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Alice walker-a renowned novelist. short narrative author. litterateur. poet. critic. and writer of children’s books-sees the corruptness in the universe and writes to portray the battles that African American adult females encounter. The snags that they have in mundane society are mostly voluminous. nevertheless. Alice Walker does admirations composing specifically about racism and sexism. In two of her celebrated novels. The Color Purple and By the Light of my Father’s Smile. she addresses these two affairs along with other subjects stemming from them. The most prevailing subjects in Alice Walker’s novels. The Color Purple and By the Light in my Father’s Smile are sexism and male laterality ; observing a person’s gender. Womanism. and how the male character shapes a female’s life.

What most people would see feminism. the protagonism of women’s rights on the evidences of political. societal. and economic equality to work forces. Alice Walker elaborates and turns into Womanism. More specifically. Walker uses the term Womanist to depict adult females of colour particularly adult females in African civilization ( Alice Walker 37 ) . Alice Walker goes in farther in deepness to state that a womanist is A adult female who loves another adult female. sexually and/ or non sexually. She appreciates and prefers women’s civilization. women’s emotional flexibility… [ she ] is committed to the endurance and integrity of an full people. male and female. Not a separationist. except sporadically for health… loves the spirit… . loves battle. Loves herself. Regardless. ( LaGrone 10 ) This plays a big function in Walker’s novels. She explores the impression of a womanist and lifting against male subjugation ( Alice Walker 66 ) . Walker uses her novels to acquire rid of the barriers that are set by work forces and uses the male laterality as power ( Alice Walker’s…133 ) .

In the beginning of The Color Purple. Celie is treated like an object as are other adult females in Walker’s authorship ( Alice Walker’s…130 ) . Celie is early-on sexually abused by her step-father. After Celie’s female parent leaves. her step-fathers colzas her. “He start to choke me. stating You better rotters used to it. ” ( The Color Purple 1 ) . Celie should be able to swear her stepfather. Pa. but his maltreatment disables her from turning independent. deriving self-esteem. and going whole because she is non raised on household and moral kineticss ( LaGrone 7 ) . Alternatively. Celie is treated as a fringy ( Alice Walker’s… 130 ) . Celie is given away by her stepfather. He bargains with the Albert to take her because she’s ugly and non smart ( The Color Purple 8 ) . By being put down because of her physical visual aspect at an early age. Celie becomes self-aware and hateful against her interior ego ( LaGrone 7 ) Celie succumbs to the maltreatment and male authorization by mentioning to what she was learning a child-to award her parents through everything ( Modern Critical Views…71 ) .

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Merely as Celie is taught what to believe as a kid. beliefs are besides passed through coevalss ( Modern Critical… 69 ) . Harpo. who Celie meets as her step-son later in The Color Purple. is told by his male parent to crush his married woman to “make her mind” ( Alice Walker 44 ) . The adult females of the Olinka Tribe. merely as Celie lives what she is taught. besides teach their girls to obey the male and fright him ( Modern Critical…69 ) Walker describes the work forces of the Olinka folk as male chauvinist and male dominant. Nettie is told that she is non deserving much by the Olinka folk who don’t believe in educating the misss ( The Color Purple 156 ) . They believe that females are merely good for work and are nil without a hubby ( The Color Purple 155 ) . It is here that Nettie is reminded of the manner she was treated and how she addressed her male parent ( Alice Walker’s…135 ) . One character Celie meets Sophia.

Sophia is strong-minded and independent adult female. Celie’s relationship with Sophia starts her journey to going her ain individual ( LaGrone 9 ) . Sophia sparks Celie’s wonder about talking out against subjugation ( …A Critical Companion 96 ) . The two signifier a type of sistership bond and it is here that Celie is foremost seen as Walker’s portraiture of a womanist ( …A Critical Companion 100 ) . The Womanist sistership will take to the eventual selfhood that Celie needs in her life ( LaGrone 10 ) . Sophia workss a seed in Celie’s head. “Through geographic expedition and instruction they instruct members of the sistership about the twin immoralities of racism and sexism and the necessary waies to take to prevail in visible radiation of the presence of these destructive forces” ( …A Critical Companion 100 ) . Celie and her sister. Nettie. are another bond in The Color Purple that is viewed as a womanist sistership. Nettie tells Celie when she escapes their stepfather’s reign that she needs to maintain combat ( The Color Purple 17 ) . She besides tells her this thorough her letters to Celie over eternal old ages. Women “form bonds by authorising themselves and other women” ( …A Critical Companion 100 ) .

The letters Nettie writes to Celie are non merely cardinal to Walker’s position of a womanist but are her manner of seeking to authorise her sister to stop male laterality and travel on with her life ( LaGrone 9 ) . Walker uses womanist relationships and community to get the better of violent cultural unfairnesss ( Code 484 ) . Throughout The Color Purple. Celie is physically and mentally abused by her stepfather and her hubby but confides in Shug Avery. her husband’s kept woman. who finally teaches Celie to love herself and gives her the bravery to go forth her matrimony ( “Introduction” ) . Shug teaches Celie that she is non an object by stating her that she is a virgin ( LaGrone 10 ) . “If her organic structure has been devalued by the work forces in her life. Celie non merely discovers her ain gender in the relationship with Shug. but she besides learns how to love another” ( Modern Critical Views 73 ) .

To interrupt free of the silence from male subjugation is the lone manner a adult females can go one with herself and go whole with another female ( Alice Walker’s…133 ) . Shug Avery becomes the mothering. sistering. and sexual relationship that Celie has ne’er had ( Modern Critical Views 72 ) . Celie needs to happen love. self-esteem and empowerment due to the loss of her kids because of her stepfather ( …A Critical Companion 98 ) . Celie finds this in Shug and lets her traumatic experiences go by speaking to her ( LaGrone 11 ) . Celie’s relationship with Shug allows her to get away from a man’s universe ( …A Critical Companion 96 ) . In this relationship of Shug and Celie. Celie additions assurance in herself and learns to love herself for who she is and embracing her gender. She is non drained of sexual desire because her maltreatment by adult male has caused her to non desire them. but the female alternatively ( Alice Walker’s…131 ) .

Even though she has desire for a adult females as a adult male would. Celie does non believe of females in a derogatory sense. She sexually praises them and about handle them as religious existences ( Alice Walker’s…131 ) . At one point Celie began to doubt her humanity because she was deprived of the feeling of choler ( Alice Walker’s…130 ) . Shug helps Celie to interrupt the male laterality barriers by traveling to Memphis with Shug ( LaGrone 13 ) . Not merely that. but Celie is able to forgive herself. Albert. and her stepfather which allows her to be whole ( …A Critical Companion 100 ) . Feeling hurting for the first clip in a long clip when Shug moves off from Celie. makes Celie one with herself ( LaGrone 13 ) .

Although maltreatment in By the Light of My Father’s Smile is non every bit extended as in The Color Purple. male laterality and a individual whipping lead the book to Walker’s subject of sexism and the character larning to love herself and her gender as does Celie. Magdalena early in the novel falls for a native male child named Manuelito. Defying her male parent. Magdalena has sexual dealingss with Manuelito ( By the Light…26 ) . After her Father discovers this. he gives her a awful concealment utilizing a belt her lover made her ( Schechner ) . Watching through the keyhole of her their sleeping room. Susannah’s life changed everlastingly ( By the Light… 27 ) . Watching the maltreatment from an outsider’s position as opposed to Celie in The Color Purple. Susannah would ne’er be able to love her Father the same manner once more ( By the Light…27 ) Magdalena’s Father. Senor Robinson. separates the two love-birds directing Magdalena into a downward spiral turning her morbidly corpulent ( Bates 133 ) . “It was as if my memories were lodged in my cells. and needed to be fed” ( By the Light…125 ) . She felt that eating would acquire rid of her choler at her male parent and her unhappiness of Manuelito ( By the Light…125 )

In By the Light of My Father’s Smile. the sisters’ male parent had caused them convulsion. Magdalena finally turned on her ain sister at one point of the novel giving her a black oculus and seize with teething her arm down to the bone. She states her logical thinking: “…it had been constructing up in me for a thousand old ages. I couldn’t stand it that you had been loved and I had non. ” He doesn’t recognize that the misss need more love than they do laterality ( Bates 142 ) . “He is so consumed with being the patriarch. the leader and the accountant. that he forgets to encompass his misss in the full presentation of his human emotion” ( Bates 142 ) . Alice Walker uses the character of Magdalena to demo how of import a male figure is in a female’s life ( Bates136 ) . After being beaten. Magdalena’s life began to be shaped. Rooted from her father’s missional work. Magdalena started to detest the church after being beaten by her male parent for being herself ( By the Light…73 ) . To demo her hatred for the church. Magdalena pierced her labia and hung a rood from it ( Schechner ) . Not merely does she detest the church because of her male parent. but she turns her back on sex and her gender about wholly due to her father’s deficiency of apprehension and compassion for her ( Bates 137 ) .

In resistance. Susannah moved toward a happier sex-life ( Bates 137 ) . She is about grateful for what she has encountered as she tells her lover. Pauline. that she did non truly cognize herself until their relationship ( Schechner ) . Although her heterosexual relationship did non last. Susannah’s hatred for her male parent leads her to ne’er look at a adult male in the same visible radiation once more ( Bates ) . By encompassing her gender and taking pride in herself. Susannah enables herself to turn in life and forgive her male parent. Although selective scenes are in writing. The intent of Walker’s word pictures of female titillating strength is to deliver African American female sexuality… Pauline and Susannah non merely portion a long-run relationship but besides portion the chase of economic independency and fiscal success. Their integrity every bit twosome as aspiration and as world is strong. each reaping from it human emotional demands that are both foundations and systems of support. ( Bates 143 ) The male character. her male parent. sends her on a bouldery route at first. but after she embraces her gender. she grows as a individual for the better and lives a happy life.

In both novels. The Color purple and By the Light of my Father’s Smile. Walker uses similar subjects including but non limited to sexism and male laterality ; observing a person’s gender. Womanism. and how the male character shapes a female’s life. Alice Walker’s chief characters both encounter some of the same state of affairss and have to undertake them twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. Walker gets her message across to the universe by capturing her reader and portraying the worlds African American adult females face daily while entertaining the same subjects throughout her plants.

Plants Cited

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Bates. Gerri. Alice Walker: A Critical Companion. Westport: Greenwood Press. 2005. EBSCOhost. Web. 1 May 2014.

Bloom. Harold. Alice Walker. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers. 2000. EBSCOhost. Web. 1 May 2014.

Bloom. Harold. Alice Walker’s The Color Purple. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers. 2000. Print.

Bloom. Harold. Modern Critical Positions: Alice Walker. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. 1989. Print.

Code. Lorraine. Encyclopedia of Feminist Theories. London: Routledge. 2000. EBSCOhost. Web. 1 May 2014.

LaGrone. Kheven. Alice Walker’s The Color Purple. New York: Editions Rodopi B. V. . 2009. Print.

Schechner. Karen. “Sexual Healing: Alice Walker’s By The Light Of My Father’s Smile. ” Luminarium. Anniina Jokinen: 8 July. 1999. Web. 10 May 2014.

Walker. Alice. By the Light of my Father’s Smile. Toronto: The Random House Publishing Group. 1998. Print.

Walker. Alice. The Color Purple. Orlando: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. 1982. Print.