Last updated: February 15, 2019
Topic: FinanceInvesting
Sample donated:

Political Psychology Essay, Research Paper

1 ) In Psychological Perspectives on Politics, Carol Barner-Barry and Robert Rosenwein discuss the procedures of dialogue and bargaining. Often times, these two can be dealt with as about the same thing. They both incorporate the same basic rules and are used to accomplish a end. Cases of dialogue and bargaining have some basic features, such as the fact that they both sides are engaged in a determination devising over some country of struggle. They are besides seeking to decide this struggle through offers and counteroffers. Finally, this procedure is affected by the interactions between the participants. The writers outline a multi-step, or stage, procedure through which bargaining and dialogue take topographic point ( Barner-Barry & A ; Rosenwein, 1985 ) .

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

The first stage in bargaining and dialogue is referred to in the book as before the drape rises. This has to make with why the participants have agreed to run into. It may concern set down ownership rights, race dealingss, or, as is the focal point of this authorship, coming up with a Federal Budget. Negotiations normally begin when there is at least some from of common land, something both sides may hold on. Sometimes, it may be every bit simple as the recognition that a budget is necessary. In the footings of the Federal Budget, both the Democrats and Republicans realized there was a demand for a Federal Budget to avoid a possible closure of the authorities. Groups enter into this procedure due to their preferable results, what they want to come from the meetings ( Barner-Barry & A ; Rosenwein, 1985 ) . The Democrats aim for continued support for societal plans and few cuts. Republicans are by and large in favour of revenue enhancement cuts and increased military support. Once the sides agree to run into, a site must be chosen.

Choosing a site may look like an easy undertaking, though it can be really hard. In many dialogues, safety and security are of import. If one side feels threatened in a state of affairs, they may be less likely to prosecute in or collaborate with dialogues. There are besides psychological branchings to the determination as to where to keep the meetings. Some topographic points, such as the White House, hold a kind of home-field advantage. These sites were designed to give the host an advantage. The resistance is meant to be in awe and at a disadvantage meeting here. In order to hold successful dialogues, neutrality is necessary. In budget treatments, hearings are held in a hearing room in Capitol Hill. There are besides conference suites where treatments between the Senators take topographic point. These sites are supposed to convey the neutrality necessary to accomplish an result both sides can hold to ( Barner-Barry & A ; Rosenwein, 1985 ) . The following stage is specifying the docket.

Puting the docket is of import because the docket affects the manner the whole dialogues will take topographic point. The docket will impact everything, even the eventual result ( Barner-Barry & A ; Rosenwein, 1985 ) . The Senators involved in the budget had to account for the wants of their single territories when puting the docket. Some have threatened to walk out on the treatments if their desires are non met. Senator Herb Kohl of Wisconsin has threatened to barricade any ballots if diary merchandise pricing statute law is non addressed. He sees this statute law as damaging to his province ( Bash, 1999 ) . Following, both sides present their solutions to the struggle.

The 4th stage, showing each side & # 8217 ; s solutions, is of import because it provides a manner for each side to see precisely where they differ ( Barner-Barry & A ; Rosenwein, 1985 ) . In the budget negotiations, both the Republicans and Democrats have their ain thoughts as to how much money should be allocated to each undertaking. On October 26, Republicans told CNN that they were still seeking to carry members that their proposed 1.4 percent budget cuts were appropriate and should be passed. These cuts faced resistance from both the Democrats and from within the Republican Party. Many Senate Republicans wanted the per centum of the cuts reduced to 1 per centum. Democrats challenged the averment that these cuts would forestall the authorities from holding to pass Social Security money on federal undertakings. Even the president of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Hugh Shelton, came out against the revenue enhancement cuts, stating the branchings would be black. Republicans had agreed to non include the congressional wage raises in the revenue enhancement cut measure if the Democrats did non politicise the rises. The Democrats did politicise the rises, taking the Republicans to task for doing cuts merely to give themselves a wage rise ( Franken, 1999 ) . The Democrats, particularly President Clinton, presented measures of their ain. In one, which was finally agreed to, 100,000 instructors will be hired and certified. This measure had been the top precedence of the White House. Once this measure was agreed to, it cleared the way for more dialogues on other measures to take topographic point ( White House, 1999 ) . So, as the dialogues continue on, counteroffers are made. These offers are debated and traded through out the procedure. Concessions are frequently made, every bit good as promises and menaces. For illustration, Senator Robert Byrd has threatened to barricade the vote on the budget if linguistic communication is non included to turn over a federal justice s finding of fact. Sen. Byrd wants to take the limitations on coal excavation in his province. If the other senators will hold to include this to the measure, he will vote for it ( Bash, 1999 ) . Negotiators choose a scheme that best represents what sort of individual they are and will carry through the ends they set out to carry through. Finally, the negotiants begin to work together.

Towards the terminal of the dialogues, both sides begin to profess some facets of their stances. How this state of affairs is dealt with sometimes is straight related to how much clip they have to finalise an understanding or other outside factors. Both realize that they are on the brink of an understanding and are willing to give in on some of their lower-priority issues. In this old ages budget dialogues, one major point that needed support was the about one billion dollars the United States owed in dues to the United Nations. The Republicans had blocked the money from being paid to the UN for fright that it would be used by international household planning organisations, some which may execute abortions. President Clinton and the Republicans came to an understanding that states the revenue enhancement money will non be used for household planning organisations. However, it does let Clinton to subscribe a wavier to let this money to be spent by these organisations, which he plans to make ( Clinton waives, 1999 ) . Here, both sides made grants to each other to acquire this of import statute law passed. The Republicans will be able to state their components that they were able to decelerate that money from making the organisations and Clinton is the 1 who allowed it, President Clinton has more of the budget passed, and the UN is get downing to have money for our dorsum dues. Finally, there is normally some kind of formal sign language ceremonial.

Once all the dialogues are over and the concluding trade has been agreed to, there may be a formal ceremonial to tag the sign language. During the sign language ceremonial, the president normally makes a address about the measure and may manus out souvenir of the sign language, such as the pens used to subscribe the measure, to invitees. After each of the 13 budget measures was passed, they were sent on to President Clinton to subscribe, as is the process. On November 29, the president signed the 2000 budget measure in a Rose Garden Ceremony. He made a few comments about the measure and his hope that it would construct a stronger America in the twenty-first century ( Clinton marks, 1999 ) . This procedure signals the terminal of the dialogue and bargaining procedure.

2 ) Barner-Barry and Rosenwein specify political struggle as the pursuing of ends that the ( political ) parties perceive to be incompatible. Either the ends are incompatible or both sides perceive that their ends are incompatible. They give three types of struggle relationships, to the full structured, partly structured, and unstructured struggle relationships ( Barner-Barry & A ; Rosenwein, 1985 ) .

In a to the full structured struggle relationship, societal norms and Torahs prescribe how both parties will act. The options and available moves to each side are rights or duties. In a partly structured struggle relationship, understandings and regulations limit the behaviour of both sides. The parties have much room in which to steer themselves in order to make their coveted result. An unstructured struggle relationship is characterized by the deficiency of restraints on the parties. Merely a parties resources restrains them in this type of relationship ( Barner-Barry & A ; Rosenwein, 1985 ) .

Parties involved in a struggle frequently times use force or the menace of force as a agency to hale the other side into holding to the baleful side & # 8217 ; s demands. There are many theories that try to understand what would do a individual to fall back to threats to acquire their manner. One theory, the biological theory, discusses the impact a individual s biological make-up has to make with their usage of force. Some believe those with an excess Y chromosome are more inclined to force. Others may believe in the social-psychological theories that what a individual learns from their milieus they are exposed to most frequently may take to how a individual reacts in certain state of affairss. There is besides a belief that one s Acts of the Apostless of political force may be the consequence of their psychological makeup. Possibly these people are more inclined to perpetrate an act of force because of their attitudes towards things, like possibly a certain machismo within a male ( Barner-Barry & A ; Rosenwein, 1985 ) . Oliver Woshinsky uses the Cold War as a point to demo how coercion may forestall a war. Both the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. had great sums of atomic capablenesss, though they were each afraid of the power the other showed they possessed ( Woshinsky, 1995 ) . Both sides showed newsreels of the great power they had, though it may non hold been rather every bit powerful as it was projected to be.

The war between Russia and Chechnya is a good illustration of an unstructured struggle. These two states have been at war since Chechnya tried to divide from Russia in the mid-1990s. There had been a armistice in topographic point, though earlier this twelvemonth Russia resumed its onslaughts on the former province. In 1996, Boris Yeltsin and the leaders of the Rebel group signed a peace agreement that ended up enduring merely until Yeltsin had been re-elected president. This full twelvemonth has been marked with force against Chechnya. The bombardments have become more frequent. Thousands have lost their lives in the combat, many adult females and kids ( Chechnya, 1996 ) . The bombardments and air foraies have been stopped for at least a few hebdomads. Recently, the Russians have been dropping cusps on the capital of Grozny in an attempt to convert civilians to go forth the country. Merely around 70 have chosen to go forth the country. Many who did left for the interest of their kids. Those who stayed are reported to be the aged and the infirmed. The Russians have accused the Rebels of maintaining the civilians to utilize as human shields ( Few flee, 1999 ) .

There seem to be no norms or regulations regulating this war. The usual premise that adult females and kids will non, if evitable, be harmed seems to hold fallen by the roadside. The highest Numberss of casualties have come from these two groups. The Rebels have chiefly made usage of their cognition of guerrilla warfare to go on the war, striking rapidly, so withdrawing into the mountains. Though Russian military personnels now occupy most of the populated countries, the Rebels are still able to roll the mountains and environing countries.

This war has been condemned most of the universe. The U.S. seems to be in an unusual place. The authorities has come out against Russia s continued onslaughts against the Rebels. However, the Rebels, who are largely Muslim, are reportedly supported, financially and otherwise, by Osama Bin-Laden, the adult male believed to be responsible for the bombardments of two U.S. embassies. How this will play out remains to be seen.

3 ) Cultural homogeneousness is how likewise the people of a society are in relation to each other. Understanding this is critical to derive a deeper cognition as to why different states have higher struggle degrees than others do. However, a people & # 8217 ; s belief systems besides play an indispensable function in analysing the degree of struggle. As Woshinsky point out, the willingness of a people to move on their beliefs affects the political procedure. A polyarchy is a system in which, as is stated by Dahl in Woshinsky, many participants are allowed to postulate publically for political power ( Woshinsky, 1995 ) .

Every part has its ain beliefs in who should take and how they should make so. These four states, Switzerland, Croatia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo ( the Congo, from here on ) , and Cuba each represent a different country of the universe. In some cases, they will be complete antonyms. In others, they are so similar 1 might easy misidentify one state for another.

The Swiss have a long history of autonomy. They recognize the day of the month of August 1, 1291 as their Independence Day. On January 8, 1291, the Swiss Alliance was established. The Swiss military consists of every male capable of contending, normally between the ages of 18 and 49, doing their possible ground forces one of the largest in the universe While officially impersonal, Switzerland has, in the yesteryear, loaned its military out for other states to utilize. The most noteworthy juncture was the Gallic Revolution, when the Swiss Guard worked as defenders to the throne ( CIA Factbook, 1996 ) . Dahl may sort Switzerland as a polyarchy. There are several political parties through out the state. The leading of Switzerland is a revolving caput, which allows for different people to govern through out the term. There is a high degree of engagement here, with all ranks and referendums being voted on by the populace.

Croatia is a comparatively new free province. On May 30, 1990, Croatia declared itself a separate province and celebrates that twenty-four hours as Statehood Day. A fundamental law was signed on December 22, 1990, and on June 25, 1991, Croatia declared its independency from Yugoslavia. Croatia has a population of around 4,676,865 people who are mixture of different civilizations. The chief cultural group is Croat, though there are besides Serbs, Muslims, Hungarians, and Slovenians populating within the boundary lines. There is one chief linguistic communication within these boundary lines and it is Serbo-Croatian. In some countries, Italian, Magyar, Czech, Slovak, and German are besides spoken. The major faith in Croatia I

s Roman Catholic. The military consists of Armed, Naval, Air and Air Defense Forces every bit good as a Frontier Guard and Home Guard. These forces were relied upon to a great extent to protect the Croats during the violent civil war. The armed forces is an of import portion of the political civilization. Without its support, the authorities may non hold much strength in implementing its Torahs or asseverating its authorization ( CIA Factbook, 1996 ) . Croatia is seeking to go a polyarchy. It has begun to open itself to more parties, though there is still one major governing party. As the state begins to encompass its freedom, there may besides be greater political engagement.

The Congo has been the one of the most violent parts of Africa since its independency. On June 30, 1960, the Congo declared its independency from Belgium. By June 24, 1967, the Congo had a fundamental law written and signed. There are over 200 cultural groups within the Congo, largely Bantu folk. The Mongo, Luba, Kongo ( all Bantu ) , and Mangbetu-Azande folks make up 45 % of the state. This heterogeneousness frequently times is the chief sticking point in political and societal treatments. All to frequently, these divisions among folks are the cause of struggle. The official linguistic communication, Gallic, dates back to the Belgium colonisers. In add-on, countries of the state speak Kingwana, Kikongo, and Tshiluba. Roman Catholicism is the prevailing faith, though there are subdivisions of Protestant, Kimbanguist, and Muslim faiths, every bit good as many other religious orders and traditional beliefs. With a literacy rate of 77 % , the citizens of the Congo would be able to understand information to organize an educated sentiment in electoral affairs ( CIA Factbook, 1996 ) . No affair what President Kabila says, there is no sense of polyarchy in the Congo. One party controls everything. Possibly one time he restores the elections, as he has promised to, a polyarchy may emerge.

Cuba has been of great national involvement to the United States for many old ages. Located merely 90 stat mis south of Florida, Cuba gained its independency foremost from Spain in 1898, so from the U.S. in 1902. There is a simple bulk of Mulatto citizens, every bit good as populations of white, black, and Chinese occupants. This heterogeneousness allows for a little mix of representation. The major faith in Cuba is Roman Catholic. However, after Fidel Castro seized power, he outlawed Catholicism and declared the state officially atheist. A alteration to the Constitution in 1991 officially declared Cuba to be secular, leting spiritual people to fall in the Cuban Communist Party. This acknowledgment of the faith is of import to Cuba. In Central America, the church is portion of a really powerful oligarchy, along with the military and landholders. Bing able to idolize once more re-emphasizes the connexion to the church. Recently, Cuba welcomed the Pope into the state and allowed him to keep four broadcast multitudes. Cuba is besides place to many Protestants every bit good as those who pattern Santeria. The lone major linguistic communication is Spanish, doing communicating of the Torahs easier ( CIA Factbook, 1996 ) . Cuba has long been ruled by Fidel Castro as a Communist province. Due to his complete control over every facet of vote, he is re-elected each twelvemonth. In Cuba, as in many Cardinal American states, there is more importance placed on the oligarchy than on the polyarchy.

4 ) In the democracy of the United States, vote is an built-in portion of the democratic procedure. For some, vote is a manner to back up their positions and the campaigners they portion them with. Others see it as merely their loyal responsibility, something they know they should make, though non for any ground other than it is their responsibility to make so. Vote has, seemingly, been linked to one & # 8217 ; s socialisation by their parents. If a kid was exposed to regular vote as a kid, they are more likely to vote than if person has told them it is the right thing to make ( Barner-Barry & A ; Rosenwein, 1985 ) . Woshinsky points to legion different possible societal factors that would find how person votes. Early learned norms, like Barner-Barry and Rosenwein & # 8217 ; s exposure to vote, frequently play a cardinal portion in developing a form. Demographic variables, such as category, faith, part, age, and gender may besides impact how a individual ballots ( Woshinsky, 1995 ) . The 1996 Presidential election can be used to demo how these affect the result of elections.

In 1996, President Bill Clinton defeated challenger former Senator Bob Dole by a convincing border. A CNN Exit canvass broke down how different groups voted and why they may hold done so. President Clinton opened the gender spread more than has been of all time recorded by an issue canvass, deriving the ballots of 17 % more adult females than Dole, 54 % -37 % . When the economic state of affairs of each respondent was analyzed, 67 % of those who said they were & # 8220 ; better off & # 8221 ; now than they were four old ages ago voted for Clinton, as compared to merely 25 % vote for Dole. Relatively, those who said they were worse off than they were four old ages ago voted by a 2 to 1 border for Dole. This is apprehensible. It has been said that Americans vote their pocketbook. When the economic system is good and people are happy, they do non like to interrupt things by electing a new president ( Clinton benefits, 1996 ) .

Clinton may hold faced some jobs when his character was called into inquiry. A bulk of electors said that they did non experience the Clinton was honest and trusty. This belief is frequently times a key in how person votes, as it is related to how that individual was brought up. However, Clinton was saved by the fact that another bulk felt the campaigner & # 8217 ; s stances on the issues were more of import than their character ( Clinton benefits, 1996 ) .

For many people, the economic system is a large factor in how they vote. Of those who said the economic system was a major issue, 58 per centum of Floridians chose Clinton as compared to 27 per centum vote for Dole. Voters did back up Dole on a few issues. Seventy six per centum of the electors surveyed supported Dole & # 8217 ; s 15 per centum revenue enhancement cut, as compared to merely 16 per centum prefering Clinton & # 8217 ; s program. Peoples besides thought of Dole as the individual to cut down the federal shortage by a 53 to 29 per centum border ( Clinton Benefits, 1996 ) . The belief systems of those who favored a revenue enhancement cut lead them to prefer Dole & # 8217 ; s program, though in world, non the same per centum of people voted for Dole. This would propose that the other factors mentioned earlier, race, category, and faith, have a great impact on who person supports.

5 ) Decision-making and justness frequently times go manus in manus. In times of civil and/or political agitation, the determinations made be those in charge frequently deal with the modification of rights and enforcement of justness as the leaders see it. If that means the usage of armored combat vehicles on civilian protestors, so be it. Other states have beaten protestors and some states tear-gas their demonstrators. There is even one state that has both tear-gassed and killed protestors. That state: the United States of America. In the late sixtiess and early 1970s, public violences over the Vietnam War were prevailing across the U.S. This peculiar extreme usage of force took topographic point in Kent, Ohio. An anti-war protest turned violent and the National Guard was called in. By the terminal of the twenty-four hours, the soldiers had killed four pupils and tear-gassed 100s more. There are several signifiers of justness. Procedural justness is based on the manner the legal determination was made. Distributive justness trades with the substance of the justness. Procedural justness is easier to set up than distributive, since how justness was handed down is dealt with in procedural justness. Microjustice is the equity by which public resources are distributed to people within the political system. Macrojustice trades with the sum equity by which the resources are distributed. The large difference between the two is macrojustice ignores the properties of the receivers and specifies a precedence for certain financess to be distributed. Equity based justness works merely every bit long as there is an understanding on what counts as an investing and the relationships between investings to results ( Barner-Barry & A ; Rosenwein, 1985 ) .

The one-year World Trade Organization s meeting was held in Seattle, Washington as a opportunity to showcase the metropolis. Unfortunately, what the universe got was a expression at how the U.S. has taken to managing protests. Protestors say that the metropolis had plentifulness of notice that there were traveling to be 100s of protestors at the mass meeting, protesting the presumed unjust trade patterns of the WTO. The peaceable protestors had been joined by a few twelve nihilists, who have been accused by the protestors as being the 1s who committed most of the hooliganism and plundering through out the business district ( Hearing, 1999 ) . By November 30, the city manager of Seattle had imposed a curfew and had called in the National Guard to assist keep order. The constabulary force had spent much of the old yearss utilizing pepper spray to maintain the protestors back and off from the delegates ( Seattle Mayor, 1999 ) . The city manager had decided on utilizing a distributive signifier of justness, authorising the constabulary section to utilize force to maintain the protestors at bay and naming in the National Guard. He thought that these stairss would let the meetings to go on in peace, though they did non. By the terminal of the conference, over 500 people had been arrested by the Seattle constabulary. The constabulary head hastened his surrender, taking full duty for how things were handled during the public violences ( Seattle police, 1999 ) .

The Bay of Pigs Invasion shows how one authorities may seek to coerce its thoughts on another state through the usage of force. On April 15, 1961, U.S. bombers disguised as Cuban aircraft took off and attacked flight strips, though they merely caused minimum harm. The following twenty-four hours, 1500 guerrilla trained by the CIA landed at the Bay of Pigs, South of Havana. President Kennedy, confronting disapprobation for the bombardments, cut off air support to the combatants. The Cuban air force was able to destruct ships transporting ammo and other necessities to the guerrilla. Within 72 hours, all 1500 of the Rebels were either captured or dead ( Cuba, 1998 ) . President Kennedy had merely been president a affair of months before he cleared the invasion to take topographic point. He had been briefed by out-going President Eisenhower and his staff on the program. The CIA had devised the program based on a figure of perceptual experiences. Those perceptual experiences turned out to be false. The menace of the spread of Communism was so existent that Kennedy had authorized the usage of force to forestall the spread. He felt personally responsible for what happened ( Interviews 1998 ) . Kennedy had chosen to utilize a distributive justness stance in leting the onslaughts to travel on. He saw the microjustice system in Cuba and was afraid that it would slop into the United States.

Plants Cited

Question # 1

1 ) Barner-Barry, Carol and Rosenwein, Robert. ( 1985 ) Psychological Perspectives on Politics Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, INC.

2 ) Bash, Dana. ( 1999 ) Congressional, disposal budget negotiants continue to seek declaration. Retrieved December 10, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

3 ) Clinton marks concluding financial 2000 budget measure. Retrieved December 10, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

4 ) Clinton waives abortion prohibition. Retrieved December 10, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

5 ) Franken, Bob. ( 1999 ) GOP struggles to go through budget cuts. Retrieved December 10, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

6 ) White House and GOP negotiants agree on program for 100,000 new instructors. Retrieved December 10, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

Question # 2

1 ) Barner-Barry, Carol and Rosenwein, Robert. ( 1985 ) Psychological Perspectives on Politics Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, INC.

2 ) Specifying Moments in Chechnya in 1996. Retrieved December 9, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

3 ) Few Flee Chechnya Capital. Retrieved December 12, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

4 ) Woshinsky, Oliver H. ( 1995 ) Culture And Politicss Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall

Question # 3

1 ) CIA Factbook. ( 1996 ) Croatia. Retrieved October 12, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

2 ) CIA Factbook. ( 1996 ) Cuba. Retrieved October 12, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

3 ) CIA Factbook. ( 1996 ) The Democratic Republic of the Congo. Retrieved October 12, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

4 ) CIA Factbook. ( 1996 ) Switzerland. Retrieved October 12, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

5 ) Woshinsky, Oliver H. ( 1995 ) Culture And Politicss Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall

Question # 4

1 ) Barner-Barry, Carol and Rosenwein, Robert. ( 1985 ) Psychological Perspectives on Politics Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, INC.

2 ) Clinton benefits from gender spread. Retrieved December 11, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

3 ) Woshinsky, Oliver H. ( 1995 ) Culture And Politicss Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall

Question # 5

1 ) Barner-Barry, Carol and Rosenwein, Robert. ( 1985 ) Psychological Perspectives on Politics Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, INC.

2 ) Cuba Episode Recap. Retrieved December 11, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

3 ) Hearing on WTO, constabulary actions in Seattle draws 100s. Retrieved December 11, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

4 ) Interviews: Theodore Sorensen. Retrieved December 11, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

5 ) Seattle city manager declares civil exigency as WTO unrest grows. Retrieved December 11, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //

6 ) Seattle constabulary head resigns following WTO public violences. Retrieved December 11, 1999 From World Wide Web: hypertext transfer protocol: //