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A ) Leadership

Under the subject? Leadership and Motivation? we will, foremost, construct on the theoretical analyses of

leading and the development of this theory.Secondly, we will be detecting the development of the

motive theory.

Leadership is non an issue which has become evident to us in the recent past.Perhaps it is an issue

which has been extremely regarded in public eyes in every phase of history.The first individual Adam was a

leader of his clip, Moses, Jesus, Cesar and many others.Their position may be different in their societies but

they all had the traits and the qualities that a leader should have.Some leaders such as Stalin, Hitler and

Mao may hold misused their leading accomplishments and have misled the people they influenced.However this is

non our point.Nevertheless, they were the leaders of 1000000s of influenced people by themselves and they

led those people to a manner in which they made people believe what they thought was right.So, as we have understood that? leading is the art or procedure of act uponing people so that they perform assigned undertakings volitionally and in an efficient and effectual manner. ? ( Bruce R. Jewell,1996 ) .Leadership is, hence, important in actuating people.In fact, leading is the key to motivation.If we mention about leading or motive, we will hold to advert both of them.It is excessively hard to divide them from each other.Probably that is the ground why we normally see both of these constructs together in the text books. So? What is the kernel of leading? ? and? What makes for an effectual leader? ?

As we are more interested in concern leading we are non traveling to look at the other kingdom of

leadership.We said leading is the art of act uponing people.To be able to accomplish this a perfect harmoniousness should be between leaders and the people who leaders influence for effectual work.For that to go on, the people who are called leaders should hold some particular traits and accomplishments which may of course be in their personality or may be gained in their life time.Before get downing to talk about those traits and accomplishments, allow us, foremost, observe the differentiations between a director and a leader since these two footings may do

confusion in our minds.A director is a functionary.He/she enforces what he/she has in his/her

knowledge.Whereas a leader is an pioneer, he finds the knowledge.While a director accepts

duty, a leader seeks responsibility.And while a director controls employees, a leader has

trust, which is likely one of the most indispensable things in a relationship between a leader and his

employees, against employees.A director is competent, whereas a leader is generative.When a director

attempts to understate hazard, a leader takes calculated risk.A director accepts talking but a leader generates

it.When a director uses power cautiusly, a leader uses it forcefully.In the same manner, a director delegates

cautiusly, whereas a leader does it enthusiastically.Lastly, while a director views workers as employees, a

leader positions them as possible followers.As a consequence, being a director and being a leader are different

things.Generally directors have legitimate power as a consequence of an assignment to a place, whereas

leaders emerge from other people and are promoted.Of class directors may hold leading qualities

but it is non common.


Before traveling onto the reply of? what are these? ? , I believe that, foremost we should admit the

difference between trait and skill.A trait is something one is either born with or additions and develops early in life, whereas a accomplishment is something which is obtained from experiences subsequently on.For accomplishments we ask the inquiry? what can we make? ? instead than? what are we? ?

Talking of traits, while some surveies concentrated on physical traits ( e.g. energy, visual aspect ) ,

some others concentrated on intelligence or personality ( e.g. enthusiasm, assurance. ) So the traits and

the accomplishments which are required of a leader can be explained as:

Traits Skills

Adaptability Intelligence

Awareness Creativity

Ambition Communication accomplishments

Decisiveness Co-operation

Domination Knowledge

Energy Persuasiveness

Persistence Social accomplishments

Self-confidence Self-discipline

Willing to take duty Organising ability

Although leaders have many of these traits and accomplishments, they normally do non possess all of these

attributes.To give an illustration? Winston Churchill had the ability of specifying missions and ends

clearly.General George Marshall, who was America`s head of material in the World War II, is an illustration of

leading through responsibility. ? ( P.F.Drucker,1992 ) Therefore? Styles of Leadership? have been

generated by theoreticians to place the leaders with peculiar traits and accomplishments.


In this subdivision we will concentrate on the behavior of the leaders.We will besides look at the theories

which are related to these styles.Styles of leading are divided into four types.Let us start with the first


a ) The Autocratic Manner:

As we can understand from the name of the manner, the bossy leader is autocratic. ? Directors who

follow an bossy manner merely publish orders and expect those underneath them to obey

unquestioningly. ? ( R.W.Griffin,1993 ) .Hence the bossy leader assumes all the responsibility.A good

thing about this manner is that determinations can be made really quickly.Some rigorous administrations such as the ground forces and the fire service need this sort of style.However this manner in many administrations would ensue in

defeat and bitterness in the work group as everything in the administration depends really much upon the leader.In many administrations employees want greater engagement in decision-making.

B ) The Bureaucratic Manner:

The bureaucratic personality can non make without the regulation book.Even though there are advantages in

footings of predictability and each individual knows precisely what their state of affairs is and what they do, this manner is

non flexible and once more consequences in bitterness in the work group.If the leader encounters a state of affairs which

does non be in the regulation book he can non get by with it.

degree Celsius ) The Democratic Manner:

The democratic leader is more advisory, as the leader of this manner involves employees in determination

doing and inquire their opinions.However the leaders retain the last determination which is made by the leader

himself.This manner is particularly needed where the experient workers need to be to the full involved in their

work.Although with this manner, improved decision-making, high morale and greater committedness by the

workers are obtained, this engagement is time-consuming and the loss of direction control is ever


vitamin D ) The Free Rein Style:

Goals and aims of the work are set by the leader for subsidiaries in this manner and they are left

entirely to accomplish these objectives.This manner provides freedom for willing and enthusiastic workers that

they are motivated by this freedom.However to make the occupation in that manner is hazardous since it is dependent upon

the unity of workers.


The theories on leading which were produced in recent old ages provide us with more elaborate surveies

of the leading styles.Considering the differentiation between behavioral and eventuality theories, the

behavioral theory is an effort to place the indispensable characteristics of leadership.Behind this effort there is

the impression of the? individual best manner? .Unlike in eventuality theory the best ways to take vary harmonizing to

the state of affairs in which the leader is involved.

a ) Mc Gregor`s? TheoryX? and? TheoryY? :

Douglas McGregor produced two unlike theories.TheoryX implies? economic adult male? .In this theory

, workers are loath and hold to be given extrinsic rewards.As for the TheoryY, workers prefer more

engagement in decision-making and responsibility.As a consequence, TheoryX sort of workers result in an

bossy leading, whereas TheoryY sort of workers result in a democratic even a free rein manner of leading.

B ) Blake and Mouton`s Managerial Grid:

In this theory two dimensions were used ; ? Concern for People? and? Concern for Production. ? Five

manners have been identified in this grid:

1.Impoverished Directors: There is small concern for both people ( workers ) and production.

2.Authority-Obedience: Great concern for production and small concern for people.

3.County Club Management: Great concern for workers and small concern for production.

4.Organisational Man-Management: A balanced degree of concern for both people and production.

5.Team Management: Great concern for both workers and production.

degree Celsius ) Rensis Likert:

In Likert`s analysis on leading four systems are identified.These are:

1.Exploitive-Authoritative System: Menaces, control and imposed determinations are the chief

characteristics.Team work is non encouraged really much.

2.The Benevolent-Authoritative System: It is a master-servant relationship.

3.The Advisory System: Peoples are motivated by wagess and by being involved in determination


4.Participative Group System: Leaderships have complete assurance in their subsidiaries and

promote them to participate.As a consequence, employees become willing

to accomplish the organizational ends.

The 4th system is besides the 1 that Likert respects as ideal.

vitamin D ) Fiedler`s Contingency Model:

In Fiedler`s sentiment, when the dealingss between workers are reasonably good, the undertaking is reasonably

structured and the leader has a moderate grade of power and authorization, a dealingss orientated manner is the

most effectual one.This theory more expressions like eventuality theory harmonizing to which the best method of

leading is dependent upon the state of affairs in which the director is present.

vitamin E ) Robert House and Path -Goal Theory:

Harmonizing to which theory, the best leader is the 1 who implies his workers how their public presentation

affects the wages they receive.


Common definition of Leadership compared to most of them is the capacity to act upon others.The

foundation of effectual leading is believing through the administrations mission, specifying it and

set uping it, clearly and visibly.A leader sets ends, sets the precedences and sets and maintains the

standarts.A leader sees leading as duty instead than a privilige, hence, if something goes

incorrect he/she does non fault others.

A director and a leader are non the same things.A director comes to a place as a consequence of an

assignment, whereas a leader is promoted and emerges.

Leaderships have particular traits and skil

cubic decimeter, nevertheless, as they do non possess all these traits and accomplishments, there are

different manners of leading with the leaders who have peculiar traits and accomplishments.

As for the different theories of leading, which have been built up in recent old ages, they can be divided

into two types.These are:

1.Behavioural Theory: This sort is an effort to place the indispensable characteristics of leadership.Behind that

there is the? individual best manner? of leading.

2.ContingencyTheory: The best ways to take vary harmonizing to the state of affairs in which leader is involved.

Consequently, ? There is no individual manner of being in charge of a group of people.The most thorough leader is the 1 who provides correct installations and environment to work for the squad members. ?

( D.Torrington,1989 )

B ) Motivation

As concerns have expanded and the figure of employees within work force has increased over the

century, the construct of motive ( of employees ) has become evident along with the enlargement of the

concern universe, too.Since motive is something which is to be considered by the leader or director of a

company, leading and motive are normally seen together in survey books.In the chapter of

? Leadership? we have seen many theories refering leading and leading styles.In this chapter we

will be detecting the theories over motive which have been built up throughout this century.

Naturally, the theories of motive have been built up over the inquiry of? How to actuate workers

to work good for organisation? ? However, research has shown that there is no simple reply for that

question.Probably that was the ground why many theories have emerged.

As for the definition of motive, ? Motivation, loosely defined, is the set of forces cause people to

behave in certain ways. ? ( R.W. Griffin,1993 ) .Theorists tried to construct up their theories on the bases of the

inquiries which are? What makes people act or act in a certain mode? ? , ? Why people choose a peculiar class of action? ? and? What gives workers occupation satisfaction? ?

In this chapter we will see six different theories over the construct of motivation.These are:

1.The Classical Theory 4.Two Factor Theory

2.TheoryX and TheoryY 5.Expectancy Theory

3.Maslow`s Hierarchy of Needs 6.TheoryZ


Harmonizing to the classical theory people are motivated entirely by money.In the early century Frederick

Taylor, an industrial director, proposed that if people are motivated by money, paying them more money

would increase their productiveness, and if a company can happen better ways to execute occupations, it will be able to

bring forth its merchandises more cheaply, do higher net incomes and, as a consequence, be able to pay workers more.

As a consequence of this theory, clip and gesture surveies which use industrial technology techniques to

analyze a occupation in order to find how to execute it most expeditiously were made.The system of peace

work which means to pay a set rate per merchandise worker completes, was besides implemented emerging from

the same theory.

Taylor besides enforced the scientific direction system and because of which? Henry Ford was able to

build autos more quickly and cheaply than any other automaker-while paying his workers more than double

the usual wage. ? ( R.W. Griffin,1993 ) .The Scientific Management System tries to increase productiveness and

efficiency by utilizing scientific analyses of single jobs.However this system ignored the factors other

than money that make people happy or unhappy.


One of the first challenges to the classical theories came from these studies.When some research workers began a survey at the Howthorne Work of Western Electric, they bewilderingly found out that increased illuming conditions improved productiveness but so did lower lighting conditions.Whereas an addition in workers salary did non better productivity.Consequently, the scientists concluded that when workers believe that they receive particular attending, this caused worker productiveness to rise.On the bases of these surveies new theories were built up.

3. ? THEORY-X? and? THEORY-Y?

In a motive survey, Douglas McGregor noticed that directors have different beliefs in what

motivates people at work, and he divided these beliefs into two classs:



TheoryX sort of directors believe that people are of course lazy, irresponsible and uncooperative

hence they must be threatened, punished or to a great extent rewarded.Unlike TheoryY sort of directors believe

that people are of course energetic, responsible and are self-motivated and interested in being productive.

McGregor considered TheoryY beliefs as by and large the correct ones.Thus the directors of TheoryY are

more likely to hold motivated and satisfied employees.


Another theory which resulted from the Howthorne Studies was developed by a psychologist called

Abraham Maslow.Maslow proposed five sort of different demands and suggested that they are arranged in a

hierarchy of importance.In Maslow`s theory the lower degree demands must be satisfied before traveling on to

the higher degrees.

The most basic degree is the physiological demands such as nutrient, H2O, shelter and slumber.

After that, security demands come.This include the stableness and protection from the unknown.Businesses

offer pension programs and occupation security to assist fulfill these demands.

Social demands are at the 3rd degree to be satisfied.These include the demand for friendship.The satisfaction

of these demands make you experience that you? belong? in the company.

After societal demands, esteem demands should be satisfied.These include the demand for acknowledgment, position and as

good as ego regard which can be satisfied by supplying a well-thought-of occupation rubric and a big office.

Finally, holding satisfied all the lower degree demands, an person can seek to fulfill self-actualisation

needs.These are the human needs for self-fulfillment.These include to fulfill one`s capablenesss and to

accomplish new marks which can be satisfied by a ambitious occupation.


This theory of motive was developed by Frederick Herzberg.According to this theory, occupation

satisfaction depends on two factors: hygienic and motivation.

Hygienic factors have nil to make with motive of workers.For case, work status is a

hygienic factor, in the absence of which workers will be dissatisfied.But to supply this hygienic factor

does non needfully intend the satisfaction of workers.Workers will merely non be dissatisfied.

On the other manus, for case, if workers receive no acknowledgment they will be neither satisfied nor

dissatisfied.But if acknowledgment is provided, they will go more satisfied.Thus, their motive will

increase.And these factors are called motivative factors.


This is a newer and slightly more accurate theory of employee motivation.Expectancy theory

suggests that people are motivated to work harder toward wagess that they want and that they believe they have a sensible opportunity of obtaining.

To understand this theory better allow us believe of an athlete preparation hard.Training hard will better

performance.And there is a nexus between public presentation and reward.And jocks will merely develop hard if they

believe they have a sensible opportunity of accomplishing success.


As a comparatively new theory, Theory Z was foremost suggested by William Ouchi in the early 1980`s.As a

consequence of his research over the traditional US and Nipponese houses, Ouchi found an attack to direction that a few really successful United states houses are using.In his attack ouchi combines successful elements from both states such as group determination doing which the Japanese enforced and specialised calling way which the other US houses enforced.Thus, successful elements of the traditional US direction and the traditional Nipponese direction have been combined in Theory Z.


Motivation is the set of forces that cause people to act in certain ways.To achieve this end different

theories have been built up.In the classical theory money is the exclusive instrument by which people are

motivated.This attack of Frederick Taylor caused time-and-motion surveies, piecework system and

scientific direction to go evident.

The Hawthorne Studies caused the importance of attending workers receive to be realised and gave manner

for the new theories to be built up.

In McGregor`s TheoryX and TheoryY, the directors of TheoryX have a pessimistic and negative position of

their workers and the directors of TheoryY have a more optimistic and positive position of their workers.

Maslow`s Hierarchy of Needs have five levels.Physiological demands are the first 1s to be met.Then, in

bend, security demands, societal demands, esteem demands and self-actualisation demands should be met.Leaders or

directors should non seek to fulfill the higher degree demands before fulfilling the lower degree demands.

In two factor theory, occupation satisfaction depends on two factors.Hygienic factors must be present in order

for employees non to be dissatisfied.Motivating factors are the 1s which lead employees to work harder.

Expectancy theory suggests that people are motivated to work toward wagess that they want and that

they believe they have a sensible opportunity of obtaining.

Theory-Z is an attack to direction that in which the successful elements of the traditional United states

and Nipponese direction are blended together.

Consequently, we have come to gain that both leading and motive consist of some chief theories.Apparently we can non depict neither leading nor motive with a individual best theory. Because, the theory which is suited for one company may non be suited for the other one.

It is evident that most of the load of a company is, on a big graduated table, on the shoulders of the leader of that company.The director or the leader whom the companies of today`s universe are looking for is the individual who can last and can offer the best service to community in a competitory concern universe under different circumstances.So the elusive point was non the theories themselves but it was the leader who can maintain gait with the altering environment.

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