Roman History Essay, Research PaperRomaThe LandItaly is a peninsula stick outing out into the Medditerranean sea West of Greece. Italyhas hapless mineral resources and really few utile seaports, nevertheless it is wealty in bothfertile land and precipitation. Three & # 8211 ; quarters of the peninsula is covered in foothillsand mountains. The Alps, a mountian scope to the North of Italy, cut off the peninsulasmerely land connexion, which resulted, in the times of Ancient Rome, in the peopletrading amonst themselves.The Early People of RomeThe Etruscans were cryptic people who settled on the Italian Peninsulasomeplace between 900 and 800 BC. No 1 is truly certain about their beginning,nevertheless archeologists suspect that they came from the eastern Medditerannean. TheEtruscans ruled in north-eastern Italy, between the Appentine mountian scope and theTyrrhenian Sea. Their civilisation streched from the Arno River in the North to the TiberRiver which is more towards the centre of the Italian Peninsula.

Te Tiber River is wherethe Roman Empire would sit old ages subsequently.The Etruscans lived in independent city states. In the earliest times, thesecity states were ruled by a monarchy, but were subsequently ruled by oligarchies that governedthrough a coucil and elected functionaries. The Etruscans were mostly agricultural people,nevertheless they besides had a strong miliatary, which they used to rule Te environingsocieties. These dominated populations were forced by the Etruscans to make theirricultural labour, which left clip for the Etruscans to give to commerce and industry.They were sophisticated people, with and alphebet based on the Grecianalphabet, an original manner in sculpture and picture, a faith based on homos likeGods, and a complicated set of rites which they performed yearly.While the Etruscans were concentrating on constructing their power over all of Italyand prosecuting in commercialism, a metropolis to their south began to the grow.

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This metropolis seemed toimmitate the Etruscans in many ways. This new land was the Roman Kingdom.The Rise of the Roman EmpireThe Tiber River is critical for the trade of cardinal Italty. Along the Bankss of the TiberRiver lies seven hills. The Palatine, the most importnat of all these hills, is whereRoman civilization was founded in 753 BC.Around 620 BC, the Etruscans gained control of Rome.

At this clip Romedeveloped into a monarchy. Some early male monarchs of Rome were Priscus, Tullius, andSuperbus. Under the regulation of the Tarquins, a affluent Etruscan household, the Romanlearned how to construct their houses utilizing brick and tile. They besides derained the marshyLowlandss which surrounded Rome and layed out streets, created a metropolis square, andbuilt temples.

All of these things made Rome go one of the wealthiest metropoliss inItaly.In 1534, Superbus, better known as Tarquin the Proud, came to the throne toregulation over Rome. Due to his tyranncy, the enraged Romans threw the Targuins out ofRome and the high households of Rome formed and oligarchic democracy.During this clip in Pome, there were two societal groups. The patricians weremembers of the affluent blue category in Rome, nevertheless patricians weren? t a reallybig part of Rome? s inhabitiants. A big bulk of Rome? s people were plebianand these people were nonarictocratic. Most plebeans were merchandisers, tradesmans,husbandmans, and labourers.

As Roman citizens, both categories had the right to vote, had towage revenue enhancements, and both had to function in the armed forces. However, plebeians could non keep aauthorities office.Rome? s authorities was organized, by the patricians, into two subdivisions,exectuive and legislative. The legislative subdivision consisted of an Assembly of Centuriesand the Senate.

The Senate was a group dwelling of 300 patricians who served forlife. The Senate over ruled the Assembly of the Centuries. They besides advised theconsuls of the executive subdivision, peoposed Torahs, and over saw route building, theedifice of temples, and the armed forces. The Assembly of the Centuries elected thefunctionaries of the exectutive subdivision. The executive subdivision was headed by two consuls,who were elected for annual footings. These consuls would work together to supervisethe othr exectutive officals, such as Judgess, censors, revenue enhancement keepers, and the keepers ofpopulation records.

During times of crisis, the Romans would name a dictator whoruled over all of the executive functionaries, even the consuls. However, these dictatorswould merely function for a short sum of clip when they were needed.In 494 BC, the plebeians became angry about their deficiency of power in the democracy.

Many of them refused to function in the miliatary unless thier demands for alteration wasmet by the patricians. In 1451 BC, the patricians granted the plebians their want.Engraved on 12 bronzy tablets, was the written jurisprudence of codification for Rome which ensuredthat all calsses would be treated as peers. These 12 tabular arraies became known as TheTwelve Tablets, and they became the footing of all future Roman jurisprudence.FamilyThe household was really of import in Roman society. Roman households were reallybig, dwelling of all single kids, married boies and their households, alldependent relations, and the family slaves. The male parent of the household was in chargeof everything. He controlled belongings, performed spiritual ceremonials, and supervisedhis boy? s instructions.

He besides had the right to sell any of the members of his household tobondage, or even kill them. Roman adult females had few legal rights. The ran the usual housekeep job that most adult females do, such as the selling and supervising theirfamilies. However, some Roman adult females did aquire belongings and some wealtyadult females had slaves to work in their houses. The kids of the faimlies were tought bytheir parents to read and compose. The male parents taught their boies how to farm and thrive,while the female parents of the households taught their girls how to over see the family.ReligionEarly Roman worshiped liquors of nature. These liquors were thought of as Godsand goddesses.

The Romans had rites which they would execute for thier divinities. TheRomans besides believed in luck stating. They would frequently travel to forecasters, betterknown as luck Tellers, to state them of what was to come in the hereafter.

Families ALSsoprivately worshipped particular liquors of their ain from the Roman faith.Military Sucess in RomeRome? s potency as a major power increased as Celt and Etrucian invasionswere fought off in the 390? s BC. Rome had a major sucess in 396 BC when Veii, anEtrucian metropolis near to Rome, was won over after a long conflict. It was going obviousthat Rome was an enlargement in power and this angered many of Rome? s Latin Alliess.

In 264 BC, Carthage threatened to prehend the Straight of Messina. So, theRomans sent a force to procure the waterway. When they did, a war began.

TheRomans? army conquered most of the settlements of Carthage in Sisily. However, theCarthaginians had an advantage when it came to naval conflicts and this gave Carthagean advantage. The Romans built a larger fleet and in a conflict off of the African seashore,the Romans pulled a surprise onslaught on Carthage by get oning their boats and battlehangd to manus combat. This rocedthe Cathaginians into a retreat and in 241 BC, theCarthaginians surrendered and agreed to pay the Romans for the dmages they hadcaused. They ne’er gained bakc the sea or the metropoliss in Sicily that they had lost.In 221 BC, a immature solider named Hannibal became general of the Cataginianground forces in Spain. In 219 BC, Hannibal took over one of Rome? s allied metropoliss in Spain.Then, he decided to take war into Italy.

He formed a immense ground forces, dwelling of 40,000work forces and 40 elephants. He palnned to take his soliders over the Alps to Italy. However,before they reached Italy, half of his soliders were killed by famishment, illness, thecold, and onslaughts by the mountain people. Although they were outnumbered, Hannibalsmilitary personnels defeated all of the Roman ground forcess that were sent against them. In 216 BC,Hannibal about defeated the Romans in conflict.

However, the Romans foundvolenteers who were willing to assist the licking Hannibal and shortly, Scipio, the Romangeneral, and his forces defeated Hannibal. This triumph force the Carthaginians to giveup most of thier war vessels, all of their land in Spain, and they had to pay for amendssonce more.In 146, the Romans decided to wholly make away with Carthage and it? speople. So, the Romans burned Carthage, sold it? s people to slavery, and sowed saltinto their dirts so that no harvests would turn. This gave Rome complete regulation over theMedditerraniean.After suppressing all, Rome found that its actuating intent was now gone andsuffered legion internal troubles. Rome? s conquerings had brought 1000s ofprisoners and captives of war to Rome to work as slaves, hence slave labour wascheap. Soon, slave labour began to replace paid labour and due to a deficiency of emplyment,little husbandman and rural workers poured into the metropoliss of Rome seeking occupations.

Jobs, ofclass weren? T available, hence a new category formed in the metropoliss of Rome, the urban,landless hapless. Revolts began to interrupt out amonst the slaves, nevertheless these werene’er sucessful. As force in Rome increased many people tried to suggest reformswhich would contract the societal spread in Rome. In 133 BC, Graccus Brotehrs led a popularmotion for a land reform, syaing that they should take the land of the rich and givesome of it to the hapless. However, the Roman Senate opposed both brother? s reformsand they were both killed combat for thier cause.Gaius Marius, a strong general in Rome, did alot to transferpower to the Romanground forces during those times. Then, and adult male named Sulla, drove Marius out of power andhe appointed himself dictator.

In 59 BC, the First Triumvirate, dwelling of Julius Caesar, Crassus, andPompey came to power when Caesar was elected consul. Soon, Caesar was appointedgeneral of the Roman ground forces. Caesar was a smart adult male and he knew how to lift to powerrapidly in Rome, through the military. Caesar waged a series of superb militarycampains and he added a big sum of district to the Roman Empire in Belgium,Frnace, and even Southern Great Britian.

When he had finished his conquerings,nevertheless, the Triumvirate had dissolved. Crassus had died in conflict, and Pompey hadturned against Caesar and had besides turned the Senate against him every bit good. The Senatedeclared Caesar an anemy of the province and they demandedthat he had over hisgeneralship at one time. Caesar, nevertheless, had other programs. His military personnels were really loyal tohim, so in 49 BC, Caesar waged a Civil war against Pompey. In 48 BC, Caesar won thewar and Pompey was out of the image.

In 46 BC, Caesar returned to Rome and hadthe SEnate appoint him dicator for 10 old ages. Two old ages subsequently he was appointeddictatorfor life, and he was above nad beyond all Torahs of Rome. HOwever, shortly after Caesarappointed himself dictator for life, his regulation began to look like a monarchy, which wasagainst the Roman Republican tradition.

In 44 BC, on March 15, a group ofconspiritors, led by Cassius Longinus and Marcus Brutus, assasinated Caesar as heentered the Senate in his usual mannor.After Caesar? s decease, his grand-nephew, Octavion joined with Marc Anthony andMarcus Lepidus, two of Caesar? s authorities officers. In 42 BC, the 2nd triunviratedefeated Caesar? s asassins. Then, these three generals divided the ROman Emipreinto three equal parts, one subdivision for each of them to govern. Soon, the 2nd triunviratebegan to fall apart, jsut as the frist one did. Octavian forced Lepidus into retirement,and shortly after when Anthony married Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt, Octavionconvinced the Romans that Anthony intended to govern them with his foreign queen.Octavion so declared war on Anthony in Romes name.

A twelvemonth subsequently, Anothony andCleopatra kill themselves in Egypt to get away Octavious. With Anthony dead, Octavionbecame swayer of Rome. This would tag the beginning of the Roman Empire.The Roman EmpireUnder the Roman Republic, military generals had taken power off fromelected functionaries.

This made Octavion believe taht Rome needed a really strong leader.The Senate agreed with him and in 27 BC, they appointed him consul, tribune, andcommanding officer in head for life. He so changed his name to Augustus.With the coming of the Roman Empire, nil truly changed in Romanfreedom and equality. Augustus, nevertheless, was on a mission to reconstruct order to Romeand to even out equality in the imperium. Augusus is in many manner considered to beRome? s greatest leader. Augustus radically reformed the authorities to controlcorruptness. He besides extended Roman citizen ship to all Italians.

He resettled his solidersonto farming area, to guarantee that adequate harvests would be grown to feed the Roman peoplein times of crisis. He changed the armed forces from being a volenteer ground forces to a standingprofessional ground forces ; Rome and it? s states became a constabulary province. For the first clip,Rome bagan to construct it? s imperium, and the states settled down into peace andprosparity.

On top of all of these great accomplishments, Augustus did even more forRome. He began a huge undertaking of edifice and backing of the humanistic disciplines, and Romancivilization florished into a roar of creativeness which would do this clip period stand outas the greatest cultural period in the history of Rome. The age of Augustus is known asthe Golden Age of Roman Literature, because during this clip some of the greaestpoets of Rome flourished. Ausutus besides patronised art and sculpture with the samepassion that he patronised literature. He began tremendous undertakings edifice temples,such as the Temple of Apollo, and the Roman Forum.When Augustus died in 14 AD, Tiberius & # 8211 ; Augustus? chosen inheritor & # 8211 ; took thethrone. However, he spoiled his regulation by impeaching many guiltless people of lese majestyagainst him and he withdrew himself from office.

Caligula was murdered in 41 AD andthe emperor? s escorts forced the Senate to accept another emperor, Claudius. Hedid much to do the office of emperor solid. Claudius besides won many triumphs inBritain in the twelvemonth 43 AD.It is believed that Claudius? married woman Agrippina poisoned him to let her boy Nero totravel up to the thrown. Once emperor, Nero had his female parent killed, persecutedChristains, and perchance arranged the combustion of Rome which occurred in 64 AD.

Hebuilt a great castle in the centre of Rome? s debris with a elephantine stature of himself inside.When Spain revolted against him, Nero committed suicide. This ended the Augustusreign and Sulpicius Galba, governor of Spain, took office.Rome was in changeless Civil War in 68 AD as the throne changed custodies fourtimes. In 70 AD the emperor Titus captured Jerusalem. His brother Domitian followedhim. After the decease of Nerva in 97, Trajan, Hadrian, the Antonine emperors, and theSeveran emperors reigned in a clip of peace. Many edifices and statues were built inNorthern Africa during this clip.

The Colosseum and the Pantheon were besides built inRome. The emperors during this clip are known as the Good Emperors. They includeNerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. The imperium came to thetallness of its economic prosperity during this clip.Roman RuleThe Roman Empire had grown to between 70 and 100 million citizens by theclip Augustus had come to power in 27 B.C. It is hard to govern so many peoplewithout an effectivly run authorities. Changes had to be made.

Augustus chose professional governors instead than allowing the Senate appointinexperient proconsuls every twelvemonth. In Judea he left local male monarchs in charge. He besidesordered new roads built so that he could remain in touch with all parts of the imperium. Hebesides visited the countries frequently. Augustus dignified his ain place by functioning as pontifexmaximus, main priest of Rome. This made himself and each emperor to come becamecaput of a national, consolidative faith.As the imperium grew, the Romans felt they needed a new sort of jurisprudence that wouldapply to foreigners.

They created the jus gentium, or jurisprudence that dealt with foreigners,as opposed to the jus civile, or citizen jurisprudence. By the early 200? s A.D. emperors had givencitizenship to the peoples of so many nearby states that all free males in the imperiumhad been made full citizens of Rome, therefore doing the two Torahs one.Romans normally emphasize the authorization of the province over the person. Theybesides gave people definite legal rights, one of which was that an accused individual shouldbe considered guiltless until proved guilty. This system, foremost used by the Romans, isthe foundation for the legal systems of many Western states.

Augustus and subsequently emperors kept the professional ground forces. When peace prevailedfor a long period of clip, Augustus reduced the figure of hosts and built up thecontending force with military personnels recruited from the provincial peoples. There were merely about300,000 military personnels, which was non plenty to support a boundary line with a length of 4,000 stat mis.Because of this, by 160 A.D. invasions by peoples outside the imperium had become ajob to be delt with every twenty-four hours.CivilizationRoman Peace was dominate from 31 B.

C. to A.D. 180.

Great prosperity andstableness boosted trade and raised the criterion of life for most citizens of the Empire.To state that things were really good was non an understatement. Humanistic disciplines such as Italianclayware, woven fabric, blown glass and jewellery went on sale to all people. Luxury pointslike silk and spices from Southeast Asia was avaliable.. But with the prosperity camemany alterations in the life styles of mundane citizens.

The household became less importantthan it had been in the yesteryear. Romans had fewer kids and divorced and remarriedfrequently. In a nutshell, society became less stable.

With these alterations came a form of life & # 8230 ; affluent people frequently held publicoffice, owned big farms, and by and large had more influence over things. They besideslived more comfortably in big places and farms. THe in-between category grew.Shopkeepers and craftsmans grew in figure, but most Roman citizens remained hapless,life in moth-eaten flat edifices that frequently fell or burned down.

But, depsite theseconditions, the hapless did non revolt against the authorities because it gave them freestaff of life and amusement. It was during this clip that chariot races became reallypopular in Rome. It seemed that the Romans were concentrated on holding a good clipthan really working on breaking themselves.The Appian Way, the first major Roman route, was built in the 300? s B.C. Itconnected Rome and southeasterly Italy. Many roads were built during this clip to associateRome with the states. This helped unify the imperium.

Aqueducts, unreal channels for transporting H2O, were constructed by Romanapplied scientists. This was a elephantine breakrthrough toward modern H2O direction.Equally far as instruction goes in the Roman EMpire, affluent male childs and misss receivedprivate lessons at place. The affluent immature work forces went on to analyze at academies whereformer Greek slaves frequently taught. They learned geometry, uranology, doctrine andoratory.

Girls continued to analyze at place, non in academies, and were merely every bit educatedas the male childs. Even childs in the lower categories had some instruction. They learned thebasic reading, composing and arithmetic accomplishments needed to carry on concern.Latin was the linguistic communication of the Roman Empire. I had a vocabulary far smallerthan that of Greek or modern English. Many words ment the same thing.

Latin signifiersthe footing of many Romantic linguistic communications such as Italian, Gallic, Spanish, andLusitanian. It besides is the root for half of all ENglish words.Rome and ChristianityEarly Romans worshiped nature liquors. Soon these liquors turned to divinities.Subsequently, much of the Greek faith was taken on by the Romans.

Deities still remainedan of import portion of their spiritual belief. Roman citizens were expected to honour theemperor as Rome? s head priest. But they were besides allowed to idolize freely so manyfaiths grew.Christian religion was one of those faiths.

It sprang up in the easternMediterranean among the Judaic people. At first it was thought to be merely a religious order, orgroup, within Judaism. But as Christains converted non-Jewish followings, the religiongrew beyond its Judaic roots and became a new faith.Those practising the new Christain faith in Judea were allowed to idolize asthey wished, but were treated severely by the Roman EMpire. Christains believed thattheir God would present them from Roman regulation so they rebelled against the Romanground forces in Jerusalem and overpowered them in A.D.

66. Another unsuccessful rebellionfollowed. This caused the Romans to coerce the Jews out of Jeruselum, doing them tospread and live in other parts of the Mediterranean and the Middle East.Before the rebellions, a adult male from Nazareth named Jesus brought his messageof love and forgivness to the people of Galilee and Judea. THe adherents that survivedafter Jesus was put to decease as a political Rebel rapidly dispersed Christianity amonggentiles. It is believed that one of those deciples, Peter, really established the firstChristain church in Rome.

But Christains were persecuted. THe Romans were afraidthat Christain instructions rejected their divinities. Many Christains were killed during thisclip. Romans often threw Christain sufferer into the bowls to be killed by wildanimate beings in forepart of heartening crowds. THis was a popular amusement for Romansduring this clip.

THe Roman general Constantine did much to distribute CHristainity among theRomans. He claimed that he had a vision in which the symbol of the cross had greatpower to take him to triumph in conflict. He ordered his soldiers to paint the Christainsymbol of the cross on their shields. WHen he won, he called it a triumph for theChristain God.He became emperor of Rome in A.D.

312. He began protecting Christainity andthose who practiced it. He even ordered churches to be built in Rome and Jerusalem.During this clip missional work flurished with the support of the authorities. Manychurches were built and Christianity increased its influence in the Roman universe. InA.D. 392 the Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official faith of the RomanEmpire.

He banned the old Hellenistic and Roman faiths.Early on on Christians realized that in order to thrive they had to be organized.THey wrote down their beliefs clearly in order to avoid differences of sentiment that mightdivide the church. Important work forces of faith attempted to explicate Christian beliefs.THey were known as Church Fathers.

Augustine, a bookman born in North Africa in A.D.354, was one of the most well-thought-of of the spiritual bookmans.

He became a takingchurch functionary in North Africa. He wrote many influential letters, verse forms and discourses.As the Christian church grew it began to form itself into a hierarchy. It? sdegrees of authorization was built with each degree being more powerful than the one below it.Local assemblages, known as parishes, were led by priests. Several parishes gottogether to organize diocese, each overseen by a bishop. THese bishops interpretedChristian beliefs for the people.

Bishops from the major metropoliss such as Rome wereknown as patriarchs. These work forces were really powerful, finding what beliefs weretrue and what were fals philosophy. In the 400s A.D. the bishop of Rome began to believehe was more powerful than the other bishops & # 8230 ; that he should hold more say in thechurch? s personal businesss.

Today the bishop of Rome is known the Pope.321