Survival of one life signifier is dependent non merely on its ability to hunt and use available life prolonging resources but besides upon its healthy competition for assorted such necessities with other life signifiers belonging to either the same or different species. To ease this, different life signifiers have evolved with particular assets of abilities to be, work and exhibit a inclination to proliferate so as to flag their laterality on ecological niche. Scientific communities at times are amazed by the sorts of interaction in which different life signifiers co-exist with each other and besides with the milieus. In workss, interaction scientific discipline has emerged as a major country of research which deals with look intoing and analyzing such phenomena in item, their mechanism, concluding for interactions of works with works, animate beings, and/or microorganism. Development of a new species from an bing hereditary rabble assures version to new and more efficient manners of being, wherein lesser inputs are invested for more possible benefits. One such illustration is the parasitic workss or air plants.
Parasitic workss comprise 19 households in flowering plants and constitute to about 4,100 species ( Nickrent. and Musselman, 2004 ) . Among these with assorted parasitic wonts, mistletoes are good known as perrenial, polyphyletic group of angiospermic aerial works parasites ( Devkota, 2005 ) infecting by and large host root and/or subdivisions, and belong to households, Viscaceae and Loranthaceae.
Mistletoes are considered as an of import constituent of biodiversity ( Watson, 2001 ; Shaw et al. , 2004 ) , and have been appraised non merely due to their alone parasitic relationship with their several hosts, their growing wonts, mechanism of seed dispersion but besides because of their marvelous medicinal values which includes their usage as sympathetic medical specialty to take down unnatural tissue growing under malignant neoplastic disease ( Kunwar et al.2005 ) .
They are preponderantly known to happen on fruit trees Mistletoes are characterised by the development of a root like absorbent organ called haustorium which forms the host parasite interface and draws foods from the host conductive tissues to the parasite ( Devkota, 2005 ) .
Dendrophthoe falcata is a hemi-parasitic works belonging to the Loranthaceae mistletoes and is considered as the commonest of all other mistletoes widely happening in India ( Parker acnd Westwood, 2009 ) . The genus Dendrophthoe comprises of about 31 species spread across tropical Africa, Asia, and Australia ( Flora of China, 2003 ) among which 7 species are found in India. The sp. falcata has its clasp in India since antediluvian times and has been in usage as traditional folklore medicine for assorted complaints. Though a parasite incurring immense losingss to commercial fruit and timer production, it is considered and welcomed as a sacred mark of prosperity in few countries of rural India. Well globally, much of the advanced scientific probes have centered on other mistletoes such as Orobanche, Viscum etc. These surveies have aimed towards understanding the parasite behavior, sap flow kineticss at the host parasite interface, chemical composings of flowered variety meats, planing successful control schemes, measuring medicative potencies etc.
The present reappraisal will concentrate on the bing literature earlier efforts taking survey of assorted scientific facets associated with D.falcata. The reappraisal well outlines the assortment of surveies performed go arounding around the host-parasite relationship, morphology and geographical distribution, and surveies taking towards in vitro constitution and efforts towards scientific justification of the ethno-medicinal belongingss, and assorted bing and possible control schemes for this mistletoe household member.
Morphology and biogeography:
Evolutionarily, mistletoes belonging to Loranthaceae are considered older than those of Viscaceae and of all time since their beginning from dense Gondwanan forests ; they have successfully encompassed Torrid Zones, semitropicss and waterless parts on the Earth through their nutritionary competition-driven conquerings ( Devkota et al, 2005 ) . Notes on flowered morphology and embryology in D.falcata have been provided by Singh ( 1952 ) .
D.falcata bears grey barks, thick leathered foliages variable in form with stout flowers ( Wealth of India. 2002 ) . The blossoming blossomings in D.falcata was antecedently referred to as alar or as developing on the cicatrixs of fallen foliages, but Y.P.S Pundir ( 1996 ) verified it to be of purely cauliflorous nature and besides notified that it portions cardinal similarity to that of Ficus glomerata, F. pomifera and F. hispida.
Two of its assortments are widespread in India viz. , volt-ampere. falcata ( Honey Suckled Mistletoe ) and var. Coccinea ( Red Honey Suckled Mistletoe ) distinguished by happening of white and ruddy blossoming, severally ( Flowers of India, a World Wide Web resource ) . A comprehensive list of about all the species within the genus Dendrophthoe can be availed ( from web beginning at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.naturekind.org/taxpage/0/binomial/Dendrophthoe_falcata ) .
Haustorial polymorphism, foliage apery, explosive blossoming, fruit adhesive mush etc.
Singh, B. , 1952. A part to the flowered morphology and embryology of Dendrophthoe falcata ( L. f. ) Ettingsh. Jour. Linn. Soc. , Lond. , 53, 449.
Dendrophthoe homoplastica ( mistle- toe ) mimic those of its common host, Eucalyptus shirleyi. ( Robert L. Mathiasen, David C. Shaw, Daniel L. Nickrent, David M. Watson,2008 Plant Disease / Vol. 92 No. 7 )
Hosts and host-parasite relationships:
Mistletoes occur largely on forest, fruit and cosmetic host trees preferentially harbouring zones rich in biodiversity and therefore are found overly on mountain ridges provided with favourably optimal light strengths and in few in inclines and fields ( Devkota, 2005 and mentions in this ) . Mistletoes do non follow a unvarying form of distribution which is affected by local environments and effected by wonts of seed scattering avian visitants.
Earliest, B.Singh ( 1962 ) reported that the leafy mistletoe D.falcata is parasitic on over 300 hosts in India, Pakistan, Southeast Asia, and northern Australia. Indiai??s rich works biodiversity in 1977 could describe sole host scope totaling 345 workss susceptible to infection from this mistletoe ( Siva Sarma and Vijayalakshmi 1977 ) which is a important figure as it contributes to its comparatively recent planetary record for 401 hosts ( Shaw 1993 ) . Till day of the month, D.falcata represents the lone known mistletoe with the largest planetary host scope ( Calvin and Wilson, 2009 ) which is continuously and quickly broadening.
Mistleoes are known to organize haustorial constructions at the point of fond regard to the host.
Among flowering plants, parasitic relationship through the formation of haustorial linkages is known to be widespread ( Wilson and Calvin, 2006 ) . In general, haustorial connexions among 72 ( of the 75 ) ariel parasitic genera may belong to either of the four types namely, epicortical roots ( ERs ) , clasping brotherhoods, wood roses, and bark strands ( Calvin and Wilson, 1998 ) . ERs may run along the host subdivisions in either way organizing haustorial constructions at variable intervals while i??unionsi?? occur as individual points of fond regard of single parasites therefore pronounced as lone. In D, falcata on different hosts two of the haustorial sorts have been observed viz. , lone brotherhoods as on Sugar apple ( Annona squamosa ) , and epicortical roots as on sugar apple ( Achras sapodilla ) , guava ( Psidium guajava ) , Punica granatum ( Punica granatum ) have been observed. It is unknown about what factors decide formation of different haustorial types by the leafy mistletoe on different hosts.
The host subdivisions infected with D.falcata show a gradual decrease in growing and diameter every bit compared to other healthy clean subdivisions ( Karunaichamy et al, 1999 ) .
It has besides been reported that the development of mistletoe workss on the host tree is a dynamic procedure which needfully leads to the decease of the host tree and that the whole procedure may last for about a decennary ( Karunaichamy et al, 1999 ) . It is known that mistletoes have higher food titre than their host ( Lamont, 1983 ; Karunaichamy et Al, 1993 ) and this could likely be attributed to a competitively higher H2O ( including dissolved alimentary and growing advancing metabolite ) consumption rate by the parasite at its haustorium at a point in the host subdivision in comparing to that in the jutting sidelong terminals of the subdivision ( that extends after the haustorium ) . This might render cardinal foods be unavailable to the host subdivisions that could quash growing post-infection ( Stewart and Press, 1990 ) . But in work by Karunaichamy et Al ( 1999 ) one D.falcata seed per root of Azadirachta indica seedling has been tested which has shown the life endangering consequence on whole works which once more itself is at an immature seedling phase ( so decease of the whole works could be expected ) . In a wide sense, physiological and metabolic disturbances induced by the parasite in the whole host works outlined at the seedling phase surmised by the reduced host foliage country, leaf figure, growing public presentation upon infection can non be correlated to that in a to the full mature host.
( statement in bold italics ) could be justified by that there may be an increase in the chance of multiple mistletoe seed dispersions or extended range of haustorial constructions to other subdivisions of the same tree ( as we saw in Guava ) that might perchance take to a gradual depletion of cardinal metabolites ( thereby take downing an indispensable threshold titre for the same ) required for growing of the host works wholly. Alternatively though unknown, it might besides be possible or still unknown if the hemi-parasites dissipate any unknown metabolite in to the host xylem at the point of ground tackle formation that may suppress growing and metamorphosis in the hosti??s alar meristems and the whole host works life may merely be at interest if such repressive effects are perceived by all works parts. This once more is contradictory hypothesis as apparent from fact that the haustorial connexions of the parasite with the works are devoid of any retranslocation system ( Smith and Stewart, 1990, besides see subsequently ) .
Once more, a study by Sridhar and Rama Rao ( 1978 ) unraveled the infection of D.falcata surprisingly hosting itself straight on the fruit ( Table 1 ) of Acharas sapodilla ( Sapota ) . Almost all the hemi-parasitic members of the Loranthaceae tap the xylem vass of their host to avail H2O and minerals but to a considerable extent produce their ain supply of assimilates ( Kuijt, 1969 ) . D.falcata does non hold an autochthonal rooting system and is dependent on the host for H2O and minerals. Nutrient kineticss have shown that a higher titer of N, P, K, Mg and Na in the foliages of mistletoe than the foliages of clean and septic hosts which may be due to differential translocation of elements within the host bast ( Prakash et al, 1967 ; Karunaichamy et Al, 1999 ) . Nitrogen loss is good pronounced in mistletoe septic hosts and a higher K degrees in mistletoe is an declarative mood of higher transpiration rates and a deficiency of re-translocation system ( Karunaichamy et al, 1999 and mentions in this ) . Though outlined above that the entire phosphoric in mistletoe foliages is present in surplus as compared to that the host leaves, fractional process surveies have elucidated that per centum acid-insoluble phosphate is relatively lesser in the parasite and besides that farther fractional process once more infers a lower per centum of phospholipid, RNA, DNA and phosphoproteins. The DNA content of the septic host leaves nevertheless show a dramatic addition compared to the healthy clean foliages ( Prakash et al, 1967 ) .
Mistletoes are believed to mime their hosts in flowered constructions. At some case it was supported by a hypothesis which explains that such behaviors imparts protection to the mistletoe from the herbivores. Subsequently, the hypothesis was field tested, rejected and replaced by a belief that a host parasite resemblance might assist to safeguard hostsi?? single fittingness by signaling the birds to throw out mistletoe seeds on other clean hosts ( Atsatt, 1979 ) . Furthermore, the hosts and parasite follow single developmental programming of events under which the parasite might see an influence from a steadfast epigenetic hormonal control on foliage size and form therefore germinating the apery or resemblance to the host ( ) .
List of hosts:
Loranthaceous parasites were known in India since 1885 and until so merely 35 species were known. Specifically for D.falcata from among the earliest of the studies, 268 host species have been known to be under the clasp of the deathly semiparasite ( Ravindranath and Narsimha Rao, 1959 ) , and shortly subsequently B.Singh ( 1962 ) reported its parasitic relation with over 300 hosts reported in India, Pakistan, Southeast Asia, and northern Australia. Until 1993, a study by Shaw III depicts a planetary addition of host scope to 401. In Indian Torrid Zones 37 species of tree have been reported as the favorite hosts for D.falcata ( Ghosh et al. , 2002 ) . Due to the of all time increasing host scope ( Sridhar and Rama Rao, 1978 ) presently it is hard to pull a border between the more and less common host genera.
Vectors for seed dispersion and pollenation:
Seed dispersion every bit good as pollenation is normally mediated by the birds that thrive on fruits from the parasite and/or host. Particularly in southern India, Tickeli??s Flowerpecker which is besides named as Pale-billed Flowerpecker ( Dicaeum erythrohynchos, Latham ) is reported to ease seed dispersion of D. falcata among Neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss. belonging to Meliaceae ) through faecal eliminations or regurgitations ( Karunaichamy et al, 1999 ; Hambali, 1977 and mentions in this ) . The mistletoe bird besides eats insects and therefore has a crunching ventriculus. When eating the mistletoe berry the bird is able to shut the ventriculus and the toxic seeds are normally swallowed as a whole and are shunt through their intestine in about 3-4 minute ( Murphy et al. , 1993 ) and because the seed has a gluey coating, to acquire rid of the seed the bird applies its blowhole to the borders of the host tree subdivisions and may turn around whereby the seed so sticks onto the subdivision where it may later shoot ( Ali, 1931 ; Ali 1932 ; Davidar, 1985 ) . These birds besides act as vectors for pollenation in the hemi-parasite whose flowers bear a mechanism that causes pollen to explosively spray on the feather of the sing flowerpeckers ( Karunaichamy et al. , 1999 ; Vidal-Russell and Nickrent, 2008 ) . Studies conducted in the higher heights of Western Ghats ( where both the mistletoes and the flowerpeckers occur preponderantly ) , which parallel the western seashore of India infer that the flowerpecker pollinated mistletoes have peculiarly developed characteristic specialized to pull a alone vector both to ease pollenation and seed dispersion: the fruit and flowers have similar resemblance and more significantly, the fruiting clip convergence with the following blossoming season ( Davidar, 1983 ) . Hair-crested Drongo or Spangled Drongo ( Dicrurus hottentottus ) is an Asiatic bird of the household Dicruridae and sunbirds ( family=Nectariniidae ) besides known to feed on the nectar from the D.falcata flowers besides adds to the list of pollinators to this mistletoe ( Kunwar et al, 2005 and mentions in this ) .
Consequences for the preliminary trials in phytochemical showing analyses utilizing ethanolic infusion of the whole works reports the presence of saccharides, glycosides, steroids, tannic acids & A ; phenolic compounds, flavonoids and triterpenes ( Sahu et al, 2010 ) . Chromatography of D.falcata fruits has late added new members to the list of of course happening terpenes which has taxonomically been considered important ( Mallavadhani et al. , 2006 ) . Entire phenoplasts in mistletoe have a relatively higher concentration but it failed to correlate to any opposition by the host or its susceptibleness to infection by the hemiparaste ( Khanna et Al, , 1968 ) . Later a phenolic inhibitor of the enzyme a-glucan phosphorylase was reported ( ( Khanna et Al, , 1971 ) .
A survey by Ramchandra and coworkers ( 2005 ) indicated that an elevated antioxidant potency in the mistletoe is due to segregation of phenolic compounds from the host workss. Their HPTLC information on samples from mistletoe hosted on Mangifera indica ( Mango ) , reportedly contained mangiferin, a C-glucosyl xanthone synthesized by the host works. The study raises query refering farther probes for whether the transportation of phenoplasts to the hemi-parasite indicates a preliminary host mediated defence or a manner of host designation by the parasite or as a mechanism from within the parasite to short-circuit rejection from the host works.
In mature seed embryo 0.65 milligram chlorophyll/g fresh wt ; chlorophyll a: B ratio of 1.6 per milligram chlorophyll has been evidenced. Furthermore, in context to titre of enzymes for photorespiration, phosphoglycolate activity in the embryo has been recorded to be 16.7 i??mol substrate/min and 3-phosphoglycerate phosphatase activity 6.8 i??mol substrate/min. Similarly, NADH-linked glyoxylate reductase activity has been demonstrated in the embryo ( 0.09 i??mol substrate/min/g fresh wt ) by Kachru, and Krishnan ( 1979 ) . Chroamatography of the ethanolic infusion followed by NMR and Mass spectroscopy could insulate and place Quercitin, a rhamnoside ( Shihab et al, 2006 ) . Hexokinase has been partly stray and studied for its belongingss from D.falata foliages ( Baijal and Sanwal, 1976 ) .
In a comparative rating of this parasitic works grown on assorted host workss, Nair et al.10 ) reported the accretion of kaempferol, quercetin, myrecitin, and their glycosides.
D.falcata possesses singular potencies as a medicative works evident from the lesion healing, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, antinociceptive belongingss of its ethanolic infusions ( Pattanayak and Sunita, 2008, Shihab et Al, 2006 ) . Medicative belongingss of this semiparasite may change in effects respective to different hosts it establishes a relation with ( Mallavadhani et al. , 2006 ) .
The whole works is used in autochthonal system of medical specialty as chilling, bitter, styptic, aphrodisiac, narcotic and diuretic ( Alekutty e al. , 1993 ) and is utile in handling pneumonic TB, asthma, catamenial upsets, swelling lesions, ulcers, nephritic and vesical concretion and diminished conditions of kapha and pitta ( Anarthe et al. , 20081 ; Anarthe et Al, 2010 ; Sastry, 1952 ; Pattanayak et al. , 2008 ) . Besides, the decoction of works used by adult females as an anti-fertility agent has been evidenced to possess anticancer activity ( Nadkarni, 1993 ) . The leaf ethanolic infusion significantly and dose dependently inhibits the acetic acid induced wrestling in mice ( Shihab et al, 2006 ) and has indicated a low degree toxicity in the seawater runt deadliness checks. Besides, a more recent work by Pattanayak and Mazumder ( 2010 ) shows important tumour decrease in induced mammary carcinogenesis in Wistar female rats when fed with hydroalcoholic infusions of D. falcata.
Ethnomedical surveies are by and large characterized by a strong anthropological and/or biomedical attack and in this context the usage of D.falcata as a traditioal redress for most if non all the complaints has been good appraised. Possibly, the assortment of cognition available has non yet been exploited full fledgedly due to the presently over-recommended chemial parallels that are prevailing over market most of which have side-effects associated under frequent usage.
In vitro regeneration and cistron introgression surveies:
It is known that long term caulogensis from the endosperm tissue exhibits a high grade of polyploidisation of its cells associated with abnormalcies such as chromosome Bridgess and dawdling chromosomes but mistletoe endosperms have exceeding stableness in their chromosome figure ( Razdan, 2003 ) .
In the yesteryear, in vitro surveies taking towards look intoing behaviour of mature embryos have been reported in D.falcata ( Johri and Bajaj, 1962 ) . The effects of visible radiation, endosperm, endosperm infusion, and place of the embryo on media have been studied on in vitro sprouting of D.falcata ( Bajaj, 1968 ) . Shoot initiation has been successfully achieved in D.falcata ( Bhojwani and Razdan, 1983 ) . Shoot buds in Loranthaceae straight differentiate from the peripheral cells of the endosperm civilizations though D.falcata may peculiarly necessitate media supplemented with a combination of cytokinins and a low concentration of IAA or IBA. Among other cytokinins, 2-ip has been most effectual and besides add-on of Casein hydrolysate ( 2000mg/l ) has been needfully recommended for shoot bud distinction. For optimum shoot bud growing frequent subcultutres on fresh media is important. Caulogenesis from these shoot buds may be followed by distinction into shoot and haustoria. The latter could be avoided by increased kinetin concentration and for such kinetin induced shoot bud distinction, a low concentration of auxin ( IAA or IBA ) is necessary ( Nag and Johri, 1971 ) .
Ready to utilize tissue civilization schemes have been discussed by a reappraisal article by Pattanayak and Mazumder ( 2008 ) .
Advanced molecular degree surveies are surprisingly missing for D.falcata with merely individual study where trials for amenableness of this works in cistron introgression surveies have been investigated via successful Agrobacterium mediated transmutation of its embryogenic civilizations for GUS look ( Rohini et al, 2005 ) .
Diseases of D.falcata:
Very small is known about diseases that victimize this hemiparasitc works. The pathogen species that have been reported in association are by and large known to commonly infect a broad scope of workss off genera. There are realisations that propose that mistletoe specific pathogens are rare and develop indigenousness and be localized to favourably optimized countries where their growing necessities and nutritionary demands are inline with the host mistletoe species and their host food and sap flow kineticss.
The hemi-parasite itself is susceptible to diseases such as foliage blight caused by Colletotrichum province of Glomerella cingulata which has been reported on D.falcata which earnestly infects Teak ( Tectona grandis ) plantations ( Ali and Florence, 1987 ) in Kerala, India.
Plant: A surprising grounds of hyper-parasitism has been reported in the Mohand Range Forest ( Dehradun, India ) where D.falcata itself receives haustoria from Scurrula cordifolia ( another mistletoe ) , both hosted together by Ougeinia oojeinensis ( Leguminosae ) ( Pundir, 1979 ) . Similaly, Viscum orientale ( Viscaceae ) has besides been reported to turn on D.falcata ( Saxena, 1971 ) . In another case Cuscuta reflexa ( Convolvulaceae ) has been shown to move as a rival to the leafy mistletoe ( Nath and Indira, 1975 ) . Viscum capitellatum. Sm has besides been evidenced from Sri Lanka to be an obligate epiparasite for D.falcata ( Calvin and Wilson, 2009 ) and symplastic continuity exists between their bast ( Glatzel and Balasubramaniam, 1987 ) which is an declarative mood of the aggressive epiparasitism depicted more vividly by the presence of graft-resembling i??unionsi?? . Viscum loranthi Elmer, therefore has been advocated to hold potencies for biological control of Loranthaceae semiparasites ( Pundir, 1981 ) damaging commercial lumber harvests. Well, other species such as D.glabrata has besides been reported to be parasitized by Viscum articulatum ( Robert L. Mathiasen, David C. Shaw, Daniel L. Nickrent, David M. Watson,2008 Plant Disease / Vol. 92 No. 7 ) . On the whole, 88 % of Viscaceae and 61 % Loranthaceae epiparasitize Loranthaceae ( Calvin and Wilson, 2009 ) .
Hyperparasitism in Other mistletoes in the same genus:
Notothixos subaureus ( Viscaceae ) , parasitic on Dendrophthoe glabrescens ( Loranthaceae ) on Eucalyptus ( beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.panoramio.com/photo/1876445 )
Recently, Cockerell Scale insects, Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli Cooley ( Diaspididae ) have been reported to settle on the foliages, roots and haustoria of D.falcata parasitizing Senna siamea ( unpublished communicating ) . These scale insects are known to boom on sap foods and their reproduction and hence their proliferation rate has depicted relation with the N position of the host. Well in this respect mistletoe peculiarly D.F indicates a favourable pick as their alimentary consumption seems more colored towards pulling more nitrogen rich species from the host sap. The host S.siamea, though is a non-nodulating leguminous tree coinage but can bring forth more N than the nodulating relations.
Controling the parasite:
Backed by easy seed dispersion by fruit feeding birds, widespread and of all time increasing host scope of Dendrophthoe falcata continues to present heavy losingss in economically valuable fruit trees and those with medicative belongingss whether turning in woods, groves or gardens ( Sridhar and Rama Rao, 1978 ) .
Healthy tree hosts can digest few subdivision fond regards with mistletoes but a to a great extent infected host easy moves towards its diminution as the mistletoe feeds upon its foods and spreads on all its ariel parts ( Aly, 2007 ) . Hostsi?? decease is more likely when they become more prone to other signifiers of biotic ad abiotic emphasiss.
Reports from 1930s grounds that until so no proper control and obliteration methods were available instead the lone option used was striking off the parasite ( before seed production ) wholly from below the point of infection in the host and their immediate incineration ( Sridhar and Rama Rao, 1978 ) .
Mechanical pruning of the septic host subdivisions with cuts at least one pes below the point of mistletoe fond regard in order to wholly take embedded haustoria has besides been suggested as a method of pick but terrible header ( exceeding ) which is frequently used to take heavy tree infestations weakens the host tree construction. Alternatively, it is best to take badly infested trees wholly because they are normally a beginning of mistletoe seeds. Another method employed when mechanical pruning gives up upon mistletoe infection uses painting the septic country utilizing a pruning pigment or spray and wrapping it with beds of opaque polythene screen so as to curtail light beginning required by this leafy mistletoe. In another method, usage of ethephon ( a growing regulator ) in signifier of spray to wholly wet foliages of mistletoe harbouring hibernating host trees is recommended ( Aly, 2007 ) . Regrowth of the parasite may be prevented by sniping it and painting the topographic point in the host subdivision ( Koski et al. , 2009 ) .
Recently, adopted method of control uses application of 50 % diesel oil emulsion sprayed on mistletoe foliages. The said morbid consequence of emulsion significantly increases the intra-molecular respiration rates in the foliages followed by a gradual diminution in capacity of stomatous closing accordingly taking to decease of the semiparasite ( Singh and Sharma. , 1970 ) .
Delias eucharis, a medium sized pierid butterfly ( Common Jezebel ) normally occurs in South and South-East Asia ( Bingham, 1907 ) and is peculiarly known to put its eggs and provender on foliages of mistletoes ( Roychoudhury, 2005 ) and has been suggested in its usage to command the parasitic mistletoes ( Sevastopulo, 1950, Mushtaque and Baloch 1979 ) .
Alternatively, opposition to D.falcata utilizing weedkiller ( metribuzin ) extract of its host, Tectona grandis ( Teak ) has besides been tested but is of limited aid as the efficiency of parasite violent death was non relative to the sum of weedkiller used which is required to gauge exact dose and extract clip for multiple of infection on one host ( Balasundaran and Ali, 1989 ) .
In one of the documents from the proceedings of the 6th Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society conference, G.G. Hambali ( 1977 ) has discussed beside other uses the exploitaton of scolytid and cerambycid beetles in commanding Dendrophthoe spp. Several similar or other control options have been suggested by Khan et Al. ( 1987 ) .
Approachs as highlighted above towards control of parasitic weeds by traditional methods are limitedly effectual and best control via weedkillers and fumigants may be risky to Mother Nature ( Jacobsohn 1994 ) .
Removal of mistletoe by manus is effectual well under little grades of infection but extended infestation might render this attack as necessarily expensive ( Aly, 2007 ) and cumbersome more peculiarly when the infestation spans big tree plantations or dense woods.
Replacing the septic plantations with immune trees has besides been a method of pick. Though non reported yet specifically for D.falcata, opposition for broadleaf mistletoe ( Phoradendron macrophyllum ) was evidenced in some tree species viz. , pear, Chinese Pistacia vera, crapemyrtle, gingko, lacewood, and conifers such as redwood and cedar ( Perry 1995 ) . These few resistant species are of significance to the works breeders but raising parasitic works immune harvest genotypes have been really hard and yet lack success.
Use of high and low strength fires has besides been noted but is instead unwanted in plantations as woni??t consequence in complete remedy but merely subside heavy infestation from the mistletoes in base without suppression of re-infestation ( Carnegie et al, 2009 ) .
Chemical control of mistletoes has been extensively researched in Australia which points out the grounds for their limited modus operandi pattern in woods as these methods are labour intensive, cost-efficient, variable or limited in consequences. Use of biological control schemes including mistletoe aiming Fungi has besides been evidenced ( Carnegie et al, 2009 ) .
Recent attempts by S. Aly and his workgroup ( at the Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, Agricultural Research Organization, Newe Yaar Research Center, Israel ) enlists successful biotechnological attacks which guarantee chances towards accomplishing effectual parasitic weed control and guarantee environmental safety ( Aly, 2007 ) . Adoption of these tools within biotechnology viz, trait cistron introgression, cistron silencing, booster engineering etc consequently towards bring forthing transgenic host trees remain the lone promising option to combat losingss incurred from D.falcata infestations.
Aspects of biodiversity:
Management and control schemes whether mild or thorough and whether practiced on a low to high country of coverage should non overlook that mistletoes are considered a valuable constituent of biodiversity. They are seen as i??a anchor resourcei?? of nutrient and shelter for diverse population of craniates and invertebrates ( Carnegie et al, 2009 ) .
( Cardinal: take up the old issues in above subjects and be general and besides take illustrations from other species or genera about the same, for medicative values and merchandises once more search for other bing natural resources.
Parasitic workss and their beginning
Parasitic workss constitute to approximately 1 % of the entire flowering plants in nature.
Surveies explicating the scientific discipline behind the evolutionary beginning of the ariel wont in Loranthaceae have late been initiated where crude hypotheses are being investigated with usage of phyletic tools and analyses ( Wilson and Calvin, 2006 ) .
Though in a recent reappraisal by D’Cruz et Al ( 2010 ) considerable generative toxicity that may do upon ingestion of infusions from the semiparasite and other works infusions had been advocated. The article besides entreaties for extended research on neutralizing the toxicity of works based merchandises before they could be validated for their wellness benefits.
Antioxidants are considered of import for forestalling human diseases but the man-made antioxidants viz. , butylated hydroxy methylbenzene ( BHT ) and butylated hydroxy anisole ( BHA ) that have a restricted usage as preservatives in oils and fatty nutrients to minimise their oxidization are considered carcinogenic ( Andlauer and Furst, 1998 ) which can be altered by usage of ethanolic and/or methanolic D.falcata infusions as antioxidant addendums ( Pattanayak and Sunita, 2008 ; Anarthe et Al, 20082 ) .
Despite being harmful for the economically of import workss it is surprising though refering to their convincing medicative belongingss that D.falcata is considered sacred ( Kunwar et al.2005 ) in most if non all parts of India.
As reported by Pankaj Oudhia ( 2008 ) , peculiarly in the province of Chhattisgarh ( India ) it is considered to be an built-in portion of traditional healing and the indigens welcome its infestation and utilize it in 100s of medicative preparations. It is normally known as Mahua ke Banda ( friends of the host ) when it occurs on the host Mahua ( Madhuca indica ) tree. Furthermore, even the ethnobotanical studies conducted in different parts of Indian province Chhattisgarh from twelvemonth 1994 to 2008 revealed that different parts of Dendrophthoe falcata Ettingsh are used both internally every bit good as externally in intervention of many diseases and that information on over 1600 preparations in which it is added as chief ingredient has been collected so far. In intervention of Type II Diabetes it is used by the traditional therapists in combination with medicative rice and medicative Orchid species. Besides reported from the native traditional healersi?? point of view that this mistletoe takes initial support from trees and in general utilizes the waste or less of import food from these trees-they claim. Dendrophthoe falcata Ettingsh turning on different trees possess different medicative belongingss. It is besides claimed that Dendrophthoe falcata Ettingsh on Mahua trees turning in different locations possess different medicative belongingss.
Damagess incurred by D.falcata and other relations
Inactive Bending Trials used in lumber industries are regarded as forecasters of ultimate strength and have successfully been performed on mistletoe infected Teak plantations ( Gnanaharan et al, 1984 ) . Standardizations for such trials on other healthy hosts and comparative analysis with septic hosts could supply a right estimation of harm from mistletoes.
Other utilizations of the works
A latest study have tested usage of mucilage as tablet binders ( Kothawade et al, 2010 ) . In another recent effort look intoing repellant activity against ruddy flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst ( Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae ) infusion from D.falcata showed negligible success as compared to that from other air plants ( Chhabi et al, 2010 ) .
More surveies required?
Other familial surveies and scope os surveies performed on other mistletoe species and besides speak about the possible schemes for D.falcata based on those articles.
The writer expresses his gratitude towards Dr. Siva Rammoorthy, Professor, SBCBE, VIT-University, Vellore, TN, India for critical reappraisal of the manuscript. This article is an independent and self funded work produced by the writer. The work and the positions presented here do non reflect in portion and/or as a whole an result of any mandated research activity ( s ) of the establishment ( s ) to which the writer is and/or had been affiliated but in existent are merchandises of authori??s independent observations and ingrainings from the evidenced scientific literatures.