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Roman History Essay, Research Paper


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The Land

Italy is a peninsula stick outing out into the Medditerranean sea West of Greece. Italy

has hapless mineral resources and really few utile seaports, nevertheless it is wealty in both

fertile land and precipitation. Three & # 8211 ; quarters of the peninsula is covered in foothills

and mountains. The Alps, a mountian scope to the North of Italy, cut off the peninsulas

merely land connexion, which resulted, in the times of Ancient Rome, in the people

trading amonst themselves.

The Early People of Rome

The Etruscans were cryptic people who settled on the Italian Peninsula

someplace between 900 and 800 BC. No 1 is truly certain about their beginning,

nevertheless archeologists suspect that they came from the eastern Medditerannean. The

Etruscans ruled in north-eastern Italy, between the Appentine mountian scope and the

Tyrrhenian Sea. Their civilisation streched from the Arno River in the North to the Tiber

River which is more towards the centre of the Italian Peninsula. Te Tiber River is where

the Roman Empire would sit old ages subsequently.

The Etruscans lived in independent city states. In the earliest times, these

city states were ruled by a monarchy, but were subsequently ruled by oligarchies that governed

through a coucil and elected functionaries. The Etruscans were mostly agricultural people,

nevertheless they besides had a strong miliatary, which they used to rule Te environing

societies. These dominated populations were forced by the Etruscans to make their

ricultural labour, which left clip for the Etruscans to give to commerce and industry.

They were sophisticated people, with and alphebet based on the Grecian

alphabet, an original manner in sculpture and picture, a faith based on homos like

Gods, and a complicated set of rites which they performed yearly.

While the Etruscans were concentrating on constructing their power over all of Italy

and prosecuting in commercialism, a metropolis to their south began to the grow. This metropolis seemed to

immitate the Etruscans in many ways. This new land was the Roman Kingdom.

The Rise of the Roman Empire

The Tiber River is critical for the trade of cardinal Italty. Along the Bankss of the Tiber

River lies seven hills. The Palatine, the most importnat of all these hills, is where

Roman civilization was founded in 753 BC.

Around 620 BC, the Etruscans gained control of Rome. At this clip Rome

developed into a monarchy. Some early male monarchs of Rome were Priscus, Tullius, and

Superbus. Under the regulation of the Tarquins, a affluent Etruscan household, the Roman

learned how to construct their houses utilizing brick and tile. They besides derained the marshy

Lowlandss which surrounded Rome and layed out streets, created a metropolis square, and

built temples. All of these things made Rome go one of the wealthiest metropoliss in


In 1534, Superbus, better known as Tarquin the Proud, came to the throne to

regulation over Rome. Due to his tyranncy, the enraged Romans threw the Targuins out of

Rome and the high households of Rome formed and oligarchic democracy.

During this clip in Pome, there were two societal groups. The patricians were

members of the affluent blue category in Rome, nevertheless patricians weren? t a really

big part of Rome? s inhabitiants. A big bulk of Rome? s people were plebian

and these people were nonarictocratic. Most plebeans were merchandisers, tradesmans,

husbandmans, and labourers. As Roman citizens, both categories had the right to vote, had to

wage revenue enhancements, and both had to function in the armed forces. However, plebeians could non keep a

authorities office.

Rome? s authorities was organized, by the patricians, into two subdivisions,

exectuive and legislative. The legislative subdivision consisted of an Assembly of Centuries

and the Senate. The Senate was a group dwelling of 300 patricians who served for

life. The Senate over ruled the Assembly of the Centuries. They besides advised the

consuls of the executive subdivision, peoposed Torahs, and over saw route building, the

edifice of temples, and the armed forces. The Assembly of the Centuries elected the

functionaries of the exectutive subdivision. The executive subdivision was headed by two consuls,

who were elected for annual footings. These consuls would work together to supervise

the othr exectutive officals, such as Judgess, censors, revenue enhancement keepers, and the keepers of

population records. During times of crisis, the Romans would name a dictator who

ruled over all of the executive functionaries, even the consuls. However, these dictators

would merely function for a short sum of clip when they were needed.

In 494 BC, the plebeians became angry about their deficiency of power in the democracy.

Many of them refused to function in the miliatary unless thier demands for alteration was

met by the patricians. In 1451 BC, the patricians granted the plebians their want.

Engraved on 12 bronzy tablets, was the written jurisprudence of codification for Rome which ensured

that all calsses would be treated as peers. These 12 tabular arraies became known as The

Twelve Tablets, and they became the footing of all future Roman jurisprudence.


The household was really of import in Roman society. Roman households were really

big, dwelling of all single kids, married boies and their households, all

dependent relations, and the family slaves. The male parent of the household was in charge

of everything. He controlled belongings, performed spiritual ceremonials, and supervised

his boy? s instructions. He besides had the right to sell any of the members of his household to

bondage, or even kill them. Roman adult females had few legal rights. The ran the usual house

keep job that most adult females do, such as the selling and supervising their

families. However, some Roman adult females did aquire belongings and some wealty

adult females had slaves to work in their houses. The kids of the faimlies were tought by

their parents to read and compose. The male parents taught their boies how to farm and thrive,

while the female parents of the households taught their girls how to over see the family.


Early Roman worshiped liquors of nature. These liquors were thought of as Gods

and goddesses. The Romans had rites which they would execute for thier divinities. The

Romans besides believed in luck stating. They would frequently travel to forecasters, better

known as luck Tellers, to state them of what was to come in the hereafter. Families ALSs

oprivately worshipped particular liquors of their ain from the Roman faith.

Military Sucess in Rome

Rome? s potency as a major power increased as Celt and Etrucian invasions

were fought off in the 390? s BC. Rome had a major sucess in 396 BC when Veii, an

Etrucian metropolis near to Rome, was won over after a long conflict. It was going obvious

that Rome was an enlargement in power and this angered many of Rome? s Latin Alliess.

In 264 BC, Carthage threatened to prehend the Straight of Messina. So, the

Romans sent a force to procure the waterway. When they did, a war began. The

Romans? army conquered most of the settlements of Carthage in Sisily. However, the

Carthaginians had an advantage when it came to naval conflicts and this gave Carthage

an advantage. The Romans built a larger fleet and in a conflict off of the African seashore,

the Romans pulled a surprise onslaught on Carthage by get oning their boats and battle

hangd to manus combat. This rocedthe Cathaginians into a retreat and in 241 BC, the

Carthaginians surrendered and agreed to pay the Romans for the dmages they had

caused. They ne’er gained bakc the sea or the metropoliss in Sicily that they had lost.

In 221 BC, a immature solider named Hannibal became general of the Cataginian

ground forces in Spain. In 219 BC, Hannibal took over one of Rome? s allied metropoliss in Spain.

Then, he decided to take war into Italy. He formed a immense ground forces, dwelling of 40,000

work forces and 40 elephants. He palnned to take his soliders over the Alps to Italy. However,

before they reached Italy, half of his soliders were killed by famishment, illness, the

cold, and onslaughts by the mountain people. Although they were outnumbered, Hannibals

military personnels defeated all of the Roman ground forcess that were sent against them. In 216 BC,

Hannibal about defeated the Romans in conflict. However, the Romans found

volenteers who were willing to assist the licking Hannibal and shortly, Scipio, the Roman

general, and his forces defeated Hannibal. This triumph force the Carthaginians to give

up most of thier war vessels, all of their land in Spain, and they had to pay for amendss

once more.

In 146, the Romans decided to wholly make away with Carthage and it? s

people. So, the Romans burned Carthage, sold it? s people to slavery, and sowed salt

into their dirts so that no harvests would turn. This gave Rome complete regulation over the


After suppressing all, Rome found that its actuating intent was now gone and

suffered legion internal troubles. Rome? s conquerings had brought 1000s of

prisoners and captives of war to Rome to work as slaves, hence slave labour was

cheap. Soon, slave labour began to replace paid labour and due to a deficiency of emplyment,

little husbandman and rural workers poured into the metropoliss of Rome seeking occupations. Jobs, of

class weren? T available, hence a new category formed in the metropoliss of Rome, the urban,

landless hapless. Revolts began to interrupt out amonst the slaves, nevertheless these were

ne’er sucessful. As force in Rome increased many people tried to suggest reforms

which would contract the societal spread in Rome. In 133 BC, Graccus Brotehrs led a popular

motion for a land reform, syaing that they should take the land of the rich and give

some of it to the hapless. However, the Roman Senate opposed both brother? s reforms

and they were both killed combat for thier cause.

Gaius Marius, a strong general in Rome, did alot to transferpower to the Roman

ground forces during those times. Then, and adult male named Sulla, drove Marius out of power and

he appointed himself dictator.

In 59 BC, the First Triumvirate, dwelling of Julius Caesar, Crassus, and

Pompey came to power when Caesar was elected consul. Soon, Caesar was appointed

general of the Roman ground forces. Caesar was a smart adult male and he knew how to lift to power

rapidly in Rome, through the military. Caesar waged a series of superb military

campains and he added a big sum of district to the Roman Empire in Belgium,

Frnace, and even Southern Great Britian. When he had finished his conquerings,

nevertheless, the Triumvirate had dissolved. Crassus had died in conflict, and Pompey had

turned against Caesar and had besides turned the Senate against him every bit good. The Senate

declared Caesar an anemy of the province and they demandedthat he had over his

generalship at one time. Caesar, nevertheless, had other programs. His military personnels were really loyal to

him, so in 49 BC, Caesar waged a Civil war against Pompey. In 48 BC, Caesar won the

war and Pompey was out of the image. In 46 BC, Caesar returned to Rome and had

the SEnate appoint him dicator for 10 old ages. Two old ages subsequently he was appointeddictator

for life, and he was above nad beyond all Torahs of Rome. HOwever, shortly after Caesar

appointed himself dictator for life, his regulation began to look like a monarchy, which was

against the Roman Republican tradition. In 44 BC, on March 15, a group of

conspiritors, led by Cassius Longinus and Marcus Brutus, assasinated Caesar as he

entered the Senate in his usual mannor.

After Caesar? s decease, his grand-nephew, Octavion joined with Marc Anthony and

Marcus Lepidus, two of Caesar? s authorities officers. In 42 BC, the 2nd triunvirate

defeated Caesar? s asassins. Then, these three generals divided the ROman Emipre

into three equal parts, one subdivision for each of them to govern. Soon, the 2nd triunvirate

began to fall apart, jsut as the frist one did. Octavian forced Lepidus into retirement,

and shortly after when Anthony married Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt, Octavion

convinced the Romans that Anthony intended to govern them wi

th his foreign queen.

Octavion so declared war on Anthony in Romes name. A twelvemonth subsequently, Anothony and

Cleopatra kill themselves in Egypt to get away Octavious. With Anthony dead, Octavion

became swayer of Rome. This would tag the beginning of the Roman Empire.

The Roman Empire

Under the Roman Republic, military generals had taken power off from

elected functionaries. This made Octavion believe taht Rome needed a really strong leader.

The Senate agreed with him and in 27 BC, they appointed him consul, tribune, and

commanding officer in head for life. He so changed his name to Augustus.

With the coming of the Roman Empire, nil truly changed in Roman

freedom and equality. Augustus, nevertheless, was on a mission to reconstruct order to Rome

and to even out equality in the imperium. Augusus is in many manner considered to be

Rome? s greatest leader. Augustus radically reformed the authorities to control

corruptness. He besides extended Roman citizen ship to all Italians. He resettled his soliders

onto farming area, to guarantee that adequate harvests would be grown to feed the Roman people

in times of crisis. He changed the armed forces from being a volenteer ground forces to a standing

professional ground forces ; Rome and it? s states became a constabulary province. For the first clip,

Rome bagan to construct it? s imperium, and the states settled down into peace and

prosparity. On top of all of these great accomplishments, Augustus did even more for

Rome. He began a huge undertaking of edifice and backing of the humanistic disciplines, and Roman

civilization florished into a roar of creativeness which would do this clip period stand out

as the greatest cultural period in the history of Rome. The age of Augustus is known as

the Golden Age of Roman Literature, because during this clip some of the greaest

poets of Rome flourished. Ausutus besides patronised art and sculpture with the same

passion that he patronised literature. He began tremendous undertakings edifice temples,

such as the Temple of Apollo, and the Roman Forum.

When Augustus died in 14 AD, Tiberius & # 8211 ; Augustus? chosen inheritor & # 8211 ; took the

throne. However, he spoiled his regulation by impeaching many guiltless people of lese majesty

against him and he withdrew himself from office. Caligula was murdered in 41 AD and

the emperor? s escorts forced the Senate to accept another emperor, Claudius. He

did much to do the office of emperor solid. Claudius besides won many triumphs in

Britain in the twelvemonth 43 AD.

It is believed that Claudius? married woman Agrippina poisoned him to let her boy Nero to

travel up to the thrown. Once emperor, Nero had his female parent killed, persecuted

Christains, and perchance arranged the combustion of Rome which occurred in 64 AD. He

built a great castle in the centre of Rome? s debris with a elephantine stature of himself inside.

When Spain revolted against him, Nero committed suicide. This ended the Augustus

reign and Sulpicius Galba, governor of Spain, took office.

Rome was in changeless Civil War in 68 AD as the throne changed custodies four

times. In 70 AD the emperor Titus captured Jerusalem. His brother Domitian followed

him. After the decease of Nerva in 97, Trajan, Hadrian, the Antonine emperors, and the

Severan emperors reigned in a clip of peace. Many edifices and statues were built in

Northern Africa during this clip. The Colosseum and the Pantheon were besides built in

Rome. The emperors during this clip are known as the Good Emperors. They include

Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. The imperium came to the

tallness of its economic prosperity during this clip.

Roman Rule

The Roman Empire had grown to between 70 and 100 million citizens by the

clip Augustus had come to power in 27 B.C. It is hard to govern so many people

without an effectivly run authorities. Changes had to be made.

Augustus chose professional governors instead than allowing the Senate appoint

inexperient proconsuls every twelvemonth. In Judea he left local male monarchs in charge. He besides

ordered new roads built so that he could remain in touch with all parts of the imperium. He

besides visited the countries frequently. Augustus dignified his ain place by functioning as pontifex

maximus, main priest of Rome. This made himself and each emperor to come became

caput of a national, consolidative faith.

As the imperium grew, the Romans felt they needed a new sort of jurisprudence that would

apply to foreigners. They created the jus gentium, or jurisprudence that dealt with foreigners,

as opposed to the jus civile, or citizen jurisprudence. By the early 200? s A.D. emperors had given

citizenship to the peoples of so many nearby states that all free males in the imperium

had been made full citizens of Rome, therefore doing the two Torahs one.

Romans normally emphasize the authorization of the province over the person. They

besides gave people definite legal rights, one of which was that an accused individual should

be considered guiltless until proved guilty. This system, foremost used by the Romans, is

the foundation for the legal systems of many Western states.

Augustus and subsequently emperors kept the professional ground forces. When peace prevailed

for a long period of clip, Augustus reduced the figure of hosts and built up the

contending force with military personnels recruited from the provincial peoples. There were merely about

300,000 military personnels, which was non plenty to support a boundary line with a length of 4,000 stat mis.

Because of this, by 160 A.D. invasions by peoples outside the imperium had become a

job to be delt with every twenty-four hours.


Roman Peace was dominate from 31 B.C. to A.D. 180. Great prosperity and

stableness boosted trade and raised the criterion of life for most citizens of the Empire.

To state that things were really good was non an understatement. Humanistic disciplines such as Italian

clayware, woven fabric, blown glass and jewellery went on sale to all people. Luxury points

like silk and spices from Southeast Asia was avaliable.. But with the prosperity came

many alterations in the life styles of mundane citizens. The household became less important

than it had been in the yesteryear. Romans had fewer kids and divorced and remarried

frequently. In a nutshell, society became less stable.

With these alterations came a form of life & # 8230 ; affluent people frequently held public

office, owned big farms, and by and large had more influence over things. They besides

lived more comfortably in big places and farms. THe in-between category grew.

Shopkeepers and craftsmans grew in figure, but most Roman citizens remained hapless,

life in moth-eaten flat edifices that frequently fell or burned down. But, depsite these

conditions, the hapless did non revolt against the authorities because it gave them free

staff of life and amusement. It was during this clip that chariot races became really

popular in Rome. It seemed that the Romans were concentrated on holding a good clip

than really working on breaking themselves.

The Appian Way, the first major Roman route, was built in the 300? s B.C. It

connected Rome and southeasterly Italy. Many roads were built during this clip to associate

Rome with the states. This helped unify the imperium.

Aqueducts, unreal channels for transporting H2O, were constructed by Roman

applied scientists. This was a elephantine breakrthrough toward modern H2O direction.

Equally far as instruction goes in the Roman EMpire, affluent male childs and misss received

private lessons at place. The affluent immature work forces went on to analyze at academies where

former Greek slaves frequently taught. They learned geometry, uranology, doctrine and

oratory. Girls continued to analyze at place, non in academies, and were merely every bit educated

as the male childs. Even childs in the lower categories had some instruction. They learned the

basic reading, composing and arithmetic accomplishments needed to carry on concern.

Latin was the linguistic communication of the Roman Empire. I had a vocabulary far smaller

than that of Greek or modern English. Many words ment the same thing. Latin signifiers

the footing of many Romantic linguistic communications such as Italian, Gallic, Spanish, and

Lusitanian. It besides is the root for half of all ENglish words.

Rome and Christianity

Early Romans worshiped nature liquors. Soon these liquors turned to divinities.

Subsequently, much of the Greek faith was taken on by the Romans. Deities still remained

an of import portion of their spiritual belief. Roman citizens were expected to honour the

emperor as Rome? s head priest. But they were besides allowed to idolize freely so many

faiths grew.

Christian religion was one of those faiths. It sprang up in the eastern

Mediterranean among the Judaic people. At first it was thought to be merely a religious order, or

group, within Judaism. But as Christains converted non-Jewish followings, the religion

grew beyond its Judaic roots and became a new faith.

Those practising the new Christain faith in Judea were allowed to idolize as

they wished, but were treated severely by the Roman EMpire. Christains believed that

their God would present them from Roman regulation so they rebelled against the Roman

ground forces in Jerusalem and overpowered them in A.D. 66. Another unsuccessful rebellion

followed. This caused the Romans to coerce the Jews out of Jeruselum, doing them to

spread and live in other parts of the Mediterranean and the Middle East.

Before the rebellions, a adult male from Nazareth named Jesus brought his message

of love and forgivness to the people of Galilee and Judea. THe adherents that survived

after Jesus was put to decease as a political Rebel rapidly dispersed Christianity among

gentiles. It is believed that one of those deciples, Peter, really established the first

Christain church in Rome. But Christains were persecuted. THe Romans were afraid

that Christain instructions rejected their divinities. Many Christains were killed during this

clip. Romans often threw Christain sufferer into the bowls to be killed by wild

animate beings in forepart of heartening crowds. THis was a popular amusement for Romans

during this clip.

THe Roman general Constantine did much to distribute CHristainity among the

Romans. He claimed that he had a vision in which the symbol of the cross had great

power to take him to triumph in conflict. He ordered his soldiers to paint the Christain

symbol of the cross on their shields. WHen he won, he called it a triumph for the

Christain God.

He became emperor of Rome in A.D. 312. He began protecting Christainity and

those who practiced it. He even ordered churches to be built in Rome and Jerusalem.

During this clip missional work flurished with the support of the authorities. Many

churches were built and Christianity increased its influence in the Roman universe. In

A.D. 392 the Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official faith of the Roman

Empire. He banned the old Hellenistic and Roman faiths.

Early on on Christians realized that in order to thrive they had to be organized.

THey wrote down their beliefs clearly in order to avoid differences of sentiment that might

divide the church. Important work forces of faith attempted to explicate Christian beliefs.

THey were known as Church Fathers. Augustine, a bookman born in North Africa in A.D.

354, was one of the most well-thought-of of the spiritual bookmans. He became a taking

church functionary in North Africa. He wrote many influential letters, verse forms and discourses.

As the Christian church grew it began to form itself into a hierarchy. It? s

degrees of authorization was built with each degree being more powerful than the one below it.

Local assemblages, known as parishes, were led by priests. Several parishes got

together to organize diocese, each overseen by a bishop. THese bishops interpreted

Christian beliefs for the people. Bishops from the major metropoliss such as Rome were

known as patriarchs. These work forces were really powerful, finding what beliefs were

true and what were fals philosophy. In the 400s A.D. the bishop of Rome began to believe

he was more powerful than the other bishops & # 8230 ; that he should hold more say in the

church? s personal businesss. Today the bishop of Rome is known the Pope.