Official offense statistics show that males are four times more likely to perpetrate offenses than females. Victim surveys show adult females to be more likely to be victims of sexual and violent assaults than males. It has besides been suggested there are gender differences in penalties. And hence different people have given their accounts for the logical thinking behind this. The official offense statistics show that adult females commit less offense than work forces. Work force are convicted of 80 % of serious offenses. and adult females merely do up about 5. 7 % of the prison population. There is besides a difference in the types of offenses committed by work forces and adult females ; most adult females are imprisoned for non-violent offenses such as larceny or handling of stolen goods. which accounts for 57 % of known female wrongdoers in 2002
Extremist women’s rightists such as Heidensohn claim that women’s lower offense rates can be explained in footings of patriarchate. She claims that both in the household and at work work forces exert power and societal control over adult females. Womans who challenge the traditional functions of adult females within the household run the hazard of holding them imposed by force. In public. adult females are controlled by the male usage of force and force. by the thought of keeping on to a ‘good’ repute. and by the ‘ideology of separate roles’ . Women frequently choose non to travel out into public topographic points because of the fright of being attacked or raped. Heidensohn argues that the effect of this control is that adult females have fewer chances to perpetrate offense and Acts of the Apostless of aberrance whereas work forces have more chance.
However. many of Heidensohn’s statements are based upon generalizations. some of which don’t use to all adult females. She doesn’t ever back up her claims with strong empirical grounds. Furthermore. she admits that many of the empirical trials of control theory have been carried out on juvenile wrongdoers instead than grownups. and that control theory does sometimes portray adult females as being inactive victims. Yet. Heidensohn does show a plausible account of why such a spread remains between men’s and women’s offense rates. In making so she highlights some of the inequalities that remain between work forces and adult females Frances Heidensohn in 1989 suggested four grounds why sociology is. malestream. dominated by work forces. First. males are the chief and dominant wrongdoers. so it seems unneeded to analyze a little minority of female wrongdoers. This is besides combined with a mostly male mentality and involvement on the topic. as most sociologists who are faculty members are work forces.
Due to this job another arises. vicarious designation. This is where the male sociologists merely analyze what involvements them. the exciting and unsafe lives other. condemnable males. Last this has culminated in theories on offense being ‘gender blind’ in that they ignore female point of views. We can see from this information why sociologists ignore female offense. but why precisely do adult females demo up small in the offense statistics? Some people argue that it is because adult females do really perpetrate less offense than work forces do. Steven Box in 1981 reviewed self-report surveies in Britain and the USA and concluded that ‘the comparative part females make to serious offense is reasonably accurately reflected in official statistics’ . Experimental surveies have besides back up the thought that adult females commit less offense.
For illustration in 1981. Buckle and Farrington carried out a survey in a section shop and found that 2. 8 % of 142 males shoplifted compared to 1. 4 % of 361 adult females. Although these are rough measurings of offenses it hints at adult females being less condemnable in behavior than work forces. McRobbie ( 1994 ) found that many immature adult females were non involved in subcultures because of parental control. Alternatively. they stayed indoors with their friends. reading magazines and dish the dirting. making a ‘bedroom culture’ of their ain. Hagan ( 1987 ) studied child raising forms in Canada and found that girls had far more informal control exercised over them than boies. Heidensohn ( 1985 ) identified three countries where adult females were socially controlled. giving them fewer chances to perpetrate offense. At place. adult females were still seen as the primary carers of kids and the family.