In ancient Egypt, Cleopatra is by far one of the most famous queens of all times. At the time, Cleopatra ruled Egypt and she is very famous for her story of love and death. She was born in 69 BC in Alexandria. Her father was Ptolemy x11. Her mother was Cleopatra 5th of Egypt. Later on, Cleopatra had another sister and two younger brothers. By historians, Cleopatra is classified to be the last pharaoh of Egypt. She was 17 or 18 when she became queen of Egypt. Cleopatra was a seductive woman. She had charisma and enchanting musical voice. She spoke nine languages.
She was the first pharaoh from the Ptolemy family to speak Egyptian. According to Egyptian tradition Cleopatra married her brother and co-ruler, Ptolemy x111, he was 12 at the time. It was only convenience. Cleopatra ruled Egypt alone. Her brother remained in the background. Ptolemy and Pothimus stripped Cleopatra of her power in forty eight BC. In Syria, she was forced into exile. Her sister Arsinoe went with her. Cleopatra was determined to get her throne back, so she set up an army on Egypt’s border. Vying with Julius Caesar, Pompey wants control of the Roman Empire.
In order to seek protection, Pompey sailed to Alexandria after losing the battle of Pharsalos. The advisors of Ptolemy x111 thought they should side with Caesar for safety reasons. When Pompey came to Alexandria, he was stabbed to death while the pharaoh watched. Caesar later went to Alexandria. When he got near the city, he was approached by Ptolemy’s courtiers. They brought him a gift which was Pompey’s head. Once Pompey was Caesar’s friend. Caesar was overwhelmed by Pompey’s brutal murder so he marched into the city and took control of the palace. He soon started issuing orders.
Cleopatra and Ptolemy were to discharge their armies and meet with Caesar so he could settle their problem. If Cleopatra entered the city openly, she would be killed by Ptolemy’s henchmen. She then put herself into an Oriental rug and had it delivered to Caesar. When the rug arrived, they opened it up and Cleopatra rolled out. Caesar was so mesmerized by her beauty; they became lovers that same night. Ptolemy was furious when he saw Caesar and Cleopatra together the next day. He left the palace saying he was betrayed. Cleopatra’s sister Arsinoe and the eunuch pothinus laid siege to the palace.
Caesar thought they would stop the attacked so he freed Ptolemy x111. The war continued for almost six months. When Pothinus was killed in battle and Ptolemy x111 drowned in the Nile while trying to flee, the Alexandria war was over. The city gave into Caesar, who captured Arsinoe and restored Cleopatra to her throne. Cleopatra once again married her brother Ptolemy x1v. He was also 12 years old. Cleopatra and Caesar finally had victory. They went on a two-month cruise on the Nile. They would have gone to Ethiopia if Caesar’s troops would have agreed to follow him.
They say Cleopatra may have become pregnant at this time. Later on, Cleopatra had a son, Ptolemy xv, called Caesarion or “little Caesar. ” Historians say Caesar may not have been caesarions father. Caesar only had one other child. Caesarion looked very similar to Caesar and Caesar claimed Caesarion as his own. Caesar later returned to Rome and left three legions in Egypt to protect Cleopatra. He then invited Cleopatra to visit him in Rome a year later. She went to Rome in the autumn of forty six BC. Her son Caesarion and younger brother/husband came also.
Caesar spared Arsinoe’s life, but later Mark Antony had her killed at Cleopatra’s request. Cleopatra stayed in Caesar’s villa for almost two years. She would be showered with gifts and titles. She had a statue built at the temple of Venus Genetrix. Caesar would later make a law allowing him to marry Cleopatra and make their son his heir. It was said, that Caesar would intend to become king of Rome. March 15, forty four BC conspirators surrounded Caesar at a senate meeting and stabbed him to death. She knew she was in danger as well so she left Rome and went to Egypt where Ptolemy’s x1v died.
They say he was probably poisoned by Cleopatra’s command. Caesarion was now Cleopatra’s co-regent. Caesar’s death caused an anarchy and civil war in Rome. Rome was divided among three men: Caesar’s great-nephew Octavian, Marcus Lepidus, and Mark Antony. Mark Antony brought Cleopatra to turkey to question her about if she had gone against him with his enemies. She came in a boat dressed like Venus the goddess of love. Antony was pleased by her display; she entertained him later that night. Antony thought he could out do Cleopatra, but he failed. She wasn’t mad about it. She was happy with Antony.
Antony forgot about his responsibilities and went with Cleopatra to Alexandria and spent the winter with her there. Antony left Cleopatra in Alexandria and went back to his duties as Roman Empire. Cleopatra later gave birth to twins. One was a boy and the other was a girl. Cleopatra didn’t see Antony for four years so during that time he married Octavia. She was Octavian’s half-sister. Ever since, Antony was going back and forth to Rome and Egypt. He would later call Alexandria his home. Cleopatra was Mark Antony’s everything. He married her and she gave birth to another son named Ptolemy Philadelphus.
Octavia stayed loyal to her husband. She went to Rome to see Antony but he told her he would meet her in Athens where she was. Cleopatra didn’t want Antony seeing Octavia so she did crazy things to herself to keep Antony from Octavia. Antony later cancelled his trip to see Octavia and Cleopatra was happy. Octavia went back home without seeing her husband. The Roman people was mad at Antony for the way he treated Octavia. They were also upset that Cleopatra and Antony was calling themselves gods. During thirty four BC, Antony made Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene the king and queen of Armenia, Cyrenaica and Crete.
They were the twin children of Antony and Cleopatra. Ptolemy Philadelphus was the king of Syria. He was the newest son of Cleopatra and Antony. Caesarion her first son was the “king of kings” and Cleopatra was the “queen of kings”. A war was declared on Egypt by Octavian. Antony fought the Romans and Cleopatra was there also. Antony started losing and Cleopatra fled the sea. Antony left his men and went with Cleopatra. The Romans would later determine Antony was obsessed with Cleopatra. Three days Antony set on the ship and didn’t speak to Cleopatra.
They went back to Egypt. Antony would live by himself while Cleopatra prepared a invasion by Rome. When Antony received word that his army had gave up, he went back to Cleopatra to party and live out their final days. Cleopatra would begin mixing things to find a poison that would cause the most painless death. She then built a mausoleum to which she moved all her riches and most prize possessions to. In thirty BC, Octavian came to Alexandria. Antony’s army and Octavian’s army met on high grounds. When Antony got there, his army saluted the Romans and joined them.
Antony returned to the city, saying that Cleopatra had betrayed him. Cleopatra left and went to the monument that she had built thinking that Antony would harm her. Antony went to his room and said he would be with Cleopatra soon. He told a man named Eros to kill him but Eros killed himself and passed out on the couch. He later woke up telling his servants to kill him but they ran away. Cleopatra wanted to see him. Antony was glad she was alive. He went to her Mausoleum. She was afraid to open the door because of Octavian’s army, so she and her two serving women put down ropes and pulled him up.
When Octavian and his men reached the Mausoleum Cleopatra didn’t want to come out and no one to come in. Demanding through the locked doors that her children keep the kingdom, they distracted her while others climbed ladders through the window. She was taken prisoner. Her children was also prisoners but was treated well. Cleopatra arranged Antony’s funeral. He was buried in royalty. Cleopatra wanted to die. She was sick with grief. A basket was sent to Cleopatra and there was nothing suspicious so the guards sent it to her. She wrote a letter, sealed it and sent it to Octavian.
When he read the letter, he sent guards to make sure she didn’t commit suicide but it was too late Cleopatra was died. Cleopatra was 39 years old. Her maid Iras dying at her feet. Her other maid Charmion fixing her crown also died. It was believed that Cleopatra was bitten by a snake because they found two pricks. It was probably snuck In with the basket of figs. She was buried aside Antony as she wished. Octavian had Caesarion strangled by his tutor just in case he was a threat to his power. Later Cleopatra’s other children were sent to Rome to be raised by Octavia.