According to the Commission on the Review of National Policy toward Gambling, gambling in the United States grossed over $40 billion dollars in 1995 (Dunstan, 1997). Professor I. Nelson Rose describes three waves of gambling during the history of the colonies and the United States. The first of these waves began during the start of this great nation and lasted until the mid-1800s. The second wave was at the end of our Civil War and lasted until the early 1900s. Finally, the last wave started during the Great Depression and is still going strong today.
I believe a fourth wave has already commenced with new technology paving the way. The new technology consists of, first and foremost, the internet and also any Wi-Fi abled device. Those who use the internet have already found out that this technology is hard to regulate and hence the added rush or high the gamblers are able to extract from it. First Wave: From the 1600s to the mid-1800s 1. The Puritans attitude toward gaming and play was adopted. They also outlawed the possession of cards, dice, dancing, and singing. 2. They softened their stance the following year to allow recreation, but not as a trade.
3. In other colonies, where the Puritans did not have control, the English attitude toward gambling prevailed. 4. The English believed gambling to be harmless, and even called it a gentleman’s game. 5. Gambling soon becomes a vice with much risk taking. 6. Lotteries were permitted by the Crown to raise money for the colonial venture, with the proceeds helping to establish the early Universities like Harvard, Yale, and Princeton. 7. The first race track was built on Long Island in 1965. 8. By the early 1800s, big fancy casinos were established in the Republic, and gambling in the lower Mississippi Valley became a legitimate enterprise. . During the 1830s, professional gamblers were under scrutiny for preying on the unwitting. Ironically, President Jackson was a gambler at this time. Second Wave: From the mid-1800 to Early 1900s 1.
The “Gold Rush” sets off a gambling boom in California. A canvas tent, at this time, cost $40,000 annually, payable with gold dust in advance. 2. In 1856, gamblers were lynched as a result of political fighting for San Francisco, since they were of the opposing political faction. 3. Despite Prohibition, gambling remained strong by going underground with illegal parlors. . By 1910, virtually all forms of gambling were prohibited in the United States. Third Wave: Early 1930s to the Present 1. The great depression leads to greater legalization of gambling. 2. Massachusetts decriminalized bingo in 1931 to help churches and charitable organizations raise much needed revenue. 3. Organized Crime syndicates become heavy supporters of many casinos in Nevada. 4. During the 1950s, the Senate Committee investigates Organized Crime’s influence in the casino industry. 5. Lotteries were once again sponsored by the government.
From 1894 to 1964, there were no government-sponsored lotteries operating in the United States. 6. In 1964, New Hampshire is the first state to sponsor a lottery, followed by New York in 1967. 7. Congress fails to pass a national lottery measure despite numerous attempts. Fourth Wave: The Present and Beyond 1. In 1995, the first online gambling casino starts operation by offering 18 games. 2. An estimated 30 million people visited internet gambling sites in July of 2005 alone. 3. It is estimated the industry has grown from $1 billion in profits in 1997 to $10. billion in 2006. 4. Almost anyone is able to gamble on any Wi-Fi abled device, since the industry is difficult to regulate. 5. The rise in internet gambling brings an increase in youths gambling, gambling problems, and criminal activity such as credit card fraud (McCown, 2007). Comparison of Criteria for Substance Dependence with Gambling 1. Tolerance-The two main words used to describe both this substance dependent and gambling criterion is, increasing amounts. 2. Withdrawal-When reducing, or stopping gambling activities the client becomes restless and irritated.
The same can be said about substance dependence since those same characteristics are involved, with an added twist for substance dependent clients. 3. Taking the substance in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended. This can also be construed as the tolerance criterion for gambling where the gambler uses increasing amounts to achieve excitement. 4. Having a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance use. This behavior parallels the loss of control criterion in gambling where the gambler despite repeated attempts to cut down, stop, or control the gambling is unsuccessful. . Spending a great deal of time in activities necessary to get the substance. This criterion seems to be consistent with the gambler who has a preoccupation with gambling. 6. Giving up or reducing important social, occupational, or recreational activities due to substance use. This seems to almost mirror the gambler’s risked significant relationship criterion. 7. Continuing to use the substance despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or is exacerbated by the substance. I am unable to find a gambling criterion to match this exact behavior, but in gambling lying, chasing, and illegal acts seem to almost rival the substance dependent characteristic stated.
Ciarrocchi, J. W. (2001). Counseling Problem Gamblers. San Diego, California: Academic Press. McCown, W. G. (2007). Treating Gambling Problems. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dunstan, R. (1997). Gambling in California. CA: California Research Bureau, California State Library. http://www. library. ca. gov/crb/97/03/chapt2. html