Chapter 1

Infrastructure is a wide construct linked to every aspect of the economic system and human life. Consequently, the list of associated issues is long. For any purposeful analysis of issues in substructure development to take to an action-oriented manner frontward, it is necessary to contract down the definition of substructure and associated issues.

The term substructure has been used since 1927 to mention jointly to the roads, Bridgess, rail lines and similar populace works that are required for an industrial economic system to map. Transportation, communicating, sewerage, H2O and electric systems are all a portion of substructure. These systems tend to be high-cost investings. In general, substructure is location-specific and can non be moved from topographic point to topographic point ( ) .Transportation substructure can non run without transit and transit can non run without transit substructure. Different transits have their ain substructure to back up each other.

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For air transit, their substructure will be the airdrome. Port will be the substructure for H2O transit while substructure for land transit such as public coach will be the bus terminus or coach halt.Transport substructure development in East and South-East Asia has played a cardinal portion in the phenomenal growing of universe trade. The substructure anchor for international trade has been the container transportation web and progressively the airfreight web. World container port traffic, which expanded by 9.2 per cent to 266 million TEUs in 2003, is dominated by Asiatic states.

They accounted for 46 per cent of container ship operations, 62 per cent of container port throughput, and 83 per cent of container ship edifice. Twelve major South and East Asiatic exporters together account for half of the universe ‘s containerized exports ( ) .Bus terminus or known as coach stationA is one of the most of import transit substructure whereA busesA halt to pick up and drop off riders. It may be intended as aA terminus or stationA for a figure of paths or as a transportation station where the paths continue. It is larger than coach halt where coach halt is normally built at the route side for the coach to halt for a piece but non to wait for riders.

Tel Aviv ‘s new cardinal coach station was officially inaugurated late, after 26 old ages of fitful building, legal and fiscal differences ( ) . A bulk of the Dan and Egged Tel Aviv-area coachs are now based at the new station ; 5,000 coachs pass through the station daily, transporting some 150,000 riders.

The station is the largest coach station in the universe, embracing 197,600 square metres indoors, and 34,400 square metres out-of-doorss ( ) . The largest belowground coach station in Europe isA Kamppi CenterA ofA Helsinki, A FinlandA completed in 2006. The terminal cost 100 million Euro to finish and took 3 old ages to plan and construct. Today, the coach terminus, which covers 25,000 square metres, is the busiest bus terminus in Finland. Every twenty-four hours, the terminus has about 700 coach goings, transporting some 170,000 riders ( www. ) .Since coach station play a critical function in beef uping the volume of traffic every bit good as in supplying better services to the rider, the coach service projects, specially in the populace sector, should come up and promote the outgrowth of the coach station direction as an independent subject in the field of traffic direction. ( Kulshrestha, 1993, p.9 )Penang, as most of us may already cognize, is one of Malaysia ‘s most popular finishs for travellers coming from the local or the international communities ( Talk Malaysia 2010 ) . One of the chief grounds for Penang to hold so many travellers coming and traveling out yearly is partially because there are a batch of interesting topographic points to see in Penang. Most of the interesting topographic points in Penang are located at chiefly around Georgetown and Seberang Perai ( www. ) .Therefore, transport substructure particularly bus terminus or station in Georgetown play an of import function in order to pick up and drop off riders from a finish to another finish. This is because Penang has traffic job, hence public conveyance are used.Komtar Bus Terminal is the hub of coach services in George Town.

All the coach paths of Penang radiates from this terminus. To be exact, Komtar Bus Terminal is non a “ terminal ” proper, but instead a coach station, because coachs do non really get down from here, but instead, from the Weld Quay Bus Terminal. Nevertheless, most people will cognize it by that name.

At the Komtar Bus Terminal, you can catch coachs traveling to the North, cardinal, south and west parts of Penang Island, every bit good as some coachs that go to the mainland. Among the coach companies that use the terminus includes Rapid Penang, Milan, Transit Link and KGN-Hin. The terminus is located along Lebuh Tek Soon, although coachs approach it via Jalan Ria and they emerge from the terminus into Jalan Ria one time more ( www. ) .As a coach halt user, non satisfied with bus terminus in Georgetown. Some of the same ailment had been made by locals and tourers excessively. This is because they have the troubles in determine which coach to sit in order to make their finish.

Therefore, this survey is to happen out what are the factors which make the tourers satisfied and non satisfied with the coach terminuss in Penang. This survey besides includes, to place the present status of conveyance substructure, the cleanliness in the coach terminuss and the safety and security in the coach terminuss. From these factors, this survey is able to reason what are their outlooks towards bus halt in order to allow the authorities make betterment.

1.2 Statement of Problem

Transport and traffic direction have ever been a bone of contention for Penang.

Many feel that rapid economic development has non been met with an equal sum of attending given to proper traffic direction and planning. There are about 1.4 million vehicles ( bikes, autos and other vehicles ) for a population of about 1.4 million people in Penang. This is approximately double the figure of vehicles in 1999 ( Sympologic, 2008 ) .

For the above ground, public transit had played a really of import function to cut down the traffic in Penang. But without a good substructure, public transit will non be able to run swimmingly. There are 2 chief conveyance substructures for coach in Georgetown which are Komtar Bus Terminal and Weld Quay Bus Terminal. But, locals and tourers are non satisfied with the coach terminuss in Georgetown. This is because there are no proper path information and coach timetable.

It is hard particularly for tourers to place which coach to sit in order to make their finish. Tourists ever have to inquire the coach driver one by one to inquire for the finish. This had slow down the traffic besides. Besides, from the observation, the coach terminuss are non well-maintained in term of cleanliness and safety.

1.3 Goal & A ; Aims

The end of this research is to analyze tourers ‘ satisfactions and outlooks towards coach terminuss in Penang.

In order to accomplish the above end, there are some aims need to be done.To analyze tourers ‘ satisfactions towards coach terminussTo analyze tourers ‘ outlooks towards the coach terminussTo analyze the present status of coach terminussTo place the cleanliness in the coach terminussTo place the safety and security in the coach terminuss

1.4 Hypothesis

From the aims above, the below are the hypotheses which had concluded:Locals and tourers are non satisfied with the coach terminuss.Locals and tourers have high outlooks on the coach terminuss in term of cleanliness and security.

There is no proper path information or mark board in the coach terminuss.The coach terminuss are non clean.The coach terminuss are non unafraid.The above hypotheses are made based on my ain experiences and observation.

Significance of the Study

This research is able to allow the authorities and private sector to do betterment on the coach terminuss in order to allow them go genuinely efficient. From the questionnaires which will be distribute and collected, they able to state us the satisfaction degree and outlook of locals and tourers towards the coach terminuss. From their outlook, the betterment can be made. For illustration by seting up the path information and mark board, locals and tourers able to cognize which coach to sit to make their finish.

Besides, clean the coach terminuss daily so that locals and tourers will experience comfy and delegate more security to procure the coach terminuss. When the betterments have made, the locals and tourers will hold the opportunity to utilize better coach terminuss. All these will do the concern of the coach addition excessively.

1.6 Scopes and Limitations of the Study

The Scopess for my research are Penangites and tourers in Penang. Penangites and tourers who are the user of coach terminuss are targeted.

80 % Penangites and 20 % tourers are chosen to transport out this research. In order to finish this research, distribution of questionnaires will be made to these 2 groups of people mentioned above. Besides, observation in the coach terminuss will be done by my ain egos excessively.The coach terminuss in Georgetown which would wish to research on are Komtar Bus Terminal and Weld Quay Bus Terminal. These are the two popular coach terminuss in Georgetown which crowded by people every twenty-four hours. This is because these are the two chief Michigans which the coach will pick and drop rider.There are besides restrictions for this research. The first restriction is resources.

There is really few information on books, diaries or articles about transit substructure. The following restriction will be the clip. Merely 5 months to finish this research. Last but non least, the restriction is the work force.

I am the lone 1 who making this research.

Chapter 2


2.1 Transport and Tourism

Page ( 2005 ) said that conveyance act as one of the of import that contributed to the international development of touristry.

Harmonizing to Page ( 2007 ) , the manner of conveyance can be one of the chief motives for the tourers to go. He besides said that in the growing of domestic and international touristry, conveyance is the most critical component in the publicity. He continued said that conveyance links the tourer from the origin country with the finish country. Therefore it enables the tourist, concern traveller and other classs of traveller to buy the merchandises and see what they have purchased. He added that conveyance may be an attractive force in its ain right. Tourists who travel by route may utilize public conveyance or private conveyance to see a assortment of finishs.

2.2 Transport and Tourism in Penang, Malaysia

A combination of East and West, Penang continues to turn in modernness but at the same clip keeping its traditions and old appeal.

Recently, because of the harmoniousness of multiracial in Penang and the heritage edifices which are good preserved, these make the Georgetown being accorded a listing as a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site. Penang, long regarded as the nutrient capital of Malaysia, it besides attracts tourers with its beautiful beaches and delightful culinary arts ( ) .Transportation system in Penang is convenient.

You can go in or out of Penang by the well-connected of route, rail, sea and air. Not merely the air and train service is good in Penang but the sea lanes besides offer good transit. Ferry and havens are at that place to make convenient to the people in Penang and Buttterworth.

Penang ferry is provided by the Penang Ferry Service that connects George Town, Penang and Butterworth. There are four terminuss, one on Penang Island ( Swettenham Pier ) and three on the mainland. Following, railway act as one of the transit in Penang, but they are non popular due to their low velocity. Besides, international flights are available in Penang International Airport which situated in the Bayan Lepas country of Penang, Malaysia ( ) .Goh ( 2010 ) said that traffic jams in Penang particularly the major roads including Jalan Burma, Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Jalan Jelutong and Jalan Mesjid Negeria rhenium common although the population is little. Outside the metropolis, jams are found even in Bayan Lepas and Telok Kimbar.

He added that although the Jelutong Express Way had provided some alleviation to Jalan Jelutong and Jalan Mesjid Negeri, but the costs to Penangnites have yet to be calculated, although the main road is touted to be “ free ” . He suggested that Penang should follow the illustration of Crutiba. Crutiba is a metropolis where the people rely on coachs to avoid traffic jam. Recently, Rapid Penang coachs are introduced for those who do non hold auto or have chosen non to utilize their autos.


2 Public Transportation system

Zegeer ( 2002 ) said that good public transit is an of import to the quality of a community as good roads. Harmonizing Ramanathan and Parikh ( 1999, cited in Ramanathan, 2001 ; Banister and Berechman, 2001 ; Ramanathan and Parikh, 1999 ; Eisner, 1991 ) , transport is a critical component for the modern society now and identify to prolong economic growing.But, Ortuzar and Willumsen ( 2001 ) argued that the universe of conveyance still face many jobs of the past such as congestion, pollution, accidents, fiscal shortages and so on. They continued said that these jobs will non acquire off until the traffic direction improved.Figure 1 Car and Public-transport barbarous circleCar and Public-transport barbarous circle cited in Ortuzar, J.d.D.

, Willumsen, L.G. , 2001, p. 8They continue said that the conveyance jobs have spread widely in both industrialised and developing states. Harmonizing to them, fuel deficits which are temporarily non a job, but the addition in route traffic and conveyance demand has resulted in congestion, holds, accidents and environmental jobs good beyond what has been considered acceptable so far. These jobs have non been controlled to roads and auto traffic entirely. They added that economic growing seems to hold generated degrees of demand transcending the capacity of most conveyance installations.

They continue argued that these jobs are non likely to vanish in the close hereafter. They suggested that it is necessary to guarantee that a major attempt in bettering most signifiers of conveyance, in urban and inter-urban contexts.With regard to the quality of monetary values and services, conveyance services have been traditionally been capable to tight economic ordinance with regard to come ining and exciting the market. In many states, route and rail webs and airdrome and port systems are traditionally designed, built, and operated by the populace sector itself, which is the ultimate signifier of ordinance. This type of authorities intercession has resulted in inordinate costs that are non matched by monetary values or quality, hence making an result that reflects the involvements of the sector ‘s civil retainers of contractors, brotherhoods, and other involvements groups more than penchants of users and taxpayers ( Estache and Rus, 2000 ) .Harmonizing to UITP ( 2004 ) , authorities and public conveyance portion a same end to do certain the public conveyance is accessible to all particularly the traffic environments have to be well-designed and managed to allow the people to make and utilize public conveyance safely and with assurance. UITP suggested that authorities and the public conveyance community to work together to cut down non merely the physical but besides the psychological barriers such as cognitive, information, fright and favoritism to go safely in metropoliss.UITP continues said that at any one clip, an norm of 25 % of the population may hold a grade of decreased mobility due to a physical or mental disablement, impaired sight or hearing, or through holding to transport heavy bags or travel with little kids.

UITP added, physical and centripetal disablements are frequently related to age and, as is good known, the proportion of the aged population in western states is turning and will go on to make so good into the twenty-first century. These are clear of the importance of bettering handiness to transport systems. Harmonizing to UITP, benefits from betterments in conveyance handiness are accrued non merely to the handicapped and ageing communities, but to all clients of the conveyance system.

2.3 Transport substructure

Traditionally, constructing excess capacity has been addressed due to the obstructions in conveyance substructure. But the possibility is little for the farther enlargement of substructure in many urban countries where the demand for conveyance is highest. Furthermore, a figure of studies have found that the building of new roads and airdromes to alleviate congestion is uneffective because it merely serves to bring on new traffic. On the other manus, a survey undertaken by a Norse research organisation, the SINTEF Group claims that substructure capacity additions are straight linked to lessenings in fouling emanations from motor vehicles.

Using a traffic micro-simulation, it showed, for illustration, that upgrading narrow, weaving roads or adding a lane to a congested expressway can give lessenings of up to 38 % in CO2 emanations, 67 % in CO emanations and 75 % in NOx emanations, without bring forthing well more auto trips (, 2008 ) .Harmonizing to Carcamo-Diaz and Goddard ( 2007, cited in IADB, 2000 ) , Infrastructure, defined as the set of technology constructions, equipment and installations with a long-run, utile life employed by families and the different productive sectors of the economic system, is indispensable for economic growing ( cited in Easterly and Serven, 2003 ) and integrating. As pointed out by IADB ( 2002 ) , there is a positive relationship across states between income degrees and the quality of substructure. Harmonizing to Tanzi ( 2005 ) , the inexplicit premise about the way of causing goes from substructure to growing, although this issue is still debated in the literature.In many instances, the aim of conveyance substructure investing is to better the handiness of a given part by cut downing travel clip or increasing the potency to go. Accessibility can be measured as the measure of economic or societal activities that can be reached utilizing the conveyance labour, taking to increased competition and centralisation.

On the other manus, the impact for part concerned could be both positive and negative, depending on its initial degree fight ( OECD, 2002 ) .Harmonizing to ITF and OECD ( 2008 ) , there are some characteristics of surface conveyance substructure that make its proviso distinct from many other countries of the economic system and which will probably hold to be accounted for when different theoretical accounts are being considered. They claimed that conveyance system does non be for their ain interest but instead to function other economic and societal activity, this is because conveyance is a ‘derived demand ‘ . This means that the possible wider deductions of capacity deficits in, and overall criterion of, the conveyance system, must be taken into consideration in the design if any theoretical account for supplying transport substructure.


4 Transport Infrastructure in Different States

2.4.1 Luxembourg

The force per unit area of congestion, inordinate strain on conveyance substructure and environmental have led to a challenge due to a big and increasing figure of commuters ( OECD, 2008c ) . These force per unit areas stem from both resident and cross-border commutes, which are loosely similar in figure. High and increasing figure of commutes among occupants is reflected in Europe ‘s highest auto ownership rate and one of the highest one-year distances covered by car per capita. For cross-border commutes, 85 % are made in rider autos without usage of public conveyance.

These forms lead to dismaying degrees of congestion on the chief route conveyance corridors and there are now terrible constrictions at the entryway to urban countries, notably in the metropolis of Luxembourg. This consequences in otiose clip, insecure drive conditions, noise and high degrees of emanation and local air pollution ( OECD, 2010 ) .

2.4.2 France

Harmonizing to Willis ( 2010 ) , the conveyance substructure in France is one of the most modernised to be found anyplace in Europe and this makes international cargo motions streamlined and effectual. In the country of modern ropewaies, France is a universe leader in railroad engineering. Rail conveyance is hence ever a best option for transporting companies and cargo forwarders runing in France. The conveyance web is built as a web, with Paris at the centre.

There is a sum of about 32,000 kilometres of path in France, most of which is operated by the Gallic railroad company, SNCF. Over the last 20 old ages, a set of high velocity LGV ( lignes a grande vitesse ) have been constructed to link most parts of France with Paris. There are same gauge rail links to next states of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and Sweden, every bit good as the Channel Tunnel nexus with the UK. The TGV, the Gallic high velocity train has broken universe velocity records is a mark of the manner that France is a true planetary leader in rail conveyance. For freight conveyance, rail is a theoretical account in France.

2.4.3 Germany

Harmonizing to Willis ( 2009 ) , Germany has a conveyance substructure that is the enviousness of the universe and this has helped enable the development of a extremely effectual cargo services industry.

The phrase ‘Germanic ‘ is frequently used as a proverb for efficiency and with good ground, if the cargo services industry in Germany is seen as a step. He continued said that when see that it is less than twenty old ages since the Berlin Wall came down and East Germany started its procedure of integrating within Germany, the efficiency of the conveyance web throughout the state is all the more singular. There is a really efficient web of waterways, railroads and expresswaies that make internal connexions fast and straightforward and besides connect Germany with other states throughout the universe.

2.4.4 Middle East

Timon Singh ( 2010 ) claimed that the Middle East and North Africa part has invested to a great extent in its conveyance substructure and for the likes of the UAE in peculiar over the past few old ages. He continued claimed that the money has gone into planes and trains in order to better better between provinces, but to turn the part into both a concern and tourer hub.

Air traffic in the Middle East is the fastest growth in the universe, and in order to provide for the increasing figure of riders at their assorted airdromes and therefore bettering their general conveyance substructure, the UAE has been implementing assorted air power undertakings.Harmonizing to him, rail is another portion of the part ‘s conveyance substructure that has gathered support in the Middle East from Dubai ‘s Metro System to programs for an expansive web linking the GCC provinces. Qatar and Bahrain have one of the most ambitious undertakings, uniting both rail and tube lines, which is set to transform the emirate into a major conveyance hub.

The undertaking, which is rumored to be bing over US $ 36.6 billion ( QR133.5 billion ) and estimated to take six old ages, is expected to be finished in stages over the following six old ages, with three major subdivisions being the focal point of the strategy – the tube web within Greater Doha, the over-ground railroads covering the whole of Qatar and so, associating it to the remainder of the GCC part and lading trains.


5 London, United Kingdom

McDougall ( 2010 ) asked how do metropoliss run into the demands of a turning population, promote diverse and healthy communities, better the environment and tackle clime alteration. The reply is it ‘s a tall order and one that London is undertaking caput on with their competently named “ London Plan ” . He said that the London Plan sets out to guarantee that London ‘s conveyance is easy, safe and convenient and encourages cycling, walking and electric vehicles. The ambitious program sets out the overall strategic way for an incorporate economic, environmental, conveyance and societal model for the development of London over the following 20-25 old ages.

He continues said that the London Plan identifies what are termed “ Opportunity Areas ” in and around London ‘s major reservoirs of brown-field land. These countries are characterized by their possible to suit new lodging, commercial and other development linked to bing or possible betterments to public conveyance handiness. It is of import to do certain that they can be developed without undue extra force per unit area on London ‘s already-crowded public conveyance, or on the limited financess available for anything beyond committed conveyance betterments.

2.4.6 India

Harmonizing to Pradhan ( 2010 ) , transport is a cardinal substructure in the present survey, as causes energy ingestion every bit good as economic growing in India.

Therefore, he suggested that increasing conveyance installation along with energy ingestion will take to more economic growing in India. The accomplishment of higher economic growing through conveyance substructure and energy ingestion could be due to its assorted direct and indirect benefits in the economic system. But he claimed that the degree of conveyance substructure is non so good, both in measure and quality, in contrast to developed states in the universe.

He suggested that if there is sufficient conveyance substructure in the economic system, the consequence would be much better. He continued suggested that a suited conveyance policy should be required desperately to hike economic growing and to keep sustainable economic development in the state since conveyance substructure is a large trade to economic growing.

2.4.7 Malaya

The greatest advantage to makers in Malaysia has been the state ‘s relentless thrust to develop and upgrade its substructure. Over the old ages, these investings have paid off and serious constrictions have been avoided. Today, Malaysia can tout of holding one of the well-developed substructures among the freshly industrializing states of Asia ( www. ) .The latest development of Kuala Lumpur Sentral has become a futuristic self-contained metropolis, supplying the perfect live, work and play environment. A modern transit hub incorporating all major rail conveyance webs, including the Express Rail Link to the KLIA and Putrajaya, the authorities ‘s new administrative centre. Besides, the Peninsular Malaysia ‘s web of well-maintained main roads is a addition to industries.

These main roads link major growing centres to havens and airdromes throughout the peninsula and supply an efficient agencies of transit for goods. ( ) .Malaysia ‘s cardinal location in the Asia Pacific part makes her an ideal gateway to Asia.

Air lading installations are well-developed in the five international airdromes – the Kuala Lumpur International Airport ( KLIA ) , Penang International Airport and Langkawi International Airport in Peninsular Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu International Airport in Sabah, and Kuching International Airport in Sarawak. Malaysia ‘s biggest airdrome, the KLIA, surrounded by four chief metropoliss of Kuala Lumpur, Shah Alam, Seremban and Melaka has a capacity of managing 25 million riders and up to 8 million dozenss of lading per twelvemonth. Cargo import and export processs are to the full automated at the KLIA to cut down bringing clip ( www.mida. ) .Recently, Rapid Penang has introduced a state-of-the-art Intelligent Commuter Information System ( ICIS ) , which provides real-time information on the arrival times of coachs at terminuss in Penang. The ICIS system, the first of its sort used by phase coach companies in the state, would enable some 75,000 commuters who use Rapid Penang buses daily to be after their journey more expeditiously. It proved to be a success and has since been expanded for use at the Komtar coach terminus, which sees the highest figure of people get oning coachs daily. A sum of 200 coachs operate from the Komtar bus terminus on a day-to-day footing.

The ICIS show system uses planetary placement system ( GPS ) to map out the motion of all Rapid Penang coachs and cipher the exact clip of reaching of each coach at the Komtar coach terminus. The ICIS show system will subsequently be extended to other strategic countries throughout the province including the possibility of holding it installed in shopping composites ( newstraitstimes, 2010 ) .

2.5 Bus Stop and Bus Terminal

There are bus Michigans all over the Penang and there are three chief coach terminuss for coachs in Penang, Malaysia. They are Weld Quay Terminal, Komtar Bus Terminal and Sungai Nibong Terminal. Harmonizing to Zegeer ( 2002 ) , a well-designed theodolite routes a approachable Michigans are indispensable to useable system. He continues said that coach Michigans should be located at intervals that are convenient for riders for safety intent and should be comfy topographic points for people to wait.

UITP ( 2004 cited in Grenoble, 2004 ) argued that if the related substructure is unaccessible or unsuitably designed, much of the accessible vehicles will lost. Grenoble has carried out extended research and development work to plan ropeway and coach Michigans, get downing some 20 old ages ago. The rule adopted by Grenoble was that the coach services should be made every bit accessible as the ropeway. Harmonizing to Grenoble, the design criterions found to be most effectual for accessible coach Michigans were 14m ( standard coach ) and 20m ( articulated coach ) for overall length of coach get oning platform, 2.

1m ( lower limit ) and 2.6m ( if a shelter is provided ) for overall comprehensiveness of get oning platform, 3 % for gradient of entree incline at terminal of platform, 21cm for tallness of get oning country, 60cm back from forepart border of get oning country for safety line and 1.1m ( lower limit ) and 1.3m ( preferred ) for clear infinite between front terminal of coach shelter and front border of get oning country.Zegeer ( 2002 ) said that besides the coach halt sign language, a coach shelter with seating, rubbish receptacles, and bike parking are besides desirable characteristics. He suggested that coach Michigans should be extremely seeable locations where prosaic can make them easy by agencies of accessible travel paths. Therefore, a complete pavement system is indispensable to back up a public transit system. Convenient crossings are besides of import.

He continued suggested that proper arrangement of coach Michigans is cardinal to user safety. For illustration, puting the coach stops on the close side of intersections or crossing may barricade walkers ‘ position of nearing traffic, and nearing drivers ‘ position of walkers. Approaching automobilists may be unable to halt in clip when a prosaic stairss from in forepart of a stopped coach into the traffic lanes at the intersection.

Far-side coach Michigans by and large encourage walkers to traverse behind the coach. Reapportioning the coach halt to the far side of the intersection can better prosaic safely since it climates the sight-distance limitation caused by the coach. Puting bus Michigans at the far aside of intersections can besides better motored vehicle operation.Besides, he besides suggested that the coach Michigans should be to the full accessible to walkers in wheelchairs, should hold paved connexions to sidewalks where landscape buffers exist, and should non barricade prosaic travel on the pavement. Adequate room should be to run wheelchair lift.

Yet, it is besides utile to put in kerb inclines at coach Michigans so that a rider can board from the street if bus-lift deployment is blocked.Harmonizing to Iles ( 2005 ) , job may originate at coach Stationss which are used as intermediate Michigans for coachs go throughing through the town or metropolis when services are operated to schedule. Iles gave an illustration on when a full coach with a few riders drop enter the station, they have the capacity to pick up same figure of new rider, but through services ever delayed by holding queue while other coachs, some of which may be get downing their journeys at the station, burden foremost. For this ground, in some states, illicitly in some instances, long-distance coachs do non name at all coach Stationss on path, but halt outside the intermediate coach Stationss to put down riders at the wayside. He continues said that by non come ining a coach station, nevertheless, a coach probably to lose rider who could otherwise be carried ; instead, the pattern may promote some prospective riders to wait at the wayside outside the terminus, therefore doing jobs, chiefly obstructor of other traffic by coachs lading in the route.

Then he claimed that the operation at coach Stationss is really good organized in some states. He gave an illustration on the coach station in China, the rider will first buy a ticket at one of several ticket Windowss and any baggage will so be taken by the rider to the baggage office where it is weighed, charged for, labelled and despatched to the appropriate going bay, while the rider returns to a waiting room. Then the going clip attacks, riders queue at the appropriate gate.

Their tickets are checked by a steward at this point when the coach has been brought to the gate, so merely they are allowed to board.He continues said that different states, the criterions are different. If the organisation holding hapless direction particularly in peak times, people acquiring a topographic point on a coach may be a really unpleasant experiences ride for them.

2.6 Decision

The recent surveies had shown that there is positive relationship between conveyance substructure and productiveness. The productiveness of conveyance substructure is the of import key determiner of comparative advantage between states. Both private persons and concern used and it can be seen as an support into the production of a conveyance service, which in bend is used as an attempt into the merchandise or service demanded by consumer, such as visit to a friend or the handiness of a certain merchandise in the local stores.

( Grimsey and Lewis, 2007 )

Chapter 3


Research Design

There are two types of research design which are qualitative method and quantitative method. For this research, quantitative method is chosen. There are three ways in quantitative method which are descriptive, experimental and quasi-experimental. Descriptive will be used in this research where informations are collected from questionnaires, interviews or observations if the sample size is little.

Determination of sample size

The sample size of this research is 100 people. Questionnaires will be distributed to 80 % Penangites and 20 % tourists out of 100 people who are the user of coach terminuss.

Sampling Design and Technique

There are two sorts of sampling, scientific sampling and non-scientific sampling. In scientific sampling, each member in the population is given an equal opportunity of being included in the sample. In non-scientific sampling, non all of the members in the population are given an equal opportunity of being included in the sample. This research, non-scientific sampling is used. In non-scientific sampling, there are purposive sampling, incidental sampling and quota sampling.Purposive sampling is been chosen to this research. This sampling is based on taking persons as samples harmonizing to the intents of the research worker as his controls. An person is chosen as portion of the sample because of good grounds that he is a representative of the entire population.

The Subjects

Non-scientific sampling is used in this research and purposive sampling is applied. The sample of population will be chosen indiscriminately in the Komtar Bus Terminal and Weld Quay Bus Terminal.

The Research Instruments

Research instrument is the method that used by research worker to roll up all the informations and information which required harmonizing to the research subject. The methods include questionnaires, trial, interview, observation agenda, checklist or evaluation graduated table possibly described by the research worker. The research instruments that been chose for this research are questionnaire and observation. The intent of questionnaire is to roll up all the informations and information of the satisfaction degree and outlook of the coach terminal user. Observation of hygiene and safety in the coach terminus will be made by my ain egos.

The questionnaire consists of two subdivisions. Section A is the background of respondent which include gender, age group nationality and profession. Section B is the tourer behavior which the inquiries are asked to happen out the satisfaction degree and outlook of the coach terminal user.

Data Gathering Procedure

Data assemblage process is a procedure or processs made in administrating the questionnaires or the research instruments. Because of the Komtar Bus Terminal and Weld Quay Bus Terminal are public countries, hence no demand to seek for blessing from any sector.

Data Processing Method

Data processing method is a procedure or processs for the research worker tabulate and procedure the information either manually or by machine after the retrieval of the questionnaire. For this research, after roll uping all the informations which required, all the informations will be tabulated into graph or tabular array so that it is easier to analyze the day of the month.

Statistical Treatment

Statistical intervention of informations is indispensable in order to do usage of the informations in the right signifier. Locals and tourers satisfaction degree and outlook act as a really of import informations in order to happen out the solution for the research job. Therefore, the information which had collected will be record and analyze carefully to avoid inaccuracy in the consequence.