Student Essay, Research PaperLEADERSHIP and MOTIVATIONA ) LeadershipUnder the subject? Leadership and Motivation? we will, foremost, construct on the theoretical analyses ofleading and the development of this theory.
Secondly, we will be detecting the development of themotive theory.Leadership is non an issue which has become evident to us in the recent past.Perhaps it is an issuewhich has been extremely regarded in public eyes in every phase of history.The first individual Adam was aleader of his clip, Moses, Jesus, Cesar and many others.Their position may be different in their societies butthey all had the traits and the qualities that a leader should have.Some leaders such as Stalin, Hitler andMao may hold misused their leading accomplishments and have misled the people they influenced.
However this isnon our point.Nevertheless, they were the leaders of 1000000s of influenced people by themselves and theyled those people to a manner in which they made people believe what they thought was right.So, as we have understood that? leading is the art or procedure of act uponing people so that they perform assigned undertakings volitionally and in an efficient and effectual manner.
? ( Bruce R. Jewell,1996 ) .Leadership is, hence, important in actuating people.In fact, leading is the key to motivation.If we mention about leading or motive, we will hold to advert both of them.
It is excessively hard to divide them from each other.Probably that is the ground why we normally see both of these constructs together in the text books. So? What is the kernel of leading? ? and? What makes for an effectual leader? ?As we are more interested in concern leading we are non traveling to look at the other kingdom ofleadership.We said leading is the art of act uponing people.To be able to accomplish this a perfect harmoniousness should be between leaders and the people who leaders influence for effectual work.For that to go on, the people who are called leaders should hold some particular traits and accomplishments which may of course be in their personality or may be gained in their life time.Before get downing to talk about those traits and accomplishments, allow us, foremost, observe the differentiations between a director and a leader since these two footings may doconfusion in our minds.A director is a functionary.
He/she enforces what he/she has in his/herknowledge.Whereas a leader is an pioneer, he finds the knowledge.While a director acceptsduty, a leader seeks responsibility.And while a director controls employees, a leader hastrust, which is likely one of the most indispensable things in a relationship between a leader and hisemployees, against employees.A director is competent, whereas a leader is generative.
When a directorattempts to understate hazard, a leader takes calculated risk.A director accepts talking but a leader generatesit.When a director uses power cautiusly, a leader uses it forcefully.
In the same manner, a director delegatescautiusly, whereas a leader does it enthusiastically.Lastly, while a director views workers as employees, aleader positions them as possible followers.As a consequence, being a director and being a leader are differentthings.Generally directors have legitimate power as a consequence of an assignment to a place, whereasleaders emerge from other people and are promoted.Of class directors may hold leading qualitiesbut it is non common.1.
TRAITS and SKILLSBefore traveling onto the reply of? what are these? ? , I believe that, foremost we should admit thedifference between trait and skill.A trait is something one is either born with or additions and develops early in life, whereas a accomplishment is something which is obtained from experiences subsequently on.For accomplishments we ask the inquiry? what can we make? ? instead than? what are we? ?Talking of traits, while some surveies concentrated on physical traits ( e.g. energy, visual aspect ) ,some others concentrated on intelligence or personality ( e.g. enthusiasm, assurance. ) So the traits andthe accomplishments which are required of a leader can be explained as:Traits SkillsAdaptability IntelligenceAwareness CreativityAmbition Communication accomplishmentsDecisiveness Co-operationDomination KnowledgeEnergy PersuasivenessPersistence Social accomplishmentsSelf-confidence Self-disciplineWilling to take duty Organising abilityAlthough leaders have many of these traits and accomplishments, they normally do non possess all of theseattributes.
To give an illustration? Winston Churchill had the ability of specifying missions and endsclearly.General George Marshall, who was America`s head of material in the World War II, is an illustration ofleading through responsibility. ? ( P.F.Drucker,1992 ) Therefore? Styles of Leadership? have beengenerated by theoreticians to place the leaders with peculiar traits and accomplishments.2.STYLES of LEADERSHIPIn this subdivision we will concentrate on the behavior of the leaders.We will besides look at the theorieswhich are related to these styles.
Styles of leading are divided into four types.Let us start with the firstone:a ) The Autocratic Manner:As we can understand from the name of the manner, the bossy leader is autocratic. ? Directors whofollow an bossy manner merely publish orders and expect those underneath them to obeyunquestioningly. ? ( R.
W.Griffin,1993 ) .Hence the bossy leader assumes all the responsibility.A goodthing about this manner is that determinations can be made really quickly.Some rigorous administrations such as the ground forces and the fire service need this sort of style.However this manner in many administrations would ensue indefeat and bitterness in the work group as everything in the administration depends really much upon the leader.In many administrations employees want greater engagement in decision-making.B ) The Bureaucratic Manner:The bureaucratic personality can non make without the regulation book.
Even though there are advantages infootings of predictability and each individual knows precisely what their state of affairs is and what they do, this manner isnon flexible and once more consequences in bitterness in the work group.If the leader encounters a state of affairs whichdoes non be in the regulation book he can non get by with it.degree Celsius ) The Democratic Manner:The democratic leader is more advisory, as the leader of this manner involves employees in determinationdoing and inquire their opinions.However the leaders retain the last determination which is made by the leaderhimself.This manner is particularly needed where the experient workers need to be to the full involved in theirwork.Although with this manner, improved decision-making, high morale and greater committedness by theworkers are obtained, this engagement is time-consuming and the loss of direction control is everpossible.
vitamin D ) The Free Rein Style:Goals and aims of the work are set by the leader for subsidiaries in this manner and they are leftentirely to accomplish these objectives.This manner provides freedom for willing and enthusiastic workers thatthey are motivated by this freedom.However to make the occupation in that manner is hazardous since it is dependent uponthe unity of workers.
3.BEHAVIOURAL and CONTINGENCY THEORIESThe theories on leading which were produced in recent old ages provide us with more elaborate surveiesof the leading styles.Considering the differentiation between behavioral and eventuality theories, thebehavioral theory is an effort to place the indispensable characteristics of leadership.Behind this effort there isthe impression of the? individual best manner? .Unlike in eventuality theory the best ways to take vary harmonizing tothe state of affairs in which the leader is involved.a ) Mc Gregor`s? TheoryX? and? TheoryY? :Douglas McGregor produced two unlike theories.TheoryX implies? economic adult male? .
In this theory, workers are loath and hold to be given extrinsic rewards.As for the TheoryY, workers prefer moreengagement in decision-making and responsibility.As a consequence, TheoryX sort of workers result in anbossy leading, whereas TheoryY sort of workers result in a democratic even a free rein manner of leading.B ) Blake and Mouton`s Managerial Grid:In this theory two dimensions were used ; ? Concern for People? and? Concern for Production. ? Fivemanners have been identified in this grid:1.
Impoverished Directors: There is small concern for both people ( workers ) and production.2.Authority-Obedience: Great concern for production and small concern for people.3.
County Club Management: Great concern for workers and small concern for production.4.Organisational Man-Management: A balanced degree of concern for both people and production.5.Team Management: Great concern for both workers and production.degree Celsius ) Rensis Likert:In Likert`s analysis on leading four systems are identified.These are:1.
Exploitive-Authoritative System: Menaces, control and imposed determinations are the chiefcharacteristics.Team work is non encouraged really much.2.The Benevolent-Authoritative System: It is a master-servant relationship.3.The Advisory System: Peoples are motivated by wagess and by being involved in determinationdevising.
4.Participative Group System: Leaderships have complete assurance in their subsidiaries andpromote them to participate.As a consequence, employees become willingto accomplish the organizational ends.
The 4th system is besides the 1 that Likert respects as ideal.vitamin D ) Fiedler`s Contingency Model:In Fiedler`s sentiment, when the dealingss between workers are reasonably good, the undertaking is reasonablystructured and the leader has a moderate grade of power and authorization, a dealingss orientated manner is themost effectual one.This theory more expressions like eventuality theory harmonizing to which the best method ofleading is dependent upon the state of affairs in which the director is present.vitamin E ) Robert House and Path -Goal Theory:Harmonizing to which theory, the best leader is the 1 who implies his workers how their public presentationaffects the wages they receive.SummaryCommon definition of Leadership compared to most of them is the capacity to act upon others.
Thefoundation of effectual leading is believing through the administrations mission, specifying it andset uping it, clearly and visibly.A leader sets ends, sets the precedences and sets and maintains thestandarts.A leader sees leading as duty instead than a privilige, hence, if something goesincorrect he/she does non fault others.A director and a leader are non the same things.
A director comes to a place as a consequence of anassignment, whereas a leader is promoted and emerges.Leaderships have particular traits and skilcubic decimeter, nevertheless, as they do non possess all these traits and accomplishments, there aredifferent manners of leading with the leaders who have peculiar traits and accomplishments.As for the different theories of leading, which have been built up in recent old ages, they can be dividedinto two types.These are:1.Behavioural Theory: This sort is an effort to place the indispensable characteristics of leadership.
Behind thatthere is the? individual best manner? of leading.2.ContingencyTheory: The best ways to take vary harmonizing to the state of affairs in which leader is involved.Consequently, ? There is no individual manner of being in charge of a group of people.The most thorough leader is the 1 who provides correct installations and environment to work for the squad members.
?( D.Torrington,1989 )B ) MotivationAs concerns have expanded and the figure of employees within work force has increased over thecentury, the construct of motive ( of employees ) has become evident along with the enlargement of theconcern universe, too.Since motive is something which is to be considered by the leader or director of acompany, leading and motive are normally seen together in survey books.In the chapter of? Leadership? we have seen many theories refering leading and leading styles.In this chapter wewill be detecting the theories over motive which have been built up throughout this century.
Naturally, the theories of motive have been built up over the inquiry of? How to actuate workersto work good for organisation? ? However, research has shown that there is no simple reply for thatquestion.Probably that was the ground why many theories have emerged.As for the definition of motive, ? Motivation, loosely defined, is the set of forces cause people tobehave in certain ways. ? ( R.W.
Griffin,1993 ) .Theorists tried to construct up their theories on the bases of theinquiries which are? What makes people act or act in a certain mode? ? , ? Why people choose a peculiar class of action? ? and? What gives workers occupation satisfaction? ?In this chapter we will see six different theories over the construct of motivation.These are:1.The Classical Theory 4.
Two Factor Theory2.TheoryX and TheoryY 5.Expectancy Theory3.Maslow`s Hierarchy of Needs 6.TheoryZ1.THE CLASSICAL TheoryHarmonizing to the classical theory people are motivated entirely by money.
In the early century FrederickTaylor, an industrial director, proposed that if people are motivated by money, paying them more moneywould increase their productiveness, and if a company can happen better ways to execute occupations, it will be able tobring forth its merchandises more cheaply, do higher net incomes and, as a consequence, be able to pay workers more.As a consequence of this theory, clip and gesture surveies which use industrial technology techniques toanalyze a occupation in order to find how to execute it most expeditiously were made.The system of peacework which means to pay a set rate per merchandise worker completes, was besides implemented emerging fromthe same theory.Taylor besides enforced the scientific direction system and because of which? Henry Ford was able tobuild autos more quickly and cheaply than any other automaker-while paying his workers more than doublethe usual wage. ? ( R.W. Griffin,1993 ) .
The Scientific Management System tries to increase productiveness andefficiency by utilizing scientific analyses of single jobs.However this system ignored the factors otherthan money that make people happy or unhappy.2.THE HAWTHORNE STUDIESOne of the first challenges to the classical theories came from these studies.
When some research workers began a survey at the Howthorne Work of Western Electric, they bewilderingly found out that increased illuming conditions improved productiveness but so did lower lighting conditions.Whereas an addition in workers salary did non better productivity.Consequently, the scientists concluded that when workers believe that they receive particular attending, this caused worker productiveness to rise.On the bases of these surveies new theories were built up.
3. ? THEORY-X? and? THEORY-Y?In a motive survey, Douglas McGregor noticed that directors have different beliefs in whatmotivates people at work, and he divided these beliefs into two classs:1.TheoryX,2.TheoryY.TheoryX sort of directors believe that people are of course lazy, irresponsible and uncooperativehence they must be threatened, punished or to a great extent rewarded.
Unlike TheoryY sort of directors believethat people are of course energetic, responsible and are self-motivated and interested in being productive.McGregor considered TheoryY beliefs as by and large the correct ones.Thus the directors of TheoryY aremore likely to hold motivated and satisfied employees.4.
MASLOW`S HIERARCHY of NEEDSAnother theory which resulted from the Howthorne Studies was developed by a psychologist calledAbraham Maslow.Maslow proposed five sort of different demands and suggested that they are arranged in ahierarchy of importance.In Maslow`s theory the lower degree demands must be satisfied before traveling on tothe higher degrees.The most basic degree is the physiological demands such as nutrient, H2O, shelter and slumber.After that, security demands come.This include the stableness and protection from the unknown.
Businessesoffer pension programs and occupation security to assist fulfill these demands.Social demands are at the 3rd degree to be satisfied.These include the demand for friendship.The satisfactionof these demands make you experience that you? belong? in the company.
After societal demands, esteem demands should be satisfied.These include the demand for acknowledgment, position and asgood as ego regard which can be satisfied by supplying a well-thought-of occupation rubric and a big office.Finally, holding satisfied all the lower degree demands, an person can seek to fulfill self-actualisationneeds.These are the human needs for self-fulfillment.These include to fulfill one`s capablenesss and toaccomplish new marks which can be satisfied by a ambitious occupation.
5.TWO FACTOR THEORYThis theory of motive was developed by Frederick Herzberg.According to this theory, occupationsatisfaction depends on two factors: hygienic and motivation.Hygienic factors have nil to make with motive of workers.For case, work status is ahygienic factor, in the absence of which workers will be dissatisfied.
But to supply this hygienic factordoes non needfully intend the satisfaction of workers.Workers will merely non be dissatisfied.On the other manus, for case, if workers receive no acknowledgment they will be neither satisfied nordissatisfied.But if acknowledgment is provided, they will go more satisfied.
Thus, their motive willincrease.And these factors are called motivative factors.6.EXPECTANCY TheoryThis is a newer and slightly more accurate theory of employee motivation.Expectancy theorysuggests that people are motivated to work harder toward wagess that they want and that they believe they have a sensible opportunity of obtaining.To understand this theory better allow us believe of an athlete preparation hard.
Training hard will betterperformance.And there is a nexus between public presentation and reward.And jocks will merely develop hard if theybelieve they have a sensible opportunity of accomplishing success.
7.THEORY-ZAs a comparatively new theory, Theory Z was foremost suggested by William Ouchi in the early 1980`s.As aconsequence of his research over the traditional US and Nipponese houses, Ouchi found an attack to direction that a few really successful United states houses are using.In his attack ouchi combines successful elements from both states such as group determination doing which the Japanese enforced and specialised calling way which the other US houses enforced.Thus, successful elements of the traditional US direction and the traditional Nipponese direction have been combined in Theory Z.
SummaryMotivation is the set of forces that cause people to act in certain ways.To achieve this end differenttheories have been built up.In the classical theory money is the exclusive instrument by which people aremotivated.This attack of Frederick Taylor caused time-and-motion surveies, piecework system andscientific direction to go evident.The Hawthorne Studies caused the importance of attending workers receive to be realised and gave mannerfor the new theories to be built up.In McGregor`s TheoryX and TheoryY, the directors of TheoryX have a pessimistic and negative position oftheir workers and the directors of TheoryY have a more optimistic and positive position of their workers.Maslow`s Hierarchy of Needs have five levels.Physiological demands are the first 1s to be met.Then, inbend, security demands, societal demands, esteem demands and self-actualisation demands should be met.Leaders ordirectors should non seek to fulfill the higher degree demands before fulfilling the lower degree demands.In two factor theory, occupation satisfaction depends on two factors.Hygienic factors must be present in orderfor employees non to be dissatisfied.Motivating factors are the 1s which lead employees to work harder.Expectancy theory suggests that people are motivated to work toward wagess that they want and thatthey believe they have a sensible opportunity of obtaining.Theory-Z is an attack to direction that in which the successful elements of the traditional United statesand Nipponese direction are blended together.Consequently, we have come to gain that both leading and motive consist of some chief theories.Apparently we can non depict neither leading nor motive with a individual best theory. Because, the theory which is suited for one company may non be suited for the other one.It is evident that most of the load of a company is, on a big graduated table, on the shoulders of the leader of that company.The director or the leader whom the companies of today`s universe are looking for is the individual who can last and can offer the best service to community in a competitory concern universe under different circumstances.So the elusive point was non the theories themselves but it was the leader who can maintain gait with the altering environment.1.Jewell, B.R.,1996, ? An Integrated Approach To Business Studies? , England, Longman.2.Griffin, R.W.,1993, ? Business? , New Jersey, Prentice Hall.3.Furnham, A.,1996, ? The Myths of Management? , London, Whurr.4.Stewart, R.,1997, ? The World of Management? , Oxford, A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group.5.Drucker, P.F.,1994, ? The Practice of Management? , London, A member of the Reed Elsevier group.6.Drucker, P.F.,1994, ? Pull offing for The Future? , London, A member of the Reed Elsevier plc group.7.Erskine, R.,1991, ? Business Management? , Cambridge, Prentice Hall.