Sesame (Sesamum indicum l.) included in family
of Pedaliaccae, is an oldest familiar
oil crop to human and has been part of human diet since classical times 1. It was placed at 9th position among the top
13 oilseed crops which make up 90% of the world’s edible oil production 2. The
primary marketable products of sesame are whole seeds, oil and meal. Sesame
seeds are the one the finest crops used for oil extraction as well as premature
seeds used as a condiment 3.  As this
sesame seed has extent nutritional 
significance, also have a neutraceutical and preservative properties and
more over it have  many industrial
applications  for this reason this also
known as Queen of oil seeds.  This Sesame
oil is the major dietary oil in many of Asian countries. The usual motivation
of Sesame seeds cultivation is for the purpose of oil extraction which has many
culinary, industrial as well as pharmaceutical applications. Sesame oil is
obtained by extraction by hydraulic press or by solvent extraction method with hexane
as a solvent and then refining of that extracted oil.  In some Asian countries sesame seeds are
roasted at a temperature nearly 180-200°C for the time period of nearly 20-30
minutes before the oil extraction. This roasted seed oil has somewhat dark
brown in colour and this roasted seed oil has greater oxidative stability as
compared to un roasted seed oil 4, 5.

 

 

The major
constituents of sesame seed are oil, protein, carbohydrates, lignin’s, and
minor constituents such as minerals. 6

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Composition of sesame seed (per 100
g)

Energy
( calories)

578

Moisture
(%)

4.7

Fat          (g)

51.9

Protein  (g)

19.8

Carbohydrates
(g)

18.4

Fiber
(g)

10.8

Ash
 (g)

5.2

Lignans  (g)

1.9

K  (mg)

400

Ca  (mg)

1200

Fe
(mg)

9.6

P
(mg)

9.6

Mg
(mg)

370

Na
(mg)

2

Vitamin
C (µg)

12

Vitamin
A (IU)

10

Carotene  (µg)

17

Thiamine
(mg)

0.95

Riboflavin
(mg)

0.25

Niacin
(mg)

5.1

Sesame
seed contain 20% and its defatted form contains 50% of protein.

As sesame
oil includes superior quantity of mono unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA’s) than
saturated fatty acids (SFA’s) it can improves the health of consumers. Besides
this MUFA’s this oil also contain bioactive compounds like phytosterols and
tocopherols. The typical proportions of FA’s in sesame oil are in following
way. 7

 

Linoleic

42.9-54%

Oleic

31.6-44%

Palmatic
Stearic

7.0-9.7%
3.8-5.6%
 

 

Sesamin
and sesamoline are the most prolific fat soluble lignin’s present in sesame
seeds. These sesamine and sesamoline contain benzene and furanose rings in
their structure 8. Sesamol and sesaminol are formed with the refinement of
thease sesamin and sesamoline. Sesame oil has excellent stability to oxidation
due to presence of thease lignin’s 9.

 

Structures of major fat soluble lignin’s present in sesame
and refinement products of sesamolin

 

Sesame
seeds contain phytochemicals which particularly have anti oxidant, antifungal, hypolipidaemic
and hypoglycaemic actions 10. Chlorosesamone, hydraxysesamone, 2,
3-epoxysesamone, anthrasesamones and other two anthraquinone derivatives are
the compounds having antifungal activities which are extracted from roots of
sesame plant 11.

Tocopherol is a natural anti-oxidant and it is formed
by only the oil seeds like sesame and other oil seeds. The tocopherol content
in sesame is different for individual locations and varieties. Normally the
sesame oil mostly includes ?-tocopherol in range of 50 to 370 ppm and
?-tocopherol in range of 90 to 390 ppm this difference in the content of thease
tocopherol is due to their chemical nature 12. The health benefits of thease
tocopherols includes it act’s as 
reactive oxygen species scavenger , acts as a first line of defense
against lipid peraxidation and  in cell
membranes it protects the PUFA’s from free radical attack 13,14.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sesamum
indicum is used as external salve, emollient, tonic and diuretic
15. Sesamin and Sesaminol are the two major elements of the sesame oil which
have evidence to possess defensive action against several pharmacological
effects which includes thease acts as anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant, anti-hypertensive,
and anti-inflammatory and also have cardio protective effects 16. Sesame oil
is used as nutritional supplement for the purpose of increasing the cell
resistance against lipid peraxidation by hindering the generation of reactive
oxygen free radicals 17.  Sesame oil
has capacity to increase the alpha tocopherol concentration in blood and tissue
it was seen in rat fed containing with sesame seed or its lignin’s18.Besides
this sesame oil showed that it have abundant free radical scavenging capacity
in methanolic fraction it is due to presence of phenolic compounds in it19. Apart
from lipid peroxidation and liberation of reactive oxidative species sesame oil
also increases the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes like glutathione
peroxidise, superoxide dismutase and catalase in rodents in certain oxidative
stress 20, 21.

In pharmaceutical practice sesame oil used as solvent
for intramuscular injections and used as a substance which gives relief from
inflation and acts as a emollient. It is also used for treatment for blurred
vision 22.

 

 

The implementation of sesame in regular diet it may
helps in enhancing the flavour of daily consumed dishes. Even though sesame
seeds are   not that much better source
for starch thease seeds have a pleasant flavour and its taste resembles the
nuts, it can spread over soups ,salads, and the 
baked  products can be
supplemented with whole sesame grains to get attractive  form that reform the final product texture.
The meal which comes after oil extraction is good source for   protein and especially it is potential
source for metheonine which is an essential amino acid. So the meal is used in
many food product formulations as protein and metheonine supplement. This meal
also used in cattle feed and also as manure. Apart from all thease benefits
sesame seed also cause some allergic reactions for those who are susceptible to
thease antioxidants and lignins.

Generally sesame oil is referred as major source of
edible oil, commonly refined sesame oil is used in some drug formulations and
also many industrial preparations of perfumes, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals,
paints varnishes and insecticides 23, 24. Some food products like          tahin (paste/spread made from ground
sesame seeds), halva are prepared by using sesame seeds in countries like
Europe, USA, migrants from Africa and also native western consumers. As this
sesame does not contain any gluten it is perfect diet for those people who have
allergic to gluten. In many countries like Chaina, Korea and other Asian
countries roasted sesame seeds used as toppings on many baked products like bread,
biscuits, crackers etc. In India sesame oil is used as hardened oil in
margarine. In India mainly un roasted seeds are used for any application.

Some studies indicate that sesame can be used for
the production of biodiesel by the use of methanol in the presence of NaOH as
catalyst. It is a renewable source and it can control the global warming by
reduction in the emission of CO2 25. Other benefits include excellent
biodegradability, low toxicity, eminent lubricity and superior combustion
efficiency. Biodiesel produced by this method has certain limits such as few
undesirable properties of triglycerides result in severe engine deposits,
injector coking and piston ring sticking are preventing the use of sesame oil
directly.