organisms.
I chose this topic as fossil fuels are an important factor of the world as they
can produce significant amount of energy. Coal, Natural Gas and Petroleum are well
known examples of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are a major source of energy in
the world today but their over-consumption can lead to serious environmental
issues like air pollution. They are non-renewable resources and cannot be used
after they are fully utilized. So, it is important to know about the issues we
are facing nowadays and the issues they can lead up to.

Fossil energy sources have been divided into three groups: oil,
coal and natural gas. Fossil fuels are highly efficient and cheap as compared
to other renewable resources as we do not have to make big investments to use
them etc. Currently oil is the major energy source in the world (approx.39% of
world energy consumption). Coal will be a major source of energy for the world
for the near future which is 24% of world energy consumption. According to an
estimate in 2030, coal will cover approx. 45% of world energy needs which is
quite high and this puts a lot of pressure on the coal reserves around the
world. Natural gas is expected to be the fastest growing factor of world energy
consumption (approx. 23% of world energy consumption). Fossil fuel extraction
and converting them to usable energy has several environmental effects. They
could contribute a lot to global warming and greenhouse gases and can lead up
to acid rain for which expensive air pollution controls are to be used.

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The exploitation of fossil fuels is essential to
modern living and has been an important element of the quick technological and
social changes of the past 25 decades. Although such changes have brought
undeniable benefits, this exploitation has contributed to a burden of problems
through pollution of local and regional environments and is a major cause of
climate change. This criterion of development is therefore very difficult to
maintain at a global level. At the same time around 2400 million of the world’s
population is underprivileged by lack of access to clean energy and are also exposed
to a large number of indoor air pollutants from the wasteful burning of biomass
fuels. Even in countries in which people earn high incomes, many people live in
fuel poverty, and throughout the world, increasingly inactive lifestyles are
leading to long-term diseases and injuries leading to a number of deaths
globally. Energy security is also a problem of growing concern to many
governments in both the developed and the developing world and is a potential cause
which can lead to environmental tension leading to conflicts globally etc. So, it
is important to inspect the opportunities to improve health, reduce climate
effect and promote development through realistic adjustments in the way energy
and food are produced and consumed.

Fossil fuel consumption
in Pakistan was last measured at 60.8% in 2011 by the World Bank. Fossil fuels available
in Pakistan are Natural Gas, Coal, Petroleum and Oil. Natural Gas production in
Pakistan is relatively high but the Natural Gas fields are expected to survive
for not more than 2 decades from  now due
to high usage by the local industries and this could lead for problems as the
industries in Pakistan are highly dependent on them for their working. The
largest Sui Gas field is located in Baluchistan. Pakistan also has huge coal
reserves that are critically important for the development of the country.
Replacement of coal with oil could help Pakistan save a lot of expenses (for
example the Thar Coal Fields). The Thar coal project
site was discovered in 1989 but the project is on a very slow pace for further
development. The “Toot Oil Field” is also a significant part of Pakistan’s oil
production, different oil companies like the ‘Oil and Gas Development Company’
are working on it. Pakistan’s oil and
gas needs are increasing on a high rate. A population growth rate of over two%
per annum combined with the average annual economic growth rate of over six %
in recent years has pushed up the yearly demand for oil by over one% per annum
and gas consumption by nearly 11%. A common example of use of fossil fuels is
the usage of petroleum in our cars which not only is causing threat to our
environment but is also reducing the amount of fossil fuels left in Pakistan
which can further lead to a lot of problems in the hereafter.

Fossil Fuels are to become a crucial factor in the
near future when the demand of these fuels increase. So, it is very important
to find a proposed solution to avoid the excessive use of fossil fuels.  As Vincent Van Gough once said and I quote,
“Great things are done by a series of small things brought together.” So we
should always look up to what we can do as individuals to solve a problem like
the one I am referring to through my report. 
Starting from the things we use daily, cars, we must make our cars as
energy efficient as possible for example maintaining the engine of your vehicle
time to time. If we try to adopt a more national approach then the governments
should try to use as much as renewable resources as possible for example using
solar or wind energy to create power instead of using coal etc. Countries like
Denmark are making an effort to minimize the use of fossil fuels to an extent
and many experts are on a roll of saying that Denmark can be the first country
to be fossil fuel free by 2050.

“My government will
study the recommendations very closely and will present a road map setting a
date for freeing ourselves from fossil fuels,” Danish Prime Minister Lars
Løkke Rasmussen said at a conference in 2010. Sweden is
also making efforts to become a fossil fuel free country in the near future. On
a more global level all the countries should unite to raise awareness against
the excessive use of fossil fuels through platforms like the UN perhaps.

In my
perspective the excessive use of fossil fuels has not only created a problem
globally but also in Pakistan. I think that the excessive use of fossil fuels
should be minimized as soon as possible. A common example could be taken of a
normal car which uses petroleum. A lot of fossil fuels are extracted annually
for different purposes. We should encourage the use of hybrid cars which uses
battery power alongside petroleum energy. If these cars could be used there
would be less need to extract fossil fuels and it will also cause less damage
to the environment. This will minimize the extraction of fossil fuels which
could be used later for other beneficial things. So, in my perspective this
specific problem cannot be overlooked and measures should be taken as soon as
possible to solve this issue or we better prepare for the worst possible
effects!!

The burning of fossil fuels produces heat-trapping
which is the main cause of climatic change globally and contributes to air
pollution etc. Apart from this a lot of communities like near the Pacific are
also suffering because of the high usage of fossil fuels on which are vital for
their living. All fossil fuels release carbon dioxide and other harmful air
pollutants when they are burned. These emissions lead to a number of public
health and environmental issues that are endured by people at local, regional,
national and global levels. The most dangerous and potentially irreversible
consequence of excessive use of fossil fuels is global warming. Another
consequence of their excessive use is the economic loss of many countries as
the fossil fuels are very profitable but these profits are limited as once they
are fully used up there is nothing we as humans can do to bring them back as
these precious fuels take years and years to form and develop. The burning of coal,
oil and natural gas has serious and long-term negative impacts on public
health, local communities, ecosystems and the global climate. Yet the majority
of fossil fuel impacts are far removed from the fuels and electricity we
purchase. So, the causes and consequences of the excessive use of fossil fuels
are horrible to imagine and they could be even worse if not looked up to in
time. So basically prior to my research I have realized a very basic thing
which should be understandable for all other people who support the wellbeing
of this planet and that thing is the proper and conserving way of using fossil
fuels because after all we as humans are responsible for all the things we do
as all the negative effects of the excessive use will directly affect humans
themselves.

The conclusion of my topic
is very simple and precise. The excessive use of fossil fuels results in a
number of modern day problems with which the human nature is certainly unaware,
this long list of problems includes air pollution caused by burning fossil
fuels like coal etc. so we should try our best to utilize alternate methods to
support our day to day life as these precious fuels will not remain for long if
not used wisely and carefully. To conclude I would like to quote Mr. Russel
Gold,

“….burning these
wonderful fuels put the planet farther down a path we don’t want to head
down”