RFID Based Virtual Speed Breakers:Perspective Bangladesh Khandaker Anamul HoqueDept. of ENI University of Applied Sciences Upper AustriaHagenberg, Austria E-mail: [email protected] Abstract—Thepoint view of the studies gives regulating the road and transportation systemof Bangladesh digitally. According to BRTA annual accident report of fiveyears, it can be said speed breakers have a great impact on the road accidents.The road authority attempts to control the unintended information throughsetting speed breakers on the road.
This paper gives RFID based totally digitalspeed breaker as opposed to the traditional speed breakers. As a way to lowerthe development price in addition to car upkeep fee. It is a smart vehicle controlling system thatwill ensure safety either the driver is conscious or not.Keywords—RFID, speed braker, microcontroller, ECU (Electroniccontrol unit), fuel injection sysytem, LCD display, road and transpotrationsystem. I.
Introduction Speed control isinside the want of the hour due to increased fee of accidents mentioned in ourdaily life. Bangladesh is a nation having around 1.5 million mechanized andcould be more than 3 million non-mechanized vehicles.
Lately great streets are being built adding velocity totransportation and recurrence of development of individuals. At the same timenumber of street mischances is likewise taking off high. Street mishaps in Bangladesh assert, on a normal, around 4000 livesand 5000 harms each year.
The national loss due to road accident is estimatedaround 5000crores every year 1. Under the guidance of the National RoadSafety Council there are some organizations those are researching on theReduction of road accidents and casualties. The mentionable organizations areBRTA, RHD, LGED, MOC and ARI (BUET). According to the research results of thementioned organizations a vital way to reduce road accident is to removeunauthorized speed breakers on highways.
This does not mean that the authorizedspeed breakers do no longer purpose street accidents. Typically we know speedbreakers are raised segments of asphalt over the movement method for the streetand are around 3 to 4 inches high 2. They are an elongation shape. Theexpected motivation behind these conventional speed breakers is to endeavor todecrease speeds by vertically redirecting the haggle of a vehicle. These speedbreakers not only cause the road accidents but also have a negative impact onthe response time of emergency vehicles. They cause an increase in gasolineconsumption and emissions. Motorists may drive on sidewalks or through yards toavoid the speed breakers, decreasing the effectiveness of the parts ofvehicles.
The key thought offered bythis paper is to utilize radio recurrence distinguishing proof innovation tofind a speed breaker that terminated physically on the streets. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a rising innovation, radio wave communication between a microchipand an electronic reader, comprising of of datagathering, distribution, and management systems that can recognize or filter information forremote acknowledgement of objects with expanded speed and accuracy. RFID based system can be used insteadof the traditional speed breaker system. Here the system is named as RFID BasedVirtual Speed Breakers.
This system could be applied by usingplacement of RFID tags on the roadside signboard so that you can pass over theconventional speed breakers from the roads and highways. Theproposed Virtual speed breakers consist three units. One is transmitting unit,receiving unit and Electronic Control Unit (ECU). The transmitting unit will beplaced on the roadside signboard and the receiving unit will be placed on thedash board of the vehicle.
An RFID tagwill be used in the transmitting unit. That will leave an electromagneticsignal by an antenna. And the receiving unit will be consist of a sensor,microcontroller and LCD display. RFID sensor collects data and microcontrollersends sign to ECU and controls the car’s fuel supply machine and break topreserve a given goal velocity. II. PreviousWorks RFID tags are mainlytracking and tracing devices. Some works on road and transportation system andvehicle controlling system have already been done using RFID technology. Japanhas set-up of the “Free Mobility Assistance System” in view ofuniversal system innovation including RFID labels, to give data to consistentdevelopment 3.
Netherlands has presented installmentcards for public transport 4. Singapore builds up Nationwide Electronic RoadPricing (ERP) framework to control and oversee activity volume; installment ofstreet use charges. The ERP is applied to all of Singapore’s 840,000 vehicles4. RFID primarily based highway toll deduction systems that are nowautomatically employed in many countries, just like the Tele-bypass system inItaly and the auto-bypass system in Norway. Different utilizations incorporatechecking frameworks to keep away from vehicle burglary 5, get to control toauto stopping or private regions 6, what’s more, inserting of RFID labels intags with extraordinarily coded IDs for programmed vehicle recognition anddistinguishing proof 7Situation of RFID tags outand about paths has been proposed keeping in mind the end goal to give exactvehicle restriction in passages or downtown territories where GPS situating maybe temperamental 8. RFID tagging of cars is offered as an otheroption to movement information accumulation by inductive circles set under thestreet surface 9.
The data about the activity gathered by a system of RFreaders is then used to direct movement at crossing point or basic focuses inthe city 10. III. Working Procedure Fig.
1. Roadwith traditional speed braker.The RFID based virtualspeed breaker will have three units (i) transmitting unit and (ii) receiverunit and (iii) electronic control unit (ECU). The transmitter unit will beattached with a roadside signboard. The transmitter unit will be consist of anactive RFID tag. That will consume power from the solar rechargeable battery. Asmall solar panel will be attached to the roadside signboard. The receiver unitwill be on the vehicle’s dash board.
When the vehicle comes into the range ofthe RFID tag the reader will get specific signal from the tag. Themicrocontroller in the receiver unit will supply a particular signal to theECU. The ECU will control the electronic fuel injection system and reduce theflow of fuel in the engine. There would also be an electro-hydraulic Brakingsystem in the vehicle that would also be controlled by ECU. So one can reducethe speed of the automobile as according to needful. While the vehicle willbypass out the variety of the RFID tag microcontroller would be reset.
Foremergency or other condition there remains a reset button in the device thatresets the whole system. When the road is empty or the less speed is notrequired then the driver would puss the reset button, and the speed won’treduce and the driver will be able to pass the area with his desired speed. IV. SystemArchitectureThis RFID primarily based digital speedbreaker consists of 3 units. Transmitting, receiving & ECU (electroniccontrol unit).
The main parts of the complete gadget are – an RFID tag that ismixed by way of a chip and an antenna, a reader or RFID sensor along with amicrocontroller and another important phase is the database in which the factsabout the tagged item is stored. The fuel system of the engine is operated by afuel injector. Here remains the ECU (electronic control unit). The ECU controlstiming and quantity of the gas moving into the injector.
The ECU takes inputfrom the microcontroller and analyzes it. A miles rationalization of theunits are given below.A. Transmitting UnitA RFID tag is the main part of thetransmitting unit.
A chip and an antenna are the components of the tag. The chip contains information about the speedlimit and the antenna attached to the chip is responsible for transmittinginformation. RFID tag of different transmitting range is to be had. The transmitting range can be determined by the followingequation. (1)Where ? is the wavelength of the RF signaland are respectively the heights of the transmitterand the receiver. The RFID tag of sure variety ought to be selected asaccording to requisite. Using active RFID tags will be better for this system.
Theactive RFID tag needs an external strength supply. Right here we can use a sunpanel and a rechargeable battery with a view to be charged from the solarstrength. The active tag always sends signals.
Whilst a receiver comes into its range it absorbs the signal.Fig. 3. Block diagram of transmitting unit.B.
Receiving unit The receiving unit consists of a RFID sensorand a microcontroller. It is mainly attached in the corresponding vehicle. The signal received from the RFID tag used asthe microcontroller input. The microcontroller decodes the signal.
Here thesignal is processed by the microcontroller that goes to the ECU as input. An LCD display is attached on the dash boardof the vehicle that presentations the corresponding facts. There also remains areset button on the dashboard of the vehicle. By which the driver can distilthe whole system when needed. Fig. 4. Block diagram of recivingunit. C.
Electronic Control Unit (ECU) In this unit there will be two parts. One part will control fuel flow ofthe engine and another part will control the braking system. There would be amicrocontroller in the ECU. The input data is analysed according to the microcontrollerprogram fed and the output is produced to operate the electronic fuel controlsystem and the Electro-Hydraulic Braking System. 1) Electronic fuel control system:The fuel system provides theinjector with the fuel at consistent price and amount with certain top of theline pressure.
The ECU we use here controls the timing and amount of the fuelgetting into the injector. The ECU get the input, analyses it and based totallyon the requirement it presents the output. The fuel flow is being controlled bythis. When the signal for reducing the fuel comes the injector reduces theflow. The fuel pump is controlled by varying the pulse width according to theoutput of the ECU. From the fuel pump after passing through the filter it entersthe injector which substances the fuel to the engine.
The fuel supply directlycontrols the engine speed as well as the vehicle speed. Fig. 5. Block diagram of electronicfuel control system. 2) Electro-Hydraulic Braking System:The main advantage of this brakingsystem is that it does not affect the actual braking system provided in thevehicle.
This implemented within the car and handiest actuated if it comes intothe location of the RFID range. ECU output is connected to this proposed brakingsystem. This hydraulic system is accompanied with digital components to allowcoping with of brakes through alerts generated through the ECU. Fig. 6. Block diagram of Electro-Hydraulic Breaking system.
The circuit diagram of the transmitting unitand the receiving unit are given below.D. Circuit Diagram ofTransmitting UnitIn the followingcircuit diagram of transmitting unit each signboard contains a tag and a RFIDsensor. That sends the data to HT12E encoder that encodes the data and sendthrough the data transmitter TXD.Fig. 7. Circuit diagram of transmittingunit. E.
Circuit Diagram of Receiving UnitIn the receiving unit the RXD module isthe data receiver. The obtained records goes to the HT12D decoder. An LED isconnected to the decoder, which helps to realize that the device is working ornot. The decoder gives analog enter to the 89C51 microcontroller.
89C51 has 4KBof Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM) and 128 bytes ofRAM. A 2X16LCD display is working as the display unit. The audio unit includingplayback and recording IC APR9600 is likewise related to the microcontroller.The motor controlling unit is based on an EEPROM. Fig.8.
Circuit diagram of reciving unit. V. Resultsand DiscussionConsistent with the BRTA annualsite visitors coincidence file the average casualty quantity is 5953.2 10 andaccording toAccident Research Institute (ARI) of BUET speed reducers orvelocity breaker is liable for the 30% of the whole casualty 11. If weimplement the system this total 30% can be omitted. TABLE I. Total Accidents andCasualities (2006-2010) Year Total of accidents Death Serious Injury Simple Injury Total casualty (30% of total) 2006 3794 3193 1888 521 5602 1681 2007 4869 3749 2734 539 7022 2107 2008 4427 3765 2720 564 7049 2115 2009 3381 2958 2223 463 5644 1693 2010 2827 2646 1389 414 4449 1335 For instance inside the year 2010 total casualty was 44491. After the use of the proposed speed breaker it would be approximately 1335.
So, about 1335 casualties could bereduced that time. If we are able to put into effect the gadget there can be afew device loss because of different futile. We can assume 20% system loss. Ifsuch, we could save 1068 people. And the casualties would be 3381. So this system can be helpful for the BRTA.Casualties using RFID based Virtual Speed Breaker Year Without speed breakers (casualty) System Loss (20%) People could be saved (without SB –system loss ) Total casualties Casualties (if we would use the system) 2006 1681 336.
2 1344.8 5602 4257.2 2007 2107 421.4 1685.6 7022 5336.4 2008 2115 423 1692 7049 5357 2009 1693 338.
6 1354.4 5644 4289.6 2010 1335 267 1068 4449 3381 Fig. 9.
Circuit diagram of recivingunit. The following chartindicates the result of the usage of RFID based totally virtual pace breaker.The red curve shows the total causalities till 2010 from 2006. The greencurve indicates the possibly end result of wide variety of the causalities ifthe RFID based digital velocity breaker become used and the blue curveindicates the wide variety of individuals who can be saved.. VI. ConclusionThis is concluded that the RFID basedvirtual speed breaker system is easier to implement instead of the traditionalspeed breakers. The cost of implementation is low and the system is durable.
Thisguarantees maximum safety to passengers and public.. It additionally loose thevehicle from excess friction and saves the automobile particle from frictionlosses. The drivers get all information about the road without distracting himfrom driving and gets even in bad weather or low power consumption. It can beimplemented for the roads and highways of Bangladesh for the safety anddigitalization of the transportation systems .
AcknowledgmentSpecialthanks to Dr. Engr. Farid Uddin, Dr.
Raton Kumar Nondy, Dr. Engr. Syed FaruqueAhammed, Dr. Engr. Mahbub Ali, Engr. Md.
Shahid Iqbal, A. S. M. Forhadul Alam,Saqibul Amin, Md. Muin Uddin for their cordial help.
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