Last updated: July 23, 2019
Topic: BusinessEnergy
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‘State of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities, function in society and meet the ordinary demands of everyday life’. (The Free Dictionary, 2003)A vital aspect of our lives is mental health which includes the emotional, physical, social and intellectual facets. An individual’s health can deteriorate if just one of these facets were to lack as they all interlink. There are many mental illnesses, however, the three that will be discussed in more detail are Alzheimer’s, postpartum/ natal depression and bipolar.Alzheimer’sThe most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s, which is a disease that affects an individual’s brain function. This includes an individual’s those functions that are commonly associated with memory. (NHS Choices, 2016) There are many factors that can increase an individual’s chance of acquiring the illness, however, the actual cause has still yet to be discovered. This includes family history of the condition, increasing age and lifestyle conditions that are associated with cardiovascular disease. (NHS Choices, 2016) Alzheimer’s is a disease that is progressive and can grow gradually therefore affecting more and more parts of the brain so that it ends up damaged. As a result, individuals are able to develop and experience more symptoms which can eventually become severe. (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016) Alzheimer’s is a disease that can result in the nerve cell’s losing connections and gradually cause them to die and develop to brain tissue being reduced. Moreover, individuals who have this illness can have a lack of an important chemical that is needed in their brain so that signals can be transmitted. Signals will be unable to transmit effectively if these vital chemicals are reduced. (Alzheimer’s Society, 2016) The scale of an individual’s symptoms can affect their daily life. For example, if the symptoms were to be severe, then there can be a heavy interference within their daily life. These symptoms can include a struggle in decision making, confusion when in familiar places, issues when performing self-care tasks, difficulty in language and speech as well as having problems with mobility without an assistance. (NHS Choices, 2016) An individual’s daily life can be affected massively when the memory loss does begin worsen progressively. Resultant needs are the needs in which is imperative for an individual so that they are able to overcome the condition or illness that they are suffering from. One resultant need is that an individual with this condition may receive extra help at home from a carer so that they are able to receive some help around their home. For example, individuals may receive extra help with their healthcare, cooking, housekeeping and prepping meals. This is vital for someone who has Alzheimer’s as the disease is able to worsen progressively. Because of this, their inability to work around the house will increase and limit them them as their symptoms worsen. By having a care plan, the service user needs can met by a strong support system as they are constantly changing. For this to occur, the family members of the individual to be involved so their needs can be met. This is a crucial stage of the care plan. (NHS Choices, 2015) This care plan would be an agreement between the health professionals and the service users so that they are able to get the support that they need from their long-term health conditions.Postpartum/ Natal DepressionPostpartum depression, otherwise known as postnatal depression is a disorder that affects an individual’s mood and is associated with childbirth. Postpartum depression can affect those of all genders. (Paulson, 2010) This can usually happen between one week and one month  after giving birth. Parents who have postpartum depression can negatively affect their children. (Howard et al., 2009) The exact cause behind this disorder is still unclear to healthcare professionals, however the main cause is most commonly a mix between emotional and physical factors. Bipolar disorder, psychological stress and lack of support are all examples of risk factors associated with postpartum depression. Sometimes, only a short period of unhappiness can be expected after giving birth with most women. When the symptoms of this disorder becomes severe and last more than two weeks, then the individual should go to a professional to be diagnosed. (National Institute of Mental Health, 2017) There are three different ways that an individual may be affected when expecting the symptoms of postpartum depression. These are emotional, behavioural, and their cognition. Some individuals may experience certain emotional symptoms such as low self-esteem, trouble bonding with the baby, emptiness/numbness, severe mood swings, inability to feel comforted and many more. (Norsigian, 1971) Some behavioural symptoms that individuals may experience include low or no energy, social withdrawal, poor self care, and insomnia. (WebMD, 2009) It has been known that a lot of individuals have a low libido when experiencing this disorder. When it comes to postpartum depression, this can be seen more in females than males. (Barrett et al., 2003) Some symptoms that can affect an individual’s cognition when suffering postpartum depression includes poor memory, lack of concentration, fear of the baby and worry about harming their baby, their partner r themself. (CDC, 2017)Research which has been analysed and reviewed in-depth has shown that the link between postpartum depression and violence shows there is an increased risk of acquiring the disorder when experiencing violence. However, this research only reviewed violence experienced by male perpetrators to females. This means that the violence experienced by men or women by females is not considered. (Chen et al., 2012) Another physical cause that can induce postpartum depression is the elevated levels of prolactin. Prolactin is a protein that is most commonly known as its role entails milk to be produced by females. (Binart et al., 1998) It is known that a symptom that males and females may face when going through postpartum depression. This is because it is associated with the excess levels of prolactin, otherwise known as hyperprolactinemia. (Kronenberg and Williams, 2008)When it comes to postpartum depression, there are a lot of societal issues that could potentially cause it to occur. This is because of the pressure individuals feel that have been applied to them by society. One societal cause of postpartum depression is having low social support. Social support and depression can interlink as research that has been conducted has shown that there is an increased concern with psychological well-being when low social support is given. This is due to not having enough support socially therefore inducing stress upon an individual’s which is a risk factor for postpartum depression. (House, 1983) Another cause or risk factor for postpartum depression is having a low socioeconomic status. In Belgium, 11,909 individuals were surveyed by researchers over 7-years to investigate the link between socioeconomic status and depression. This included investigating poverty, subjective financial strain and a deprivation index. Studying the deprivation index included income, living conditions, home ownerships and savings which could all influence an individual and cause postpartum depression. (Howard, Leventhal and Mora, 2005)There is no actual genetic cause for postpartum depression. However, research by Jennifer Payne, a psychiatrist is being conducted. According to John Hopkins Medicine (2009), psychiatrist have been researching the link between postpartum depression and the chromosomal region that harbours genetic variants.A socio-environmental of postpartum depression is parental stress. A study has taken place to evaluate the link between parental stress and postpartum depression. This is because there has been a high concurrence of both of them within adolescent mothers. According to the research, about nineteen percent of the adolescents were diagnosed with this disorder. A quarter of that percentage expressed that they had experienced parental stress at high levels through six months after giving birth. Young mothers who had reported their increased levels of parental stress, have a higher chance of being at risk of postpartum depression. (Phipps et al, 2014)An individual who suffers from postpartum depression may affect their school work or job. This is because they may find it hard to focus on the task at hand due to dealing with depression as well as having to cope with a new baby. It is vital that individuals who are going through postpartum depression get the right help they need such as counselling so that they can focus on getting better. This may be helpful as an individual may become unemployed due to the effects that their condition can have on them, therefore they are able to get the necessary support. As well as that, an individual’s unemployment can also mean that they are unable to afford basic items. Therefore, getting help would be beneficial for them, their partner and their baby. Another resultant need that an individual with postpartum depression may have is a care plan. This would mean that the individual would have to work with a multidisciplinary team and work together in order for her to get better. By creating a care plan, an individual with this condition is able to create goals and targets that they need to achieve in order to get better. As a result, that individual will be able to benefit from the help that is given to them from specialist and their advice. This multidisciplinary team could consist of a GP, counsellor and paediatrician. A care plan would be able to detail everything that an individual would need guidance and support with the specialist.BipolarBipolar is a disorder that affects a person’s mental health whilst causing individuals to have time when their mood is elevated as well as periods of depression. (Anderson, Haddad and Scott, 2012) Before getting labelled bipolar, this disorder was named manic depression. This is due to the fact that the elevated moods were significant in this disorder and was known as hypomania or just mania. This depended upon the psychosis symptoms that are present or the level of severity. (American Psychiatry Association, 2013) When individuals go through a phase of mania, their mood can be affected in many ways such as being irritable, happy, or being abnormally energetic. When in the phases of depression, individuals may have  a negative outlook on life by being pessimistic which can also result in constant crying. (Anderson, Haddad and Scott, 2012) Also in this stage, individuals can often be strayed to make poor decisions in life. According to the American Psychiatry Association (2013), when individuals are over the age of twenty, then they are a higher risk of commiting suicide. This is a six percent increase than the average. There is a thirty to forty percent risk of individuals taking who self-harm. The most defining feature of depression of bipolar disorder is mania, which can vary depending upon the level of severity. (Barnett and Smoller, 2009) Individuals that are highly productive and more excitable and energetic have a wilder level of mania known as hypomania. As the level of severity can increases, as does an individuals behaviour such as having unrealistic views by making poor decisions, expressing erratic actions and suffer from insomnia. In extreme circumstances, individuals can become delusional by enforcing and expressing their distorted and unrealistic beliefs. They can also begin to hallucinate as well as starting to hear voices bring them to the point of psychosis. After an episode of mania, a state of depression follows. (Beentjes, Goossens and Poslawsky, 2012) Mania can range from stats of delirium or euphoria. When in experiencing states of mania or hypomania, individuals may express three or more of the following behaviours: short attention span, speaking in a rapid manner where they become uninterruptible, an increase in goal oriented activities, hypersexultiy, racing thoughts, ecxessive spending, and impulsive or high risk behaviours. (Barnett and Smoller, 2009) Manic episodes can last from three months and stay til at least six months if individuals are left untreated. (Titmarsh, 2013) Individuals who experience mania or hypomania may feel as if they are speaking in a very rapid manner as well as excessively, feeling as if their need for sleep has decreased as well as having their judgment impaired. (Tarr, Glue and Herbison, 2011) The cause of bipolar within an individual varies depending upon the situation and it still remains clear as to what the the underlying mechanism is. (Nierenberg et al., 2012) A physical cause of bipolar disorder could be due to the neurological effects that the brain has on an individual. Although it is less common for bipolar disorder, or those conditions similar to bipolar were to occur from injuries or problems related to neurology, it does happen. These conditions can include multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, stroke, HIV infection and in rare instances, temporal lobe epilepsy. However, these conditions are not limited to just cause bipolar. (Miklowitz and Chang, 2008)A societal cause of bipolar disorder could be due to the negative events that occur in life. For example, retrenchment, going through a divorce, death of someone close or family, moving houses and many other factors. These can trigger bipolar as individuals can be heavily affected by these situations in life. Such as if death were to occur in the family, an that individual was really close to the, then they can be pulled in a period of depression triggering the other symptoms of bipolar maybe even mania. (Bipolar Care Givers, 2013)Studies have taken place about behavioural genetics to identify the candidate genes and the many chromosomal regions can be linked to bipolar disorder. This can be influenced by genes that exert a mild to moderate effect. (Kerener, 2014) This means that if those in your immediate family have bipolar, the those individuals are at higher risk of being affected with bipolar disorder compared to the rest of the population. . There is also a risk of there being a major depressive disorder within individuals who have relatives with bipolar compared to the rest of the population. (Barnett and Smoller, 2009) Another possible genetic cause of bipolar is the advanced parental age, more so with fathers than mothers. This has been studied and researched in depth, linking the risk of acquiring bipolar disorder within an individual’s child. This study showed that with a children with fathers aged 55 years and older were more likely to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder as opposed to those children with fathers aged 20-24 years old. It was also shown that there was a strong effect with the paternal age and no actual significant statistical evidence regarding the maternal age. (Frans et al., 2008)Socio-environmental causes of bipolar are well looked into due to the fact that these factor can play important roles within an individual’s development stage in life. As well as that, they play significant roles regarding bipolar disorder as well as an individual’s psychosocial variables that may interfere with their genetic disposition. There is a possibility that interpersonal relationships and life events, more so those that have recently taken place, can contribute to episodes of bipolar disorder. This can include any recurrences and onset mood episodes. This is the same for unipolar depression. (Serretti and Mandelli, 2008) In a survey that took place, it was reviewed that 30 to 50 percent of adults that were diagnosed with bipolar reported that they had childhood experiences that were abusive and/or traumatic. As well as that, on an average, it was associated with more co-occurrences with post traumatic stress disorder and an increased risk of suicide attempts. The number of individuals that have reported stressful events within their childhood is increased within adults that have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder, as opposed to those without. This is more particularly with with those who had childhood events that stemmed from harsh environments rather than from their own behaviour. (Brietzke et al., 2012) Another A resultant need of bipolar could be suicide More and more suicide attempts have been derived from suicidal ideation, caused by bipolar disorder. The risk of suicide is higher within individuals whose bipolar disorder began with mixed affective and depressive episodes. These individuals also have a poorer diagnosis. (Picardi, 2009) In individuals who have bipolar disorder, one in ten attempt suicide once in their life resulting ion many of the attempts being successful. (Reinhardt and Reinhardt, 2013) If individuals were to get help for their depressive moods and bipolar, such as seeing a counsellor, then they may not feel the need to take their own life. As well as that, individuals may isolate themselves due to the multiple causes of bipolar. These socio-environmental factors and physical vulnerability, such as being abused, can cause individuals to become recluse. (NHS Choices, 2016) To segregate these causes of bipolar, can reinforce the fact that we may sometimes neglect the triggers of the disorder. Therefore, even if the single exact cause of bipolar may or may not be unknown, the contributing factors towards this mental health disorder can be recognised. As a result, when isolating the factors that may contribute to bipolar is in fact ignoring the causes.