1. If there is a problem with the cable, the entire network breaks down. Maintenance cost may be higher in the long run. Performance degrades as additional computers are added or on heavy traffic (shared bandwidth Limited cable length and number of station 2. Easy to install and wire. No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices Easy to detect faults and to remove parts 3. In CSMA/CD, each node wait its turn before transmitting data to avoid interfering with nodes’ transmissions. If a node’s NIC determines that its data has been involved in a collision, it immediately stops transmitting.
Next, in a process called jamming, the NIC issues a special 32- bit sequence that indicated to the rest of the network nodes that its previous transmission was those data frames are invalid. After waiting, the NIC determines if the line is again available; if it is available, the NIC retransmits its data. 4. Carrier Sense refers to the fact that Ethernet NICs listen on the network and wait until they detect or sense that no other nodes are transmitting data over the signal or carrier on the communications channel before they begin to transmit.
The term Multiple Access refers to the fact that several Ethernet nodes can be connected to a network and can monitor traffic, or access the media, simultaneously. 5. The purpose is the preamble signals to the receiving node that data is incoming and indicates when the data flow is about to begin. The SFD start-of-frame delimiter) identifies where the data field began 6. It refers to the way in which data is transmitted between nodes, rather than the physical layout of the paths that data takes. 7. When troubleshooting and designing networks.
8. A groups of workstations are star-connected to connectivity devices and then networked via a single bus, with this design you can cover longer distances and easily interconnect or islolate different network segments. The drawback is that this option is more expensive than using either the star or, especially, the bus topology alone because it require more cabling and potentially more connectivity devices. 9. Packet switching lies in the fact that it does not waste bandwidth by holding a connection open until a message reaches its destination, as circuit switching does.
And unlike message switching, it does not require devices in the data’s path to process any information. 10. Circuit switching establishes fixed bandwidth circuit/channel between nodes and terminals before the users may communicate. Packet switching is a communication in which packet are routed between node over, links shared with other traffic. In each network node, packets are queued in buffered, resulting in variable delay. 11. Enterprise refers to a entire organization, including its local and remote offices, a mixture of computer systems, and a number of departments.
12. The primary disadvantage of a star topology is the high dependence of the system on the functioning of the central hub. 13. On a standard Ethernet network, between any two devices that communicate you can’t have more than 4 repeaters (this includes hubs). “5-4-3” refers to a maximum of 5 segments; 4 repeaters; 3 segments with hosts on them 14. Automatically detect and support the speed of a local network asking other network cards and to determine what the network speed and duplex state should be.
Autosensing is also used by a number of devices, including switches. Autosense may also be called auto-detect. 15. Serial Backbone, Distributed Backbone, Collapsed Backbone, Parallel Backbone 16. It is connected to a series of central connectivity devices, such as, hubs, switches, or routers in a hierarchy. The distributed backbone network can be relatively simple, quick, and inexpensive. 17. It is to ensure that the data at the destination exactly matches the data issued from the source using the CRC algorithm.
The header and FCS make up the 18-byte frame for data 18. The source node fills out the data portion with extra bytes until it totals 46 bytes. The extra bytes are known as padding 19. It call for an additional control fields and so allow less room for data. because of its support for multiple Network layer protocols and it uses fewer bytes as overhead Ethernet_II is the frame type most commonly used on contemporary Ethernet networks 20. A method for supplying electrical power over Ethernet connections.