240HRM – Managing and Leading People at Work
Question 1: Prioritization of the 3 issues outstanding prior to her annual leave. You will therefore need to identify the order in which you addressed the items and provide a justification for doing so.
Priority 1: To appreciate and assess the role of the HR Function in the resolution of conflict and unacceptable behavior within the organization.
Person and environment function in conj unction with the behavior itself and reciprocally interact to determine behavior. A person, through his actions, produces the environmental conditions that affect his behavior in a reciprocal fashion. The experience generated by behavior also partly determines what a person becomes and can do. This in turn affects his subsequent behavior. The theory is called social learning theory because, individuals learn in an environment in the process of interacting with each other which is a social process. The application of this theory in understanding the behavior of a leader and the continuous reciprocal interaction between the person (leader’s cognitions) and environment (including subordinates and their needs, experiences, objectives in the organization, abilities, skills. energy performance. etc. known as contingencies that regulate their behavior).
The three aspects of this theory of leadership assume that the leader knows how behavior is controlled by various needs, situations and experiences that he undergoes. The leader works with the subordinates to discover what those needs situations and experience. The leader and the subordinates jointly attempt to discover ways in which they can manage their individual behavior to produce mutually satisfying as well as organizationally productive outcomes. In this approach, the leader and the subordinates have a negotiable and interactive relationship. They are continuously aware of how they can modify or influence each other’s behavior by giving the rewards or holding back the performance respectively. (Hughes, A.J., 1993. Business Process Leadership and Social Sciences)
1. The leader is primarily concerned about the task or production. He is concerned with his responsibility to see that the work is completed. He is called a Task-Management leader.
2 The leader is primarily concerned for people and only incidentally concerned with production. The leader’s major responsibility is to establish harmonious relationships among subordinates and to provide a secure and pleasant work atmosphere. He is called as Country Club Management leader.
3 The leader is concerned with neither production nor people. He tries to stay out of the way and not become involved in the conflict between the necessity for production and the attainment of good working relationship. He is called as Impoverish Management leader.
4 The leader reflects a middle ground position and is called as Middle of the Road Management leader. He seeks to compromise between high production and employee satisfaction. (http://www.allbusiness.com/leadership/3188440-1.html)
5 The leader is extremely concerned about the task and also the people. He is concerned to see that the work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a ‘common stake’ in organization; purpose leads to relationship of trust and respect. He is called a Team Management leader.
Contingency Leadership proposal
A leader may become effective if the situation is favorable in three ways. These are: good leader-member relations, showing acceptance of the leader by the group, details of the task spelled out to the leaders positing and a great deal of authority and power is formally attributed to the leaders position .With these three favorable situations and his style of functioning a leader will be effective.
Thought Process Leadership
Feedback reduces the blind spot area and helps us increase our self-awareness, since we often do not know how others view us. We can guess how they see us by their reactions, but these reactions are often not clear and likely to be misperceived. Unless I receive feedback as to how they see us, or what kind of effects our behaviors have on them, I am likely to be blind to their feelings and reactions. (Kelly., J. 1994. Organizational Behavior.)
Priority 2: To understand the design implications of recruitment and selection in relation to the acquisition and retention of high performing employees.
Human Resource Management (HRM) is a process of bringing people and organizations together so that the goals of each are met. It is that part of the management process which is concerned with the management of human resources in an organization. It tries to secure the best from people by winning their wholehearted cooperation. It may be defined as the art of procuring, developing and maintaining competent workforce to achieve the goals of an organization in an effective and efficient manner for people to achieve organizational and individual goals.
The debate arises out of serious and widespread doubts about HR’s contribution to organizational performance. It is often ineffective, incompetent and costly, in a phrase it is value sapping. If HR were to remain configured as it is today in many companies, the competitive forces that managers face today and will continue to confront in the future demand organizational excellence. The efforts to achieve such excellence — through a focus on learning, quality, teamwork and reengineering — are driven by the way organizations get things done and how they treat their people. These are fundamental HR issues. Create an entirely new role and agenda for the field that focuses it not on traditional HR activities, such as staffing and compensation, but on outcomes HR should not be defined by what it does but by what it delivers — results that enrich the organization’s value to customers, investors, and employees. (http://web.cba.neu.edu/~ewertheim/leader/models.htm)
More specifically, HR can help to deliver organizational excellence in the following four ways which is presently lacking in the store.
• First, HR should become partner with senior and line managers in strategy execution, helping to move planning from the conference room to the marketplace.
• Second, it should become an expert in the way work is organized and executed, delivering administrative efficiency to ensure that costs are reduced while quality is maintained.
• Third, it should become a champion for employees, vigorously representing their concerns to senior management and at the same time working to increase employee contribution; that is employees’ commitment to the organization and their ability to deliver results.
• And finally, HR should become an agent of continuous transformation; shaping processes and a culture that together improves an organization’s capacity for change.
HR Planning and Recruitment
a) Develop People
Employers know that helping employees to manage their career progress will help them to keep good people. Now more employees are asking ‘what can you do for me’, particularly when they see their peers being provided with development opportunities by their employers. South West airlines should create opportunities for employees, and then definitely they will work hard for the company. Senior executives play a vital role in developing their subordinates: Although most executives have not yet diagnosed the problem, industry’s greatest challenge by far is to rectify the under-development, underutilization and ineffective management and use of its most valuable resource- its young managerial and professional talent. These days what the organization is doing for individual employees is becoming more important. Now every employee wants that company should give them or send them to different training and development programmes for career developments and have to arrange and give opportunities to employees for all these.
One solution has been to implement a project on internal candidates and interviewing them. Interviews have been made more formal, explaining the reasons behind them and using competency evidence for not only the role but also for training and development too. In the past, people were often promoted rapidly into roles and moved about the company at will. Now, though, there needs to be a reassessment and a recognition that, as well as moving people about, the company need to give them skills and tools to do the job they are currently doing well even better. (http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadstl.html)
b) Grooming Future Talent
While analytical and communication skills and boosted confidence will often give graduates an edge, HR across the board is rapidly moving away from the perception that a degree is a mandatory springboard to greater things. There are people who do not go to university for sonic very good reasons. It is the duty of the company to provide tools to allow them to do the job.. In this context training needs analysis and plotting of career growth paths for employees are important activity of HR professionals. Instead of conducting it as an annual ritual, the need analysis should really contribute towards the skill enhancement of the employees resulting in the fulfillment of current and future organizational requirements.
c) Employees Deployment
As employees move easily between diverse roles, the value of the internal talent market increases because employees are aimed with transferable skills and knowledge that can be applied in many areas of the organization. This allows companies to become more agile and to rapidly deploy workers to new projects or locations. This deployment is very useful for employees also because now every employee wants to become a multi skill person, because now ones one skill can become meaningless any time. This is the duty of organizations that one moves for all these so that the company can retain employees in their organization. (http://www.motivation-tools.com/workplace/leadership_styles.htm)
d) Build Employee Communities
It should build high quality internal talent communities through segmentation. This enables employers to cultivate relationships with employees on the employee’s terms and to consistently demonstrate value to the employee through opportunities for internal mobility. This increases job satisfaction and leads to higher retention rates. Any recruitment opportunity in the organization should be viewed as a career growth opportunity for the existing employees without compromising efficiency requirements. This always is very cost effective in all respects and will go a long way in boosting the morale of existing employees. The direct correlation of morale and higher productivity could be sufficient for any justification required for these moves.
e) Turn Managers into Coaches
When a person joins just after his getting degree he is totally new from the point of view of experience. This demands that intelligent but non-experienced need a personal coach for their perfection in the job and to cope-up with early entry-level problem. Personal coaches are personal advocates for their clients, but advocacy is aimed at the client. What great personal coaches are great at is helping people help themselves. They offer penetrating insight to people about themselves. They give them good and bad news. They help people believe that they can do better. They give people concrete solution to help them improve. And coaches are right there with the people they coach, encourage them, scolding them when necessary, praising them when it is appropriate, and constantly helping their clients move in the right direction.
Implementation of this system in the organization is a duty of HR department with the help of top management. From this system we can motivate and inspire the people to do extraordinary work. Coaching style of management is the single greatest factor in improving productivity, moral, and retention. Day to day coaching creates the kind of trust and confidence, the genuine bond between managers and individual contribution that cuts through everything. (http://www.motivation-tools.com/workplace/leadership_trends.htm)
Priority 4: To analyze the relationship between carefully designed performance management programmes and the retention of high achievers and a positive working environment.
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM
Management can establish performance standards and devise instruments that can be used to measure and appraise an employee’s performance. A number of methods are now available to assess the performance of the employees.
1) Critical Incident Method
Critical incident appraisal focuses the rater’s attention on those critical or key behaviors that make the difference between doing a job effectively and doing it ineffectively. What the appraiser does is write down little anecdotes that describe what the employee did that was especially effective or ineffective. In this approach to appraisal, specific behaviors are cited not vaguely defined personality traits. Additionally, a list of critical incidents on a given employees provides a rich set of examples from which the employee can be shown which of his or her behaviors are desirable and which ones call for improvement.
The evaluator goes down the list and gives “yes” or “no” responses. Once the checklist is complete, it is usually evaluated by the staff of personnel department, not the rater himself. Therefore the rater does not actually evaluate the employee’s performance; he/she merely records it. An analyst in the personnel department then scores the checklist, often weighting the factors in relationship to their importance. The final evaluation can then be returned to the rating manager for discussion with the subordinate, or someone from the personnel department can provide the feedback to the subordinate.
3) Graphic Rating Scale
They are used to assess factors such as quantity and quality of work, job knowledge, cooperation, dependability, attendance, honesty, integrity, attitudes, and initiative etc. The assessor goes down the list of factors and notes that point along the scale or continuum that list of factors and notes that point along the scale or continuum that best describes the employee. There are typically five to ten points on the continuum. In the design of the graphic scale, the challenge is to ensure that both the factors evaluated and the scale pints are clearly understood and unambiguous to the rater. Should ambiguity occur, bias is introduced
4) Forced Choice Method
The forced choice appraisal is a special type of checklist, but the rater has to choose between two or more statements, all of which may be favorable or unfavorable. The appraiser’s job is to identify which statement is most or in some cases least descriptive of the individual being evaluated. To reduce bias, the right answers are not known to the rater. The personnel department scores the answers based on the key. This key should be validated so management is in a position to say that individuals with higher scores are better—performing employees. (Likert, R. 1999. New Patterns of Management.)
5) Behavioural1y Anchored Rating Scales
These scales combine major elements from the critical incident and graphic rating scale approaches. The appraiser rates the employees based on items along continuum, but the points are examples of actual behavior on the given job rather than general descriptions or traits. Behaviorally anchored rating scales specify definite, observable, and measurable job behavior Job-related behavior arid performance dimensions are generated by asking participants to give specific illustrations on effective and ineffective behavior regarding each performance dimension. These behavioral examples are then retranslated into appropriate performance dimensions.
6) Group Order Ranking
The group order ranking requires the evaluator to place employees into a particular classification, such as “top one-fifth” or “second one-fifth.” If a rater has twenty subordinates, only four can be in the top fifth and, of course, four must also be relegated to the bottom fifth. The advantage of this method is that it prevent raters from inflating their evaluations so everyone looks good or from homogenizing the evaluations for everyone is rated near the average outcome that are usual with the graphic rating scale.
Question 2 Having identified the priority order, you must also analyze how you attempted to resolve the problem/issue. For example, what employment legislation was applicable? What academic theories did you critically evaluate and apply in order to respond the issues identified in the case study? What supporting statistics did you consider in order to resolve the problem?
When a deep study is made about the performance management system in a company, lot of discrepancies are noticed. The process applied needs improvement and the points mentioned needs attention:
1) The performance process begins with the establishment of performance standards. These should have evolved out of job analysis and the job description. These performance standards should also be clear and objective enough to be understood and measured.
2) Once performance standards are established, it is necessary to communicate these expectations. It should not be part of the employees’ job to guess what is expected of them. The problem is compounded when these standards are not communicated to the employees
3) The Third step in this process is measurement of performance. To determine what actual performance is, it is necessary to acquire information about it. We should be concerned with how we measure and what we measure. (Fiedler, F.E. 1997. A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness)
4) The fourth step in the performance process is the comparison of actual performance with standards. The attempt in this step is to note deviations between standard performance and actual performance.
5) The final step in the performance managent is the initiation of corrective action when necessary. Corrective action can be of two types; one is immediate and deals predominantly with symptoms.
Hence in the store for effectiveness Performance appraisal is concerned with setting objectives for individuals, monitoring progress towards these objectives on a regular basis in our atmosphere of trust and cooperation between the appraiser and the appraisee. Well designed appraisal systems benefit the organization, managers and individuals in different ways and need to fulfill certain key objectives if they are to be successful. Appraisal systems should be designed to focus employees on both their short and long-term objectives and career goals. It is also important to be aware of the problems associated with performance appraisal systems.
Leadership Management Styles
Leaders can be oriented towards both tasks and persons. Leaders are most effective when they achieve a high and balanced concern for people and for tasks. Each leader can be rated somewhere along each of the axes from 1to 9 depending on his orientation. (Bass, B.M. 1990. Leadership. Psychology and Organizational Behavior)
A leader with good interpersonal relationships may be developing a new policy that will have great impact on the work group. The situation is relatively vague but moderately favorable. The task is not very well defined and the leader-member relation is good. The leader is likely to be effective as he would like to consult the members and consider their thoughts and ideas. When the new policy gets approved, the situation becomes more favorable to him.
Management by Objectives
Management by objectives (MBO) is a process that converts organizational objectives into individual objectives. It consists of four steps: goal setting, action planning, self-control, and periodic reviews:- In goal setting, the organization’s overall objectives are used as guidelines from which departmental and individual objectives are set. These goals are agreed upon and then become the standards by which the employee’s results will be evaluated b) in action planning, the means are determined for achieving the ends established in goals setting. That is, realistic plans are developed to attain the objectives. c) Self—control refers to the systematic monitoring and measuring of performance. Ideally by having the individual review his or her own performance d) Finally, with periodic progress reviews, corrective action is initiated when behavior deviates from the standards established in the goal-setting phase.
Role of HR in change management
The core of the concept of HRM is that of development of human beings. The concept of development should cover not only the individual but also the entire organization. In addition to development the individual, attention needs to be given for the development of stronger principles i.e. two-person groups of the employee and his boss. Such principles are the basic units in the organization. Besides several groups like committees, task groups etc. also require attention. Development of such groups should be from the point of view of increasing collaboration amongst people in the organization, thus making for an effective decision—making. Finally, the entire department and the entire organization also should be covered by development. Their development should involve developing a climate conducive for their effectiveness, developing self-renewing mechanisms in the organizations so that they are able to adjust and developing relevant processes which contribute to their effectiveness. The goals of the HRM systems are to develop:
• The capabilities of each employee as an individual.
• The capabilities of each individual in relation to his or her present role.
• The capabilities of each employee in relation to his expected future roles.
• The relationship between each employee and the supervisor.
• The team spirit and functioning in every organizational unit.
* Collaboration among different units of the organization.
*The organizational overall health and self—renewing capabilities which, in turn, increase the enabling capabilities of individuals, teams and the entire organization.
Such a concept of development will focus on the different units available in the organization for different purposes. The individual and his role are important units for some purpose. For others, groups, departments and the entire organization are more relevant units. The concept of development should cover all such possible units. (Rayner,. & Adam-Smith,D. (2005) Managing and Leading People)
Rayner,c. & Adam-Smith,D. (2005) Managing and Leading People. CIPD
Bass, B.M. 1990. Leadership. Psychology and Organizational Behavior. Harper and Brothers: New York.
Fiedler, F.E. 1997. A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness, McGraw Hill: New York.
Kelly., J. 1994. Organizational Behavior. Rev. Ed Irwin: Homewood.
Likert, R. 1999. New Patterns of Management. McGraw-Hill: New York.
Leadership Trends / Styles
Leadership / Management Styles
10. Hughes, A.J., 1993. Business Process Leadership, and Social Sciences, Irwin: Homewood.