, Research Paper
Problems of Nation Building in Malawi
The individuality of pre-colonial Malawi centered on the Maravi Empire, a really slackly organized society covering a big sweep of district. In the late 1800 the British colonized Malawi that was called so Nyasaland. The general procedure of Westernization during the colonial epoch & # 8211 ; through Christianization, instruction, modern commercial patterns, urbanisation and so forth & # 8211 ; facilitated the replacing of parochial affinities by a committedness and trueness to a more inclusive social entity. The creative activity of a feeling of nationhood was hence less debatable than in other colonised African districts.
From the early 1920 s onwards a new political consciousness became evident. The alleged Native Associations & # 8211 ; involvement groups geared towards jointing African public sentiment & # 8211 ; continually focused on issues such as the insufficiency of educational installations and the assault on African land rights. By the 1930 s it had become clear that the colonial policy of sabotaging the traditional authorization of heads and headsmans and of trying to implement a signifier of direct regulation in traditional disposal was a failure. This job was temporarily resolved by the debut of a system of indirect regulation.
After the Second World War, the nationalist motion non merely questioned the legitimacy of the bing colonial system but besides actively challenged it. The end was the overthrow of the position quo, as manifested in the colonial system, and the constitution of a new societal and political order. A run of civil noncompliance & # 8211 ; aimed particularly at agricultural steps and land rights & # 8211 ; was launched and work stoppages, perturbations and force became mundane events. The nationalist motion, in peculiar, was to play a cardinal function in furthering a sense of national consciousness throughout Nyasaland. The quickly turning radicalization of the African population, and the general status of agitation and force precipitated the crisis of 1959, when a province of exigency had to be declared.
Following in the airstream of the March toward decolonisation elsewhere in Africa, two constitutional conferences were held in London in the early sixtiess. First, the British authorities conceded representative authorities to Nyasaland ; and in speedy sequence, the rule of African bulk regulation was confirmed with the debut of responsible authorities, internal self-determination and the granting of independency on 6 July 1964. Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banda was appointed as the Prime Minister ; two old ages subsequently Malawi was a democracy within the Commonwealth & # 8211 ; and a de jure one-party province to boot & # 8211 ; with Banda as Executive President. Within three months of independency, nevertheless, Banda was constitutionally challenged by a alliance of younger politicians who, besides differences on issues of policy, objected to the centralisation of power in his custodies. The security forces intervened decisiv
ely in his favour and, from this point until the early 1990s, the government became increasingly more autocratic and dictatorial, with most of import decision-making powers concentrated entirely in the custodies of Banda. Malawi was non even a one-party province, it was a one-person province, a political autarchy in which the province setup was answerable to merely one adult male.
Until every bit late as 1989, Western giver authoritiess were comfy with Banda s strict, paternalist, Protestant manner, his cultural conservativism and his friendliness towards the West & # 8211 ; when it still counted. Because of his pro-Western policies, Banda s government got off instead lightly. But in the post-cold-war epoch, Malawi came under turning force per unit area from donor states to follow the way of multi-party democracy. A five-person squad of United Nations came to Malawi to rede the authorities on the modes and logistics of carry oning a referendum on multi-party democracy along internationally acceptable lines. It later urged the authorities to trash the referendum thought, to revoke Article 4 of the Malawi Constitution & # 8211 ; which recognized the opinion Malawi Congress Party as the exclusive legal party & # 8211 ; to unban all other political groups and to keep fresh elections under a revised fundamental law.
In a New Year s Eve reference to the state, Dr. Banda finally set 15 March 1993 as the day of the month for the referendum. Although he directed the Malawi Broadcasting Corporation to describe intelligence and events on both sides of referendum run, he besides prohibited the corporation to do partizan political broadcasts and to accept paid political advertizement. The prohibition on wireless advertisement hit the multi-party groups hard, because less than half of the population is literate and the wireless is the merely was the lone medium in which they could pass on and show their instance with the general population. The resistance confederation of the United Democratic Front and the Alliance for Democracy won the referendum with an about landslide 63.5 per centum bulk ballot and instantly demanded that Dr. Banda measure aside for a coalition authorities of national integrity to fix for multi-party elections before the terminal of the twelvemonth.
For over a one-fourth of a century, the state was under Dr. Banda s autocratic regulation. The former Life President s influence was present in virtually all facets of life & # 8211 ; societal, economic, and political. His going from the scene is more than the death of merely another African dictator in the aftermath of multi-party democracy that has swept across the continent. It marks the terminal of the most extraordinary of all work forces who have ruled African states in the first three decennaries of their independency. But the consequence of Banda s autarchy is that Malawi now lacks a strong civil society and a tradition of competitory political relations, the two basiss of political democracy. It will take some clip, hence, for most ordinary Malawians to come to clasps with the important societal and political alteration.