Over the past 20 years Canada has changed a lot in manyfields from legislation of multiculturalism to overcoming the recession duringearly 2000 how the life has changed for youths during these stages? by the waywhat exactly are called youths lets be more specific about it. The definitionsof youth are many and often controversial. Are they called as a group of peopleaged between 15 to 23 or it refers to boys and girls whom are under noresponsibility to run a family? However, this research is not emphasizing onthe definition of youth so as it is a broad discussion we are just consideringthem as people age 15-24 who are no longer studying in high schools oruniversities and they are seeking a job to earn what it takes to run theirlives. In this article we are discussing the obstacles which youth faced during1990 to 2015 to find the job and examine why youths tended to get less jobopportunities than seniors in recent years rather than how it was in the lastdecade of 19th century.  The youth unemployment rate has been higher than adults fromthe very beginning after industrial revolution. Recent years, during 2008-2009recession and the afterward recovery from that recession, have been noexception.

Authority of the minister published the below comparison on statcanwebsite back in 2013 stating “In 2012, the unemployment rate of youths aged 15to 24 was 14.3% according to statistics Canada, compared with a rate of 6.0%for workers aged 25 to 54 and workers aged 55 or older The gap between theunemployment rates of youths and adults has not decreased since the early1990s, and has even increased slightly since 2010. In 2012, the youthunemployment rate was 2.4 times that of workers aged 25 to 54, the biggest gaprecorded since 1977. The extending of the gap between the two unemploymentrates is primarily because of the fact that the level of employment among youngpeople had still not, by 2012, returned to its pre-recession level (Bloskie andGellatly 2012)”. It is safe o assume that the labor force participation rate ofyouth has been generally lower than that of adults, mainly because a majorityof young people attend school. here is one question to be asked whyunemployment ratio is higher for youths than adults? The answer has differentdimension one of them is as youths may be interested in occupy a job for alimited time to provide some of their expenses like paying the rent and theirstudying debts such as university tuition they are more likely to leave the jobrather than adults because they might find a new and better job which hasrelation to their field they are studying or for whom has left high school oruniversity to get back to studying after a while.

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  Another reason for this cause is that Young workers are morelikely than adult workers to be laid off by their employers. Authority ofminister declared, “The monthly layoff rate among youth was 3.5% in 2012.Thisrate is more than twice the rate of 1.3% for workers aged 25 to 54 and the rateof 1.5% for workers aged 55 or older.

Since 1977, the annual layoff rate foryouth aged 15 to 24 has been between 2.0 to 2.7 times that of workers aged 25to 54″. As it is less expensive for an employer to replace an employee who hasjust been employed than a more experienced staff, the employer may have moretendency, when it is required to reduce the numbers of employees, to dischargeand fire a worker whose younger and less experienced (Bloskie and Gellatly2012).

This fact can be concluded that one aspect of the difference in layoffrates between young workers and adult workers is because of their lowerseniority, on average, of young workers. To prove this theory, the sack ratesof youth and adults who were part of a sample of workers with less than oneyear of seniority with their employers was examined by labor force survey. Forthis category of newly hired workers, the gap between the layoff rates of youthand adults persists but is considerably smaller.

The authority of minister alsoadded: “Indeed, the layoff rate was 4.8% for youth in 2012 compared to 3.1% forworkers aged 25 to 54 and 5.6% for workers aged 55 or older.” hence, youth havea better chance to get the ax more because of their lack of seniority with theemployer than because of their age. This gap did not exist during the early1990 and there was no difference in the chance of getting discharged between asenior and a youth but the gap has widened as the time passed.  One another reason that it is harder nowadays for youths tofind a job compared to adults is that they are more likely to get a new jobafter exiting or resigning from their last job due to research conducted byBloskie and Gellatly 2012.

Authority of minister added:” In 2012, an average of23.2% of workers aged 15 to 24 who were unemployed one month found work thefollowing month. This is a higher percentage than that observed among workersaged 25 to 54 (20.6%) and workers aged 55 or older (15.8%) (Bloskie andGellatly 2012).

Even in 2009, coming out of the recession, the outflow ratesfrom unemployment to employment were higher for youth than for the other twoage groups (Bloskie and Gellatly 2012)”. At the beginning of each month,employees, particularly young workers, can end their spell of unemployment byleaving the labor force. According to statcan.

ca In 2012, that proportion was27.7% for youth compared to 15.1% for workers aged 25 to 54 and 19.0% forworkers aged 55 or older.

However, most unemployed youth who leave the laborforce are full-time students who will likely rejoin the labor market after aperiod of time, which depends on the length of their education or severity oftheir private problems. The proportion of unemployed youth resigning from thelabor force to enter school full-time has increased noticeably over the years.this proportion was, according to authority of minister on average, 8.2%between 1977 and 1989, it was 17.4% in 2012. In contrast, there has not beensignificant change over time in the proportion of unemployed youth who resignfrom the labor force without going to become full-time students, with thatproportion always staying under the corresponding proportion for unemployedworkers aged 25 to 54.

  (Bloskie andGellatly 2012).   In the early 1990 there was almost no difference to get outof unemployment between youths and seniors according to Topel, R.H., and M.P.Ward (1992) but in the recent years although for all age groups, newestunemployment spells last less than three months but youth are more likely thanadults to experience relatively short spells of unemployment. In 2012, 79.

4% ofyouth who became unemployed were no longer unemployed less than three monthslater. In comparison, that proportion was 67.6% for workers aged 25 to 54 and70.

6% for workers aged 55 or older but after 1990 the outflow rates withinthree months of new spells of unemployment has gradually aroused for youthcompared to adults.   To amend the situationto get job opportunities for youths All jurisdictions in Canada offered a rangeof program responses to problems of youth employment back in 1998 (W. CraigRiddell 1997). At the risk of oversimplification, two general types can beidentified. The first addresses one particular youth employment problem, suchas the need of post-secondary graduates for initial job experience, or the needof unemployed youth who wish to start up their own businesses for training andaccess to start-up capital. The second is a multifaceted approach designed formore disadvantaged youth who face multiple barriers and obstacles toemployment.

Typical problems are low levels of education, lack of employabilityskills, and lack of self-confidence. For this set of problems mostjurisdictions have developed multifaceted programs that combine counseling andcareer information, job search assistance, work experience, on the job andclassroom training, life skills training, support for returning to formaleducation, and various forms of wage subsidy to assist the transition fromunemployment to full-time work. In some jurisdictions, this entire range ofspecific and multifaceted programming is packaged within a multi-dimensionaland comprehensive program that aims to ensure coherence and coverage of theneeds of all targeted groups. One example for these multifaceted programs wasto work under guidance and surveillance of an experienced employee to learn thebasic skills to do that job because one of the concerns was about the lack ofskills of youth in handling some complicated problems which may occur once upona time by this program they gain those skills needed and they opt to work moreefficiently in the work place.

  We are going to wrap up this article by a conclusion. The gapin unemployment rates of youth and adults is due more to the higherunemployment inflow rates among youth, a phenomenon linked largely to theirhigher risk of layoff and their periodic departures from the labor force toattend school full-time. Their higher risk of layoff is explained in large partby their lower seniority with employers.

Although jurisdictions put some goodefforts in and made it easier for youths to be employed but still employerswould rather to employ adults over youths. I am not saying that they mustdischarge seniors from their jobs to open space for youths talents to blossomof course they need job as well but it would be really nice that youths wouldbe given more opportunity to assist them overcome their financial problems byworking and to mature in order to adapt to their future jobs as soon aspossible.       https://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-006-x/2015001/article/14240-eng.htm https://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-006-x/2013001/article/11847-eng.htm http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-626-x/11-626-x2013024-eng.htm http://www.horizons.gc.ca/en/content/youth-canada-today