Sample and ParticipantSelection The title of this article is Teacher self-efficacy andoccupational stress, a major Australian curriculum reform revisited. Themethods that were used were questionnaires. These questionnaires were sent outto the homes of teachers in the New South Wales (NSW) teacher federation. Theseteachers taught in 40 of the public secondary schools. There were approximately2,345 questionnaires sent out, only 503 were returned. The sample gender makeup was 49% out of the 60% participating teachers. Assessments and Measures The instrument used was a twenty-item self-efficacyquestionnaire that had an eleven-point scale with 10 percent increments. Theparticipants also used a Likert-types scale.
According to the researchers,these scales are used for responses in survey research. Another instrument usedwas the Teachers’ Attribution of Responsibility for stress questionnaire. ResultsOutcomes The researchers previously used this study thenreplicated it. The findings were extremely different from the previous year.The replicated study was found neither valid nor applicable to what theresearchers were trying to find. The researchers were attempting to use theprevious conceptual framework on a the same set of teachers using the samequestionnaires, not realizing teachers responses would have changed drasticallyover the past year. DiscussionAppropriateness McCormick and Ayers (2009) have written an article thatwas previously written. The revisited articles purpose is to focus on teacher’sthoughts, adjustment to curriculum changes, and occupational stress.
McCormick (et al., 2009) uses four majorpoints to prove their research on occupational stress. The first point is thesocial cognitive theory. This theory explains the human motivation andbehavior. This theory explains and rates how the participating teachers arebalancing new challenges with new materials received from their schooldistricts. The second point is called the attribution of responsibility forstress. McCormick (et al.
, 2009) chose this model because it describesthe framework for theoretical bases for researching teacher stress in theeducation system. The next theory used is called the coping theory. Limitations andStrengths The limitations were there were only 55 teachers thatparticipated. The number was significantly smaller than the previous number.
The strengths were during both years of testing the teacher’s experiencedoccupational stress and their beliefs of where their stress came from weresimilar to the previous study.Sampling Errors and Analysis Because the researchers were not able to have fullparticipation of all of the teachers that were sent out a questionnaire therewas not an adequate representation of the sampling population. The researchersused an asymptotic covariance matrix. McCormick (et al., 2009) felt this wasappropriate because of the ordinal nature of some of the eleven and five pointscales used. Conclusion and FutureProspects to be improvedThe researchers should have used a regression analysis instead of acovariance matrix.
The researchers should have also used new set participantsusing a purposive sampling method. The study could not be replicated, thereforeleaving it an invalid study. In the future the researchers should specify theresearch questions, any hypothetical questions, and give a clear number ofparticipants used in the study. In the future the researchers should considerusing an equal amount of participants male and female so there is enoughcomparable data in the study.