REJECT?ON?SMWhen we pronounce the word “Globalization”, first of allglobal ecological problems come to mind.
The ecological consequences of thechanges that have occurred in the global geopolitical space at the end of thecentury, and their manifestations in the long run, should make the worldscientific community to think deeply.UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan presented the report “We thePeoples: The Role of the United Nations In The 21st Century”1 atthe September 2000 meeting of the Heads of State and Government of the UNmember states. The report examines the priority strategic areas that humanityfaces in the new millennium and stresses that the challenge of ensuring anenvironmentally sustainable future for future generations will be one of themost difficult.Analysis of the results of long-term meteorological observations carriedout in all regions of the globe confirms the inconstancy of the climate, itssusceptibility to certain changes.
Thus, at the end of the XIX century, beganwarming, which increased markedly in the 1920s-1930s, and then there was a coldsnap that slowly continued until the 1960s. Geologists have studied sedimentarydeposits of the earth’s crust and found that in the past epochs the climate hasundergone much more large-scale changes caused by natural processes. Thesechanges are called natural.Along with natural factors, the economic activity of man is exerting anever increasing influence on environment conditions. Its impact began to appearhundreds of years ago, when in connection with the development of agriculturein arid areas, huge irrigation became widespread. Distribution of agriculturein the forest zone, accompanied by deforestation in large areas, also affectedthe climate, but in this case everything was limited to changes inmeteorological conditions in the lower atmosphere and only in areas wheresignificant economic activities were carried out.Second half of XX century was marked by the rapid development ofindustry and, correspondingly, the growth of power capacity, which could notbut affect the environment on the whole planet.
Modern scientific studies haveestablished that the impact of anthropogenic activity on the global climate isassociated with several factors, especially with an increase in:· The amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide, as well assome other gases entering the atmosphere in the course of economic activity andenhancing the greenhouse effect in it;· Mass of atmospheric aerosols;· Produced in the process of economic activity of thermalenergy entering the atmosphere.The increase in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere has a significanteffect on the Earth’s climate, changing it towards warming. The general trendtowards an increase in air temperature, which was observed in the XX century,is increasing, which already led to an increase in the average air temperatureby 0.6 ° C.As a result of a fourfold increase in the second half of the 20thcentury, the volume of emissions of carbon compounds, the Earth’s atmospherebegan to heat up at an increasing rate. According to the UN forecasts, thesubsequent global increase in air temperature in the 21st century will be from1.5 to 4 ° C.
The following consequences of global warming are predicted:· The rise in the level of the Ocean due to the meltingof glaciers and polar ice (in the last 100 years it has already risen by 10-25cm), which in turn will lead to the flooding of territories, the shifting ofthe swamp borders, the increase of salinity in the mouths of rivers, and thepotential loss places of residence;· Change in the amount of precipitation;· Change in the hydrological regime, quantity andquality of water resources;As weather trends increase, weather conditions become more volatile, andclimatic disasters are devastating. The damage caused by natural disasters tothe world economy is increasing. Only in 1998 it was higher than in the entire1980s, tens of thousands of people were killed and about 25 million refugeeswere forced to flee their homes.At the end of XX century humanity has come to realize the extreme dangerof environmental problems associated with climate change, and in the mid-1970san active search for their solution began. At the World Climate Conference inGeneva (1979)2,the foundations of the World Climate Program were laid.
In accordance with theresolution of the UN General Assembly on the protection of global climate forthe sake of present and future generations in 1992, the United NationsFramework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)3was adopted, whose goal is to stabilize the concentration of greenhouse gasesin the atmosphere at levels that exclude dangerous effects on the globalclimate system. This task is expected to be accomplished in a time sufficientfor natural adaptation of ecosystems to climate change and avoiding the threatto food production, as well as ensuring further economic development on asustainable basis. The destructionof the Earth’s ozone layer.The main amount of ozone is formed in the upper layer of the atmosphere- the stratosphere, at altitudes of 10 to 45 km. The ozone layer protects alllife on Earth from the hard ultraviolet radiation of the Sun. By absorbing thisradiation, ozone significantly affects the temperature distribution in theupper layers of the atmosphere, which in turn affects the climate.The total amount and dispersion of ozone in the atmosphere is the resultof a complex and ultimately unexplored dynamic equilibrium of photochemical andphysical processes that determine its formation, destruction, and transport.Starting around the 1970s a global decrease in the amount of stratosphericozone is observed.
Above some Antarctic regions in September-October, its totalcontent in the atmosphere is reduced by 60%, and in the middle latitudes ofboth hemispheres it decreased by 4-5% over the decade. Depletion of the ozonelayer of the planet leads to the destruction of the existing biogenesis of theocean due to the death of plankton in the equatorial zone, the inhibition ofplant growth, a sharp increase in eye and cancer diseases, as well as diseasesassociated with weakening the immune system of humans and animals, increasingthe oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere.The world community cannot stay idle. In 1985, the Vienna Conference onthe Protection of the Ozone Layer4was held and a relevant multilateral convention was adopted providing for theimplementation of political and economic measures to protect stratosphericozone. In 1987, on its basis, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Depletethe Ozone Layer was developed and adopted, which defines the list, procedureand standards for a phased reduction in the production and consumption ofozone-depleting substances. Pursuant to this protocol, the production ofsubstances causing the greatest harm to the ozone layer has ceased to exist indeveloped countries since 1996, and in developing countries it was projected thatproduction would cease by 2010. Unless this document was signed, levels ofsubstances that deplete the ozone layer could five times the current one.
The depletion offreshwater resources and the pollution of the waters of the World Ocean.During the period from 1900 to 1995, freshwater consumption in the worldincreased six-fold, which is more than twice the rate of population growth.Almost a third of the earthlings live in countries that consume water involume, 10% higher than their available reserves.
If current trends continue,by 2025, every two out of three inhabitants of the Earth will live inconditions of water shortage5.Underground waters provide the needs of one-third of the world’spopulation, so their irrational use and imperfect methods of exploitation causegreat concern. The extraction of groundwater in many regions of the globe (inthe Arabian Peninsula, India, China, Mexico, the CIS countries and the USA) isconducted in volumes significantly exceeding the capacity of nature to resumethem.
As a consequence, the groundwater level drops by 1-3 m per year.Between the states there is an acute competitive struggle for waterresources used for irrigation or for electricity generation. As the populationgrows, such conflicts will intensify. Today, the Middle East and North Africasuffer from a shortage of water, and by the middle of the 21st century, theycan be joined by sub-Saharan Africa, where the population is expected toincrease two to three times.The International Water Forum in The Hague6(March 2000) assessed the magnitude and causes of current and future watercrisis and identified a number of achievable targets for water resources andsanitation. The world ocean is the largest ecological system of the planet Earth,including the waters of the Atlantic, Indian, Pacific and Arctic Oceans withinterconnected adjacent seas.
Sea water occupies 95% of the total hydrosphere.Being an important link in the water cycle, it provides food for glaciers,rivers and lakes, and thereby – the life of plants and animals.Radical changes in the use of resources of the World Ocean brought ascientific and technological revolution. It deepened and expanded the range ofscientific research, paved the way for a comprehensive study of the ocean,identified and provided new directions for the development of marinetechnology. Destruction ofsoil cover of the Earth.
Mankind has lost over 1.5 billion hectares of fertile land irrevocablyover its history, more than they are being plowed all over the world. Onceproductive plowed lands have turned into deserts, wastelands, marshes, shrubthickets, badlands, ravines. Many lifeless deserts of the world are the resultof unreasonable human activity. The process that multiplies irrecoverablelosses continues. According to the most optimistic estimates of UN experts,about 2 billion hectares of land are subject to degradation caused by humanactivities, which threatens the existence of almost a billion people.
The mainreasons for this are erosion caused by excessive grazing, deforestation,desertification of lands, and salinization of soils as a result of irrigation. All over the world, depletion of arable and pasture lands occurs, thefall of their fertility as a result of irrational intensive use; bogging ofsoils in areas of sufficient or excessive atmospheric moisture; otherdegradation processes include soil compaction, their technogenic pollution. Everyyear, 20 million hectares of agricultural land become unsuitable for use due toland degradation or the onset of cities.
But it is predicted over the next 30years that the demand for food in developing countries should double, so newland should be developed, and this will occur mainly in the zone of riskyfarming, where the soils are even more susceptible to destructive processes.The growing threat of land degradation is also due to changes inclimatic conditions. Every year, the territories affected by desertification,suffering from droughts and arid phenomena, are expanding. The idea of ??theneed for coordinated and coordinated actions of all countries in combatingdesertification was first put forward at the United Nations Conference onEnvironment and Development in Rio de Janeiro7(1992). As a result of negotiations and approvals, it was possible to develop aspecial UN Convention to Combat Desertification (1994), aimed at uniting theefforts of states and the general population to prevent the destruction of landand mitigate the effects of drought. The Convention is aimed at combating allforms of land degradation in different geoclimatic zones, including Europe. Biologicaldiversity.The main guarantor of maintaining stable conditions for the existence oflife on Earth is the preservation of maximum biological diversity, that is, allpossible forms of living organisms of all habitats, including terrestrial,marine and other aquatic ecosystems and ecological complexes of which they area part.
This concept covers both intra- and inter-species diversity, as well asthe diversity of ecosystems.Throughout evolution, some species died out, others emerged, reachedtheir peak and also disappeared, and new ones replaced them, which weredetermined by the dynamics of the Earth’s climate and some geologicalprocesses. As a result, not only individual species were replaced, but entirebiotic communities were replaced.
This was extremely slow, for tens of millionsof years.During the period of the scientific and technological revolution, themain force that transformed the plant and animal world was man. His activitiesled to the fact that the disappearance of many species of wildlife, especiallymammals and birds, dramatically accelerated, far exceeding the estimatedaverage rates of the previous millenniums.Direct threats to biodiversity, as a rule, are based on socio-economicfactors. Thus, population growth raises the need for food, which leads to thecorresponding expansion of agricultural land, intensification of land use, landallocation for building, general increase in consumption and increaseddegradation of natural resources.Currently at issue is the survival of about 25% of all mammal speciesand 11% of bird species. Depletion of the fishing areas of the World Oceancontinues: over the past half-century, fish catches have increased almostfivefold, with 70% of the oceanic fisheries subject to extreme or extremeexploitation8.
The problem of biodiversity conservation is interlinked with forestdegradation. Forests contain more than 50% of the world’s biological resources,provide landscape diversity, form and protect soils, facilitate the detentionand purification of water, produce oxygen, reduce the threat of global warming.The growth of the population and the development of the world economyhave led to a growing global demand for forest products. 3 over the last 300 years,66-68% of the planet’s forest area was destroyed, the forest cover was reducedto 30%. The degradation and loss of forests is caused by both natural andanthropogenic factors.In developing countries in the last decades of the XX century tens ofmillions of hectares of forest land were lost as a result of excessive logging,transformation into agricultural lands, diseases and fires. Especially thethreatening situation has developed in the tropical forests.
With the currentspeed of their information in some regions (Malaysia, Indonesia)9,forests can disappear completely.Among the main causes of depletion of forest resources is the highdemand for timber in industrialized countries. As an alternative, it isnecessary to improve the efficiency of timber production technology, paper, touse waste and secondary materials more widely, in order to save paper, toproduce publishing products in electronic form. Reforestation will meet futuredemands for wood and will facilitate the absorption of carbonaceous compoundsfrom the atmosphere, thereby slowing down the process of global warming.
In my opinion, no matter how many praise the achievement of humanity,through the prism of globalization, “globalization” is the cause ofthe destruction of the environment. We do not even have time for all the trendsof today. Together with globalization, humanity begins to forget its place inthe cycle of life. There is apossibility that very soon, the environment will decide that it will be betterwithout people, and irreversible events will begin for humanity.