Cruise Tourism is one of the major growing countries of universe touristry Peisley, 1992 ; Hobson, 1993 ; Cruise Lines International Association, 1995. Harmonizing to the Economist Intelligence Unit:
There seems small uncertainty that, by the bend of the century, cruising will be steadfastly established as one of the universe ‘s major touristry industries with important markets in North America, the UK, Europe and Asia. The entire figure of one-year riders will hold reached 8 million plus –
Cruising is the fastest-growing sector of the international vacation scene ( The Passenger Shipping Association, 2003 ) . Cruise touristry can be defined as the usage of ships for pleasance cruising and non simply for transit ( UNWTO, 1997 ) . Ocean and coastal sail touristry is alone in the mode in which it provides a combination of transit, adjustment, amusement, retail and finish services. Cruise line drives can be regarded as drifting resort installations, which have the major advantage of seasonal repositioning.
From its preponderantly Caribbean base, sail touristry has spread across the universe, increasing ports of call in all parts. Equally good as this, river and canal cruising has grown quickly, peculiarly in Europe and China. The sail industry is turning, spread outing and accessing new markets by, in portion, conveying into range a diverseness of popular and successful finishs that are new for sail touristry, by working antecedently under-utilised ports ( Younger, 2003 ) .
2.1.1 The sail industry
The growing of the sail market throughout the universe, and possibly more notably in the United Kingdom ( UK ) has been one of the most singular phenomena of the 1990s ( Wild & A ; Dearing, 2000 ) . The sail industry is the fastest turning section of the travel industry – accomplishing more than 2,100 per centum growing since 1970, when an estimated 500,000 people took a sail. Industry estimations are that 13.5 million people took a sail holiday in 2009, with a sum of 14.3 million riders forecasted to sail in 2010. ( Cruise Lines International Association [ CLIA ] , 2010 ) .
In early 2001, 64 new and larger capacity ships were in production, spread outing rider capacities by 35 % . More than 50 % of these ships are dedicated to the United States touristry market and are now runing throughout the Caribbean ( Sparrow, 2004 ) . The sail industry ‘s growing is besides reflected in its spread outing guest capacity. About 40 new ships were built in the 1980s and during the 1990s, about 80 new ships debuted. By the terminal of 2009, over 100 new ships were introduced since 2000, with 12 new vass on the manner for 2010. ( CLIA, 2010 )
These new vass carry more riders, more crew, bring forth more waste and devour more goods and services.
2.2 Theoretical Model
Harmonizing to Weaver and Oppermann ( 2000 ) , touristry is a complex phenomenon affecting many histrions and synergistic factors. Some of the histrions are tourers, circuit operators, sail lines and air hoses. To be able to understand the complicated nature of the touristry industry, a system based attack is suited. Leiper ‘s touristry theoretical account can be used as the theoretical model as it views touristry as a signifier of a system in which there is an operational construction built up of interacting constituents. Leiper who was an early protagonist of the acceptance of a systems attack towards understanding touristry defined touristry as:
. . . the system affecting the discretional travel and impermanent stay of individuals off from their
usual topographic point of abode for one or more darks, demuring Tourss made for the primary intent
of gaining wage from points en path. The elements of the system are tourers, bring forthing
parts, theodolite paths, finish parts and a tourer industry. These five elements are
arranged in spacial and functional connexions. Having the features of an unfastened system,
the administration of five elements operates within broader environments: physical, cultural,
societal, economic, political, technological with which it interacts.
The constituents of the touristry system are shown in the theoretical account below ( fig 1.1 ) . This whole touristry system attack helps to organize our cognition about touristry and its relationship with sails. Leiper ‘s attack was to seek and understand finishs, bring forthing countries, theodolite zones, the environment and flows within the context of a wider touristry system instead than seeing them as separate independent entities.
In the theoretical account there are three synergistic constituents: ( I ) the touristry bring forthing part, ( two ) the finish part and ( three ) theodolite paths which link the two parts. It is apparent that conveyance signifiers an built-in portion of the touristry system by associating the tourer generating and finish parts together. Collier ( 1994 ) classifies tourism conveyance on several bases ( e.g. public or private sector conveyance, water/land/air conveyance ; domestic and international conveyance and manner of conveyance ) . Cruise touristry is considered as a system in which patrol cars and operators are major histrions. The tourism-generating part and the finish part are linked together through cruising which is besides a touristry merchandise. This makes sail ships a alone signifier of touristry conveyance. Peoples go on a “ sail ” more than they go to a topographic point. And yet their major competition is non other signifiers of conveyance but existent topographic points. As Morrison et Al. ( 1996: 15 ) put it:
Alternatively of viing with the air hoses, the sail lines have become their
spouses and now compete with finishs, resorts, and other holiday
options. The sail ship itself has become a drifting resort supplying the
maximal possible leisure and amusement installations.
However Leiper ‘s theoretical account has been criticized for being simplistic ( Prosser, 1998 ) . Prosser provided a more elaborate theoretical account that, he claimed, represents more efficaciously the interior complexnesss of the touristry environment.
2.3 SWOT analysis for Mauritius
SWOT is an acronym where the letters stand for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. It is a normally used analytical tool in concern environments that has become steadfastly established in the literature of strategic direction ( Evans, et Al. 2003 ) . A SWOT analysis is a utile manner of measuring the state of affairs that a finish faces in its attempt to develop cruise touristry.
. Harmonizing to Weihrich ( 1982 ) , the SWOT analysis is the procedure of analyzing administrations and their environments based on their strengths, failings, chances and menaces. This includes the environmental analysis, the procedure of scanning the concern environment for menaces and chances, which is considered as external factors, and the organizational analysis, the procedure of analyzing a house ‘s strengths and failings as internal factors.
A strategically located port in the Indian Ocean
Capacity and Infrastructure constraints- excessively few positions
Safe and fantastic touristry finish
Cyclonic period during the months of November to May
Pleasant clime practically whole twelvemonth unit of ammunition
Nautical constraints- For many large sail vass at the same clip
Assortment of land-based and water-based attractive forces
Poor care of beaches and attractive forces
A great assortment of civilizations
Low consciousness in the market about cruise touristry in Mauritius
Relatively good basic constructions ( infirmaries, roads ) and a good conveyance system
Mauritius considered as an expensive finish and non within the range of many
World category quality services by Tour Operators, Hotels, Restaurants, and Travel Agents.
Poor service at the port and untrained staff
Minimal formalities on reaching of sail vass
Poor route links to certain location and topographic point of involvement
Lack of industry coherence
No strategic program at MPA and MOT degree
Estimated two million tourers by the twelvemonth 2015
Seasonality of the industry
Brand name- ‘Ile Maurice un plaisir ‘
Menaces by terrorists and Somalian Plagiarists
The sail market Potential is strong for Regional/ International growing
Competition from other alien touristry finishs
Improvement of physical substructure including equal parking installations at topographic points of involvement and other recreational countries
Likely addition in oil monetary values impacting cost of travel
Political stableness of market of beginning
Economic uncertainty- late engagements and close-to-home sails to avoid disbursal on winging
Air web enlargement easing Fly-cruise construct
Strong growing of European demand ( German, Gallic and Spanish markets )
2.4 Sustainable development issues of cruise touristry:
Although a comparatively new phenomenon, touristry has become one of the universe ‘s largest industries in recent old ages. Harmonizing to the World Tourism Organization ( WTO, 2004 ) , “ sustainable touristry development meets the demands of present tourers and host parts while protecting and heightening chances for the hereafter ” . In 2008, International touristry reaching reached there were 922 million worldwide, with a growing of 1.9 % as compared to 2007. ( WTO )
Given its entire significance, it is non surprising that the touristry industry has a significant environmental impact. In peculiar, touristry development is associated with environmental jobs like deforestation, dirt or beach eroding, and coral ecosystem devastation. Since touristry development besides tends to ensue in rapid urbanisation, it can lend to such jobs as increased air and H2O pollution, every bit good as unequal solid waste direction ( Baver and Lynch 2006, 5 ) . The graduated table and gravitation of these impacts tend to be amplified in the Caribbean, where the environment comprises some of the most delicate ecosystems on Earth, including beaches, coral reefs, and tropical woods ( Lynch 2006, 158 ) .
‘When sustainable touristry has been applied to the industry, more accent has been given to touristry ‘s effects upon the environment and economic system, instead than to factors related to its consequence on communities ‘ ( Hardy et al, 2002: 491 )
Cruise touristry is presently traveling through a period of resurgence with new vass being launched and sailing to of all time more alien topographic points.
Hunter ( 1997 ) argues that different readings of sustainable touristry are appropriate urder different fortunes. The survey of sustainable touristry should non be a stiff model, but an ‘adaptive paradigm which legitimizes a assortment of attacks harmonizing to specific circtimstances ‘ ( Htinter, 1997: 851 ) .