Robin YamaguchiMath 13March 21, 1999 Essay, Research PaperRene DescartesIn the recent hit film The Net, the character played by Sandra Bullock has her individuality erased. Everyone doubted her being.
This was non, nevertheless, the first clip person & # 8217 ; s being was questioned. In the early seventeenth century a philosopher, who is named Descartes, questioned his ain being. His life was dedicated to the initiation of a philosophical and mathematical system in which all scientific disciplines were consistent.
Descartes was born in 1596 in Touraine, France. His instruction consisted of attending to a Jesuit school of La Fleche. He studied a broad humanistic disciplines plan which emphasized doctrine, the humanistic disciplines, scientific discipline, and math. He so went on to the University of Poitiers where he graduated in 1616 with a jurisprudence grade.
Descartes besides served as a voluntary in several different ground forcess to broaden his horizons.After all of Descartes & # 8217 ; survey and contemplation of math and scientific discipline, he decided to happen a individual rule without uncertainty on which to construct cognition. His intent in life became the development of a metaphysical theory that would turn out the mathematical truth he had found. His analytical system of uncertainty led him to doubt everything in the universe. He eventually reached the decision that everything can be doubted except for one thing, his ain being. Even this was called into uncertainty and found true. Descartes rationalized that by doubting his ain being, he was believing.
If he was believing, so he must be bing. Then he contemplated whether he was awake or asleep. If he was asleep, so he was woolgathering that he was believing and hence non bing. He decided that one could utilize sense perceptual experience to recognize if one was awake of asleep. Finally he concluded, & # 8220 ; I think, therefore I am.
& # 8221 ; This became the footing for his full system of beliefs. Descartes & # 8217 ; statement for being was called & # 8220 ; cogito ergo sum. & # 8221 ; All of Descartes philosophical statements were made by analytical agencies. He deduced the decision. Harmonizing to Descartes, one & # 8217 ; s being must be because they can non non be. By stating that one does non be, that individual is believing and therefore projecting their ideas through address and must be.
Thereby, he proved by the converse statement of nonentity that he does be. Descartes did distinguish between bing and being, nevertheless, this will non be addressed accept to be mentioned.Next, Descartes must turn out the being of an omnipotent and perfect being. He reasoned that he is non perfect. Then the fact that a perfect thing exists. If he exists and is non perfect so that which is perfect besides exists. He says that this thing which is perfect is God. He says God exists because of his ideas of God as an extension of God & # 8217 ; s being.
After farther philosophical logical thinking he proved the being of God. His cogent evidence of God has become the authoritative ontological cogent evidence used of all time since. Descartes farther proved that God can non lead on anyone refering anything.
This cogent evidence was necessary in order to continue on to other subjects such as the universe and it & # 8217 ; s beginnings and Torahs. His God must besides be almighty to make the things he wished to depict subsequently, so he proved God to be almighty. The chief literary work in which he published these cogent evidence was his Meditations. The other major philosophical work, which was publishing house subsequently, was his Discourse on Method. These two chief plants have paved the way for modern doctrine throughout the universe. Although Descartes proved the being of God, he did non believe him to be at hand, but instead, transcendent. He was by definition a Deist.
He believed that God created the universe and the Torahs by which it works. Then, set the universe in gesture by these natural Torahs and merely watches it operate.Once Descartes proved his ain being and that of God & # 8217 ; s, he proceeded on to the scientific disciplines. He showed that mathematics was the truest of all scientific disciplines.
Descartes studied math intensely at the Jesuit school. His ardor for the topic continued into his ulterior life. Gradually, he became more and more fed up with the current system of math. He sought to revise it and ended up revolutionising it. Math today is based upon the Cartesian system. He is called the & # 8220 ; Father of Modern Mathematics & # 8221 ; for several grounds. His major part is the application of algebra to geometry. In his treatise, Geometry, Descartes reveals his analytic geometry.
Analytic geometry allows any curve to be addressed from an algebraic position by agencies of a co-ordinate system. This is taught to all get downing math pupils as the ten, y plane. Any point, a Euclidian geometry vague term, can be written by it & # 8217 ; s ten place and it & # 8217 ; s y place.
These places are measured comparative to the x-axis and the y-axis severally. This is known as the Cartesian Coordinate System. From this simple beginning comes more complex thoughts. The equation of a line can now be know with merely two points, a pointand the incline of the line, or by the incline and the point at which the line crosses the y-axis, cognize as the Y intercept.
This in bend leads to quadratics and trigonometrics and so forth. All this allows curves to be studied in footings of their algebraic belongingss. Descartes’ other major mathematical part was the development of a stenography notation for involution. Involution is the perennial generation of a given figure, therefore the notation was the advocate. Previously, involution was boring. With the development of the advocate, larger Numberss could be written with greater easiness. This finally led to the development of scientific notation which is a figure multiplied by a power of 10.
Descartes ushered in the modern age of mathematics.Rene Descartes besides contributed to other scientific disciplines. He studied the circulation of the blood at the same clip as Harvey. He performed many dissections of animate beings. It is rumored that person asked to see his library and he pointed to a half cleft calf. The decisions he reached were really similar to Harvey’s. Descartes discussed affair and regarded it as an extension of the head. Similar to this is his position on heat, colour, olfactory property, and other sense perceptual experiences.
He said that they are merely existing in one’s head. Two people do non see the same colour, feel the same heat, smell the same olfactory property, or anything else precisely the same. Therefore, these perceptual experiences merely have affair and exist in one’s mind.The personal life of Rene Descartes was a privy 1. He lived in the state and he kept his topographic point of abode a secret. Merely his closest friends knew his whereabouts.
He corresponded with his friends on a regular basis. One twenty-four hours a hebdomad was set apart as correspondence twenty-four hours. Much of his clip was spent contemplating the universe. The rubric of his first published work was really appropriately called Meditations.
His publications were handled by a friend in the metropolis. Descartes published several plants anonymously. About this same clip Galileo was found to be a heretic and Descartes would likely hold been excessively had he non been so sly. He smartly proposed a heliocentric theory every bit good as an evolutionary theory without being caught.A letter writer of Descartes’ was related to the queen of Sweden.
This friend relayed the cognition to the queen who was intrigued. She sent a war vessel and an invitation to Descartes to see her in Sweden. After much argument, Descartes agreed. He was required to lift early in the forenoon and learn the queen doctrine.
He was non happy with his life at that place and longed for his place. In February of 1650, while nursing an ailment friend, Rene Descartes caught pneumonia and died. Much of his work was subsequently published by his other correspondents.Behind was left a bequest of philosophical idea that continues today.
The modern rationalistic motion was founded by Descartes. It is devoted to the rapprochement between the mechanical universe and the religious God. Other members of this group include Spinoza and Leibniz. Descartes besides inspired the Philosophes. These are Gallic philosophers dedicated to the domination of human ground, popularisation of scientific discipline, and political and economic reform. Other members of this motion were Voltaire and Montesquieu.
From Descartes’ early scholastic accomplishments he was destined for illustriousness. He is known as the “Father of Modern Mathematics” and the “Father of Modern Rationalism.” His system of deductive logical thinking has been adapted to about every field of survey. His major parts to the field of math were the Cartesian co-ordinate system, the advocate, and the development of analytical geometry.
His major parts to the field of doctrine were the “cogito, ” the system of uncertainty, and the classical ontological cogent evidence of God. Descartes has influenced thought throughout the ages. His plants, particularly Meditations, Geometry, and his Discourse on Method have become classics. Rene Descartes, although he died at the premature age of 54, was a great mathematician and philosopher good disciplined in all genres. He will ever be best remembered for turn outing his ain being by the statement, “I think, therefore I am.
”Plants ConsultedCantor, Norman F. and Peter L. Klein, eds. Seventeenth-Century Rationalism: Bacon And Descartes. London: Blaisdell, 1969.Kenny, Anthony. Descartes: A survey of his Philosophy. New York: Random House, 1968.
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