UNCTAD has grouped ports into three coevalss based on port development policy, scheme and attitude, the range and extension of port activities and integrating of port activities and organisation ( UNCTAD, 1992, P. 13 ) .This depicts the function played from coevals to coevals.

First coevals ports

Until 1960, Ports played simple function as nexus between maritime and inland transit systems.

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The major port activities being carried out were cargo handling, storage and navigational services. Cargos handled were general and some majority. Other activities were non frequently carried out in the larboard country. The function of the port did non widen to ships and lading outside the concentrated waterfront country.

This function isolated the port from conveyance, trade activities and the municipality that surrounds the port. Ports did non care much about the demands of their clients, involvement in trade and conveyance in their determination devising procedure was limited and barely considered port selling publicity. Furthermore assorted activities within the port were non integrated ( UNCTAD, 1992, p.13 ) .

Second coevals ports

The function changed in the 80s, in add-on to traditional function, ports were seen as conveyance, industrial and commercial service Centres therefore industrial and commercial services were rendered to port users. The function of ports extended to other services such as packaging, labeling, cargo transmutation and physical distribution with Industrial installations established in the larboard country.

Ports developed and expanded towards its backwoods with industries and now have closer relationship with conveyance and trade spouses and the municipality. Furthermore, the different activities within the port are going more incorporate ( UNCTAD, 1992, p. 13-14 ) .

Third coevals ports

Containerization and intermodalism together with increasing demand of international trade affected the function.

Ports are now turning into incorporate conveyance and logistics Centres for international trade. In add-on to the first and 2nd coevals services, ports render logistics and entire distribution services. Modern equipment and direction cognize how controlled by electronic information engineering are used for efficient operation. Ports now analyze the demands of clients in item and see larboard selling as an of import tool ( UNCTAD, 1992, p. 14-15 ) .The theoretical account merely considered the coevalss between sea and shore interface without touching on the size, geographical location or public/ private sector engagement. The categorization is stiff which differs from world and equates all lading and ship operations and map under the same coevals.Another development is seen in port integrating which has resulted in a 4th coevals port.

“ A 4th coevals port is defined as ports which are physically separated but linked through common operators or through a common disposal ” ( UNCTAD, 1999, pp. 9 ) .

Any port theoretical account

Bird ( 1980 ) described the altering function in footings of how larboard substructure develops in clip and infinite.

A three phase procedure was used, puting, enlargement and specialisation. “ Ports are bound by the demand to function ships and entree to navigable H2O has been historically the most of import site consideration ” ( Rodrigue, 2006, p.132 ) .


The location of a port depends on geographical consideration hence ports were located next to downtown countries. The function of ports is to supply basic terminus installations which included repositing and wholesaling. Changes in ship ‘s size and managing during the industrial revolution necessitated new site required for enlargement. This affected installations provided by ports therefore the function ( Rodrigue, 2006, p.

132 ) .


Industrial revolution had great impact on port activities which made ports to germinate from the original site. Port substructures were expanded to provide for high volumes of lading and larger ships. Besides there was an integrating of rail lines with port terminuss and the activities of the port extended to include industrial.

Further development in the industry had impact on ports function ( Rodrigue, 2006, p.133 ) .


Ship specialisation and increase in size had impact on port site and substructure. Ports constructed specialised breakwaters for managing ladings.

Dredging became necessary for large vass every bit good as enlargement of repositing ( Rodrigue, 2006, p.133 ) . Though the theoretical account is valid, it did non explicate the current addition in transshipment, terminuss and port networking.Stopford besides described the altering function in footings of activity Levels.Harmonizing to Stopford, “ the installations provided in a port depend on the type and volume of lading which is in theodolite.

As trade alterations so do the ports ” ( Stopford, 2009, p. 82 ) . Four activity degrees are identified.

Flat 1: little local ports

The function of ports is to manage little trade volumes of assorted ladings transported by short -sea ships therefore the installations provided are basic consisting of general purpose position and warehouses. As trade volume addition, the installations increase impacting ports function.

Flat 2: Large local ports

These ports handle high volumes of lading which affects the installations provided by ports. Terminals are constructed when the volume of lading additions with the needed bill of exchange to manage bigger vass that call at the port.

Some installations may be expanded and cargo managing equipment to provide for the high traffic degree will be bought. Railway lines and roads for easy inland transit are all considered.

Flat 3: Large regional ports

These ports handle high volumes of lading from deep sea carries and necessitate specialised terminus installations.

Modern lading managing equipment such as gauntry Cranes, fork-lift are used every bit good as the proviso of storage infinite. Ports so provide the needful installations to provide for the new development.

Flat 4: Regional distribution Centre

These ports are regarded as distribution hubs for lading transported in really big vass for distribution to smaller local ports with terminuss dedicated to a peculiar lading.

These ports provide installations for transshipment ( Stopford, 2009, P. 82-83 ) . The theoretical account did non explicate the private sector engagement in port operations.The World Bank besides describes the altering function of ports in footings of alterations in public and private involvement in ownership construction, contracts and ordinance, reform and development.

Public service port

The function of the port is to render complete assortments of services to guarantee the proper operation of the port. The port owns and is in charge of all assets and cargo handling activities. All maps of the port are entirely carried out by the port authorization.

Tool ports

Recent development is altering ports function to functions played by tool ports because of private sector engagement. Though the port authorization owns the plus and grips cargo, the port allows private houses to transport out some degree of lading handling activities unlike service port where all lading handling activities are carried out by the port authorization.

Landlord ports

The larboard authorization now plays the function of a regulative organic structure and as landlord. Port operations are set abouting by private houses with chartered substructure from larboard authorization.

Superstructure and equipment are provided and maintained by the private houses.

Fully privatized ports

Private houses own all assets and render all services with no province engagement( The World Bank, 2007, p.82-83 ) .The theoretical account did non touch on the function the port is playing in the supply concatenation.Ports are seen as portion of a bunch of organisation where assorted logistic and conveyance operators are involved to convey value to the concluding consumer. Ports are going integrated conveyance Centre and logistic platforms for international trade ( Carbone & A ; De Martino, 2003, pp. 306,311 ) .

The function of the port has now extended from services rendered to vass and their lading to distribution and logistics hub doing the larboard portion of the production and logistics concatenation ( Bichou, 2009, pp.47, 48 ) . The Port ‘s function has changed from merely a nexus in international conveyance to trading Centres due to containerization, political event, industrialisation, free trade zones, denationalization and distripark ( Branch, 1998, p.168 ) .


Developments in international conveyance have affected the size of ports, substructure, services provided every bit good as private sector engagement in port operations.

This has extended the function of ports to the proviso of assorted services and activities to back up the supply concatenation in run intoing the pressure demands of clients which go beyond the traditional lading passing maps. Most ports are now distribution Centres.Word count: 1,676