Sample and Participant

            The title of this article is Teacher self-efficacy and
occupational stress, a major Australian curriculum reform revisited. The
methods that were used were questionnaires. These questionnaires were sent out
to the homes of teachers in the New South Wales (NSW) teacher federation. These
teachers taught in 40 of the public secondary schools. There were approximately
2,345 questionnaires sent out, only 503 were returned. The sample gender make
up was 49% out of the 60% participating teachers.

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Assessments and Measures

            The instrument used was a twenty-item self-efficacy
questionnaire that had an eleven-point scale with 10 percent increments. The
participants also used a Likert-types scale. According to the researchers,
these scales are used for responses in survey research. Another instrument used
was the Teachers’ Attribution of Responsibility for stress questionnaire.



            The researchers previously used this study then
replicated it. The findings were extremely different from the previous year.

The replicated study was found neither valid nor applicable to what the
researchers were trying to find. The researchers were attempting to use the
previous conceptual framework on a the same set of teachers using the same
questionnaires, not realizing teachers responses would have changed drastically
over the past year.  



            McCormick and Ayers (2009) have written an article that
was previously written. The revisited articles purpose is to focus on teacher’s
thoughts, adjustment to curriculum changes, and occupational stress.  McCormick (et al., 2009) uses four major
points to prove their research on occupational stress. The first point is the
social cognitive theory. This theory explains the human motivation and
behavior. This theory explains and rates how the participating teachers are
balancing new challenges with new materials received from their school
districts. The second point is called the attribution of responsibility for

            McCormick (et al., 2009) chose this model because it describes
the framework for theoretical bases for researching teacher stress in the
education system. The next theory used is called the coping theory.

Limitations and

            The limitations were there were only 55 teachers that
participated. The number was significantly smaller than the previous number.

The strengths were during both years of testing the teacher’s experienced
occupational stress and their beliefs of where their stress came from were
similar to the previous study.

Sampling Errors and Analysis

            Because the researchers were not able to have full
participation of all of the teachers that were sent out a questionnaire there
was not an adequate representation of the sampling population. The researchers
used an asymptotic covariance matrix. McCormick (et al., 2009) felt this was
appropriate because of the ordinal nature of some of the eleven and five point
scales used.

Conclusion and Future
Prospects to be improved

The researchers should have used a regression analysis instead of a
covariance matrix. The researchers should have also used new set participants
using a purposive sampling method. The study could not be replicated, therefore
leaving it an invalid study. In the future the researchers should specify the
research questions, any hypothetical questions, and give a clear number of
participants used in the study. In the future the researchers should consider
using an equal amount of participants male and female so there is enough
comparable data in the study.