Physicists so far have formulated partial
theories to explain the universe. The ultimate goal is to bring all of these
theories into a complete unified theory. Einstein spent his later years trying
to search for it but he failed. This is because though the laws of gravity and
electromagnetic forces have been established; little was known when it comes to
nuclear force at that time. Moreover, Einstein did not accept the uncertainty
principle. Yet it seems that the uncertainty principle is a basic component of
the universe. Therefore, it must be incorporated in the theory.

At the start of the century, the general
idea was that everything could be described using the properties of matter,
such as heat conduction and electricity. The discovery of uncertainty principle
and atomic structure put an end to this assumption. In 1928, it was thought
that if an equation could be found to explain protons much like Dirac’s equation
to electrons, it would conclude theoretical physics. The discovery of neutron
and other nuclear forces, however, crushed this idea. These imply that we
should not be overconfident. The pursuit for the ultimate theory is a tedious
task.

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The GUT or grand unified theory brought
together the partial theories of the weak, the strong, and the electromagnetic
forces. However, it requires quantities, like the relative mass of particles to
be chosen so they would comply with the predictions. This makes GUT
unsatisfactory along with the fact that it does not include gravity. The main
difficulty lies in the fact that general relativity is a “classical” theory. It
does not incorporate the uncertainty principle like in quantum mechanics.

When Stephen Hawking applied uncertainty
principle in general relativity, he has yielded fascinating hypothesis. One is
that black holes are not really black and another is that the universe is
completely self-contained and without boundary. Uncertainty principle implies
that empty space is not actually empty. It is filled with pairs of virtual
particles and antiparticles.