Part I: Motivation, Emotion, and Behavior
Explain the relationships between motivation, emotion, and behavior. How does emotion affect motivation? Give an example of a specific behavior and the motivators and emotions that can be behind that behavior. Your response should be at least 300 hundred words.
Motivation is the driving force behind all of our actions and behavior as individuals. The influences of an individual’s needs and desires have strong impacts on the direction of their behavior. Motivation is based on our emotions and achievement-related goals. Achievement motivation can be defined as the need for success and attaining our goals, and feeling more accomplished. Motivation is the basic drive for all of our actions. Motivation refers to the purpose of our behavior, which involves our needs, desires, and ambitions in our lives. These physiological motivations drive our natural behavior in different environments. Most of our goals are incentive-based and can vary from basic hunger to the need for love and the establishment of mature sexual relationships. Motivation is important because it establishes the basic functions to keep us going in our every day lives. All of our behaviors, actions, thoughts, and beliefs are influenced by our inner motivation.
Emotion affects our motivation in many ways. For example, there are many people in society who have a fear of failure. We all have our own idea of what we consider failure to be. However, the thought of not obtaining self-actualization in whatever aspect, is a fear we all experience in some capacity. Due to this emotion, we as mankind are motivated to achieve personal goals on a daily basis, in hopes of reaching the high level of hierarchy to self- actualization.
An Example of a specific behavior that is motivated by our emotions would be
a disorder such as anorexia. What motivates the behavior of someone starving themselves would be their emotion of fear, of becoming obese, and not being accepted by society. Which, in their minds would hinder their personal desire to reach self-fulfillment, and what they believe is their level of self-actualization.
Part II: Theories of Emotion
Summarize the four major theories of emotion. Identify which theory of emotion you think is the most valid. What makes this theory more valid to you than the others? Identify which theory of emotion you think is least valid. What makes this theory less valid? Your response should be at least 300 hundred words.
The Four Theories of Emotion are the James-Lang Theory. Which psychologist William James, and Carl Lange believed that emotions depend on feedback from our physiological arousal and behavioral expression. The Cannon-Bard Theory stated that all emotions are physiologically similar and that arousal, cognitions, and expression occur simultaneously. The third theory of emotion is the facial-feedback emotion. According to this emotion “facial changes not only correlate with and intensify emotions but also cause or initiate the emotions themselves.” (Carpenter, S. and Huffman, K. (2010) The final theory of emotion is the Stanley Schachter’s two-factor theory. Stanley Schachter believed that we look to our external instead of our internal cues to understand our emotions.
Out of these four theories, I believe the facial-feedback emotion theory is more valid than the others. It is true when we see someone smile; many times we automatically smile back without even realizing it. Usually how we feel on the inside, matches the facial expression we are showing on our faces. There is a saying, if you are feeling down you should make yourself smile, and you will trick your mind into thinking you are happy. The facial-feedback theory is exactly what this belief is based off of. “Contractions of the various facial muscles send specific messages to the brain, identifying each basic emotion.” (Carpenter, S. and Huffman, K.
The theory I find least valid in my opinion is the James-Lang theory which believes that without arousal or expression, there is no emotion. The reason why I believe this theory is least valid is because I do not believe emotions are only based on arousal or expression. There have been times when I was sad, but I did not express that feeling outwardly, and in some instances would even put a smile on my face to hide the emotions I was feeling. Which, based on this theory, I would actually be happy based on my expression, but I was experiencing the exact opposite emotion than I was expressing. Another example of why I believe this theory to not be valid is someone experiencing the emotion of fear, but not expressing this emotion outwardly for others to see. Most men are taught to be tough at an early age. So when they experience the emotion of fear, they usually go out of their way to seem calm and relaxed on the outside, which contradicts the James-Lang theory completely.
Part II: Thinking, Intelligence, and Creativity
Describe thinking, intelligence, and creativity in your own words. How are thinking, intelligence, and creativity related? Does one’s creativity illustrate anything about his or her thinking processes or level of intelligence? Why or why not? Your response must be at least 300 words.
In my opinion thinking is the process of having a thought, or forming an idea in the mind. Intelligence is the ability to understand the world, think rationally, and use insight, and knowledge effectively when faced with challenges. I believe everyone has some level of creativity. Creativity is the ability to produce valued outcomes in a novel way
One factor of creativity is the process of thinking. When we are generating ideas, and responses to unusual problems, or questions, we are thinking creatively. Being able to think creatively deprives from the level of intelligence one obtains. It takes some level of intelligence for someone to think creatively, and respond elaborately to complex problems and
Tests of creativity usually focus on divergent thinking. Divergent thinking produces different and diverse types of responses. Traditional intelligence tests inquire concentrated questions that only have one acceptable answer, which are usually based on more common sense kinds of responses. In summary, creativity, and intelligence differ because, creativity is based on divergent thinking, and intelligence is based on convergent thinking where there is only single acceptable answer to a problem.
Carpenter, S. and Huffman, K. (2010). Visualizing Psychology (2nd ed.).