al, 2004 ) This shows that antibacterial soaps and sanitizers are non necessary during manus rinsing. Since the antimicrobic merchandises and germicides do non truly demo the effectivity in cut downing unwellnesss, the use should be reduced as they may incorporate chemicals that are harmful. In order to increase the exposure towards good bugs, people should be encouraged to transport out more activities at rural countries where diverseness of bug is similar to the yesteryear.

Targeted hygiene


121The myths about autoimmune diseases are caused by ‘sterile places ‘ or being ‘too clean ‘ should be dismantled. We are non being ‘too clean ‘ as there is no topographic points we stay that are wholly free from sources. “ Old Friends ” hypothesis has been introduced to forestall people from loosen uping cleanliness and let unsafe pathogens to do terrible unwellnesss. The importance of hygiene should non be underrated as it is the chief manner to forestall transmittal of diseases. Good hygiene patterns should be carried out to forestall negative effects of exaggerating. The concern now is that surveies should be carried out to find ways to let people to expose to the right sorts of bugs which are indispensable for the development of immune system.


Howard Hudges