Surveies Essay, Research Papersurvey usher for European History or Global Studies1. Petrarch.

– Called the & # 8220 ; Father of all Humanism. & # 8221 ; ReveredRoman Cicero above allothers. Followed Cicero & # 8217 ; s illustration of elequence and setaccent upon linguistic communication such asLatin and Greek.2.

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Medici.- Wealthy banking household commanding Florence.Had much influence inauthorities and influenced The Signoria, the opinion councilin Florence. Created a lastingdynasty with kids who had power.3. Nepotism.- Keeping Position in the Church within thehousehold.4.

Peace of Ausburg.- Ended forty old ages of religousbattle in Germany. Through thepact the emperor of Germany allowed the state toset up the faith of theripeople. Protestant princes would regulate Prtestant provinces,Catholic princes Catholic provinces.5. Bill of rights.- The English constitutional colonyof 1689, corroborating the depositionof James II and the accession of William and Mary,vouching the Protestantsequence, and puting down the rules of parliamentarydomination.

6. Edict of Nantes.- An edict of 1598 signed by Henry IV ofFrance allowing acceptance toProtestants and stoping the Gallic Wars of Religion. It wasrevoked by Louis XIV in1685.7. Boccaccio.

– Giovanni Boccaccio ( 1313 75 ) , Italianauthor, poet, and humanist. He ismost celebrated for the Decameron ( 1348 58 ) , a aggregation of ahundred narratives told by 10immature people who have moved to the state to get away theBlack Death.8. Patronage.

– Support given by members of RennaisanceSociety. Initiation andacknowledging the humanistic disciplines.9. Jesuits.- A member of the Society of Jesus, a RomanCatholic order of priests foundedby St Ignatius Loyola, St Francis Xavier, and others in1534, to make missional work. Theorder was avid in opposing the Reformation.

Despiteperiodic persecution it hasretained an of import influence in Catholic idea andinstruction.10. Thomas More.

– More, Thomas ( 1478-1535 ) . One of the mostrespected figures inEnglish history, Thomas More was a solon, bookman, andwriter. He was noted for hishumor and besides for his devotedness to his faith. More wasexecuted as a treasonist for his refusalto admit King Henry VIII & # 8217 ; s domination over the church.The narrative of More & # 8217 ; s lifeand decease became familiar to many through Robert Bolt & # 8217 ; sdrama, & # 8216 ; A Man for All Seasons & # 8217 ; ,foremost performed in 1960.Utopia-greek word significance, & # 8221 ; no topographic point & # 8221 ; Plato wrote thisfundamental law undertaking the ultimatejob of political relations, & # 8221 ; How should the province be ordered? & # 8221 ; Hisanswere was an image of a merelysociety, created by a philosopher-king and ruled by hand-picked organic structure guards.His idealprovince resembles the Greek polis in size.Sir Thomas Moorecreated a 2nd Utopia, it wasa convincing societal sarcasm.

his vision at a carefullyplanned and for good contendedsociety.Frederick the Great-ruller of Prussia after male parent( Frederick I ) Frederick the Great had agreat love music, against his male parent & # 8217 ; s will, he in secretcollected any books he could happen onthe topic. When he became king, his love of music cameout in the unfastened and he beganto entertain many people. Frederick & # 8217 ; s military artearned him his rubric, & # 8220 ; the Great. & # 8221 ; Hebesides forged an confederation w/the Prussian aristocracy,interigation the minto a incorporate province.

Angstromtightly organized control adminstration, which dependedupon the cooperation of the localaristocracy directed both military and bureaucratic personal businesss.At the centre, Frederick workedindefatigably to supervise his government.Frederick declared, & # 8220 ; Iam the state. & # 8221 ; & # 8220 ; I am the 1stretainer of the state. & # 8221 ; He codified the Torahs of Prussia,abolished anguish and capitalpenalty, and instituted agricultural techniques importedfrom the provinces of westernEurope.

By the terminal of Frederick & # 8217 ; s reign, Prussia hadgo a theoretical account for bureaucraticorganisation, military reform, and enlightened regulation.Primogeniture-inheritance by eldest boyAdam Smith-he was a Scots political theoretician whosework, & # 8221 ; The Wealth of Nations, & # 8221 ; wasthe 1st great work of economic analysis in Europeanhistory. Smith had wide-ranginginvolvements and wrote with equal authorization aboutfabrication, population, and trade.

Hewas the 1st to develop the philosophy of free trade, which hecalled & # 8220 ; laissez-faire. & # 8221 ; Smithargued that the authorities that governed least governedbest, and he was an early criticof protective duties and monopolies.Francis Bacon-leading protagonist of scientific research inEngland.

He proposed ascientific method through inductive empiicalexperimantaion. He believed thatexperiments should be carefully recorded so that consequenceswere both dependable and quotable.he advocated the unfastened universe of the scientist over thesecret universe of the prestidigitator. In hislegion Hagiographas, he stressed the practical impact ofscientific duscivery and even wrotea Utopian work in which scientific discipline appeared as the Jesus ofhumanity. Although he was nonhimself a scientific research worker, Bacon used hisconsiderable influence to back up scientificundertakings in England.Versailles-the greatest castle of the greatest male monarch of thegreatest province in 17th centuryEurope. It was a contemplation of Louis XIV and of France.Van Eyck-not foundMichelangelo-Renaissance paiter and sculpturer ; wasresponsible for such great plants as theceiling of the Sistine Chapel and & # 8220 ; David, & # 8221 ; a sculpture.

Shakespeare-famous playwriter of the mediaeval period ; hisplants inclueded & # 8220 ; Macbeth & # 8221 ;and & # 8220 ; Hamlet. & # 8221 ; Supplying amusement for all and expressedhis positions through his dramas ofcertain state of affairss.Johann Tetzet-he sold indulgences which inspired MartinLuther & # 8217 ; s 95 theses. Tetzelanswered with 122 of his ain but was rebuked and disownedby the Catholics.95 Thesis & # 8211 ; These were posted by Martin Luther, professorof divinity at WittenbergUniversity, on the castle church assailing the sale ofindulgences.Anglican & # 8211 ; the official Protestant Christian faith ofthe English provinceHumanism & # 8211 ; Renaissance intellectualism and jubilation ofthe human as an personGalileo Galilei & # 8211 ; Italian uranologist ; most celebrated scientistof the European new scientificrevolution ; credited for telescope and helocentrism ( Sun iscardinal, Earth around Sun ) forwhich he was placed under house apprehension by Church for mostof his lifeHuguenots & # 8211 ; followings of Calvinsism in Western EuropeLaissez-faire & # 8211 ; & # 8220 ; self-govern, & # 8221 ; the theory of John Lockethat people should regulatethemselves and keep the sovereigntyVoltaire & # 8211 ; Gallic intellectual ; wrote Philosophical LetterssRefering the English Stateafter sing England for two old ages in which he explainsthe illustriousness of spiritualtolerance as practiced in England, the theory for which heis knownCharles I & # 8211 ; This swayer of Spain was besides Charles V, HolyRoman Emperor ; as a HolyRoman Emperor, he made peace with Protestants unlike withSpainProtestant & # 8211 ; Religion based on the original ( now known asCatholic ) rules butchanged to organize new Christian faith ( Protest-ant )The Prince & # 8211 ; Machiavelli wrote this explicating how & # 8220 ; work forcesmust either be pampered orcrushed ; & # 8221 ; most of import and contraversal authorship ofRenaissance ; begins scientific discipline ofpolitical relationsLuther:-entered Augustinian monastery and ordained priest in 1507-received doctor’s degree and appointed to theology module in1512-opposed the sale of indulgences-wrote philosophy of redemption by religion ( sola-fida )-wrote 95 Thesis ( things incorrectly with Catholic Church )-excommunicated by Pope Leo X in 1521-his faith, Lutheranism challenged Catholic ChurchBalance of Power: distribution of power in which no individualstate is able to rule.Kepler:-German uranologist and natural philosopher-noted for verifying the three Torahs of planetal gesture( known as Keplers Laws )-published Cosmographic Mystery in 1596-Also published Epitome of Copernican Astronomy ( book ofKeplers finds )Henry IV:-King of England ( 1399-1413 )-Leader of party that opposed King Richard II-was exiled for six old ages by King Richard II because ofarguement with ThomasMowbray-raised ground forces, invaded England and captured Richard-elected male monarch by parliament-Scot tryed attaching English but were defeatedFronde:-series of rebellions against French monarchy between 1648-1653-Louis XIV was king-parliament and citizens were against the male monarchs heavyrevenue enhancement policiesCharles louis de secondat:-french author and legal expert-wrote Iranian Letterss-it satirized modern-day French political relations, societalconditions and eccesiastical affairs andliterature-book was really popular and one of enlightenments earliestplantsWilliam and Mary:-William revived the Grand Alliance and initiated a monolithicland war against France andSpain-Mary restored catholism in EnglandHeliocentric:-atronomical theory thata the Sun is the centre of thesolar system-first postulated by Polish uranologist Nicolas CopernicasIndex:-catalog of forrbidden books-published by Roman Catholic Church-if U were to read, sell or convey any literature w/outpermission U would beexcommunicatedI couldn & # 8217 ; t happen the word & # 8220 ; raison vitamin D & # 8217 ; etat & # 8221 ;John Calvin-Founder of Calvinism which is a faith thatwas independant of the province,ego government, and hence was able to boom in clipof crisis.

Calvinisim emphasizedthe beliefs of predestination.Devine Right Theory-Theory that a King has the right toregulation as stated to him by God.Isaac Newton-Greatest of all English scientists,mathematician. Studied natural philosophies anduranology. Discovered GravitySun King-Louis XIV, Richelou & # 8217 ; s replacement and CheifAdministrator30 Yrs. War-War permanent 30 old ages, affecting the Bohemianphase, Danish phase, Swedishstage, and the Frech and Swedish stage.

The war ended withthe Peace of Westphalia.John Locke-Theorist of the Revolution of 1688, Developedcontract theory of Gov & # 8217 ; T,Designed to keep individual & # 8217 ; s natural rights of life,autonomy, and belongingsJames II-King of England, Attempted to utilize his power ofassignment to foil restraintsthat Parliament imposed upon him.Geocentric Theory-The Earth is the centre of the Universeand everything revolves aroundit.Counter Reformation-Rebut taking topographic point after reformation,Aggressive Catholic responsethat was determined to run into Protestantism caput on and driveit.

Militant Church1. Rabelais: I have no thought & # 8230 ; couldn & # 8217 ; t happen em and IDon & # 8217 ; Ts have any thought what he or it hasto make with.2. Indulgences: ( Page 393 ) A part of the exchequer ofgood plants performed by therighteous Christians throughout the ages ; granted to thosewho desired to expiate for theirwickednesss. * Major factor in the reformation. Most of Luther & # 8217 ; s95 Thesiss attacked the churchand the sale of such Indulgences.3.

Philosophes: ( Page 578 ) ( No direct definition ) & # 8220 ; Amonster in society who feels underno duty towards it manners and ethical motives, itspropernesss, its political relations, or it & # 8217 ; s faith.One may anticipate anything from work forces of their ilk. & # 8221 ;Philosophes saw jurisprudence ( constructs ) , andapplied the Torahs to people – & gt ; natural rights. Theybelieved that nature was non in difference.4. Peace of Lodi: ( Page 344 ) ( 1454-Italian Renaissance )The Five powers ( Naples, thePapal States, Florence, Milan, and Venice ) established thepeace. It created 2 balancedconfederations: Firenze and Milan, Venice and Naples. Thepledged common nonaggression.

The Peace lasted 40 old ages.5. Leviathan: ( Page 504 ) Thomas Hobbes greatest work. Inthe literature, Hobbesargues that earlier civil society had been formed, worldslived in a barbarian province of nature.No morality or jurisprudence. Peoples so came together to organizeauthorities for one intent:self-preservation. Hobbes believed that withoutauthorities, they were determined to populatea life that was & # 8220 ; lone, hapless, awful, beastly and short.

& # 8221 ;6. Renascence: ( begins on page 322 ) ( 1350-1550 )Literally: Rebirth. An epoch of rapidpassages. Had three distinguishable stages: 1: ( 1350-1400 )Worsening population, bring outingof classical texts and experimentation in a assortment of art2: ( 1400-1500 ) Cultural valvesand artistic and literary accomplishments. City provinces wereable to organize authorities, slow terminalto warfare. 3: ( 1500-1550 ) The spreading of thoughtsthroughout Europe.7.

Machiavelli: ( Page 337 ) Laminitis of the & # 8220 ; Science ofPolitics & # 8221 ; . Famous for hiscontroversial work The Prince. This book was to function as aenchiridion for anyone who

& gt ; wanted to set up a permanent authorities. It attempts toset down rules and illustrationson how to keep power. The book was really of import asgood as really controversialduring the Renaissance.8. Hume, David: ( Page 581 ) Scotish Athiest who wrote Atreatise of Human Nature andAn enquiery Refering Human Understanding. Argued thatnil could be proved toexist with any certainty ; lone perceptual experiences existed.

Iftheir was no certainty, so therevealed truths of Christian faith could hold no footing.Therefore, no G-d.9.

Puritans: ( Page 499, 502 ) Led by Oliver Cromwellafter the decapitation of Charles I.Believeded in a big step of spiritual acceptance forChristians.10. Mercantilism: ( Page 534 ) A set of premises aboutecomomic activity that werenormally held throughout Europe and that guided thepolicies of about everygovermnent. 2 interconnected thoughts: One: wealth of astate resided in its stock of cherishedmetal Two: Ecomonmic activity was a zero-sum game. Therewas a fixed saddle horse ofmoney, figure of trade goods and sum of conumption.

What one state gained,another doomed.salons Gallic sing countries or inns where manyEnlightenment minds spread at that place Ideasof alteration to the common adult male.redemption by religion this is an thought that Martin Lutheridea of ; that you don & # 8217 ; t travel toheaven because you were good, but you go to heaven becauseof the sum of religion thatyou have to god.

patriotism the thought of loving your state or holdingutmost pride in one & # 8217 ; s state.copernicus a Polish scientist who thought of the thought ofheliocentrism & # 8230 ; the Sun in thecentre of the existence.Louis 14 called the Sun King. Was the High Point inGallic Absolutism. Created thecastle Versailles, and started passing a batch of moneywhich subsequently led to the GallicRevolution.Hobbes was an English philosopher who thought thatrevolution was non justified unlessthe authorities was non protecting the people from anyphysical danger. he did nonbelieve in private belongings like Locke did.glorious revolution was the & # 8220 ; revolution & # 8221 ; ( it wasn & # 8217 ; t awar, non shootings were fired, merely a termgiven to a period ) which replaced James II and the StuartMonarchy with William andMary.

Glorious Revolution besides brought about the English Bill ofRights.Charless 2 was the boy of the English King Charles I whowas beheaded. Charles II tookthe throne after the Cromwellian Revolution.council of Trent was the Catholic Council which tried tobrand reforms to the CatholicChurch after the reformation.the courtier was an source to the King. normally ofFrance. Some illustrations areMazarin, and Richelu.In Praise of Folly-a satirical book written by Erasmus( below ) , information came fromconversations with Thomas More, praised the foolishremarks and declared wiseremarks to be incorrectErasmus-first worked on Latin interlingual renditions but sorealized the importance of retrievingGrecian texts so he dedicated his clip to interpreting Greciantexts.

Most of his books were& # 8216 ; how-to books & # 8217 ; . Expanded Christianity to people lower inthe societal orderSimony-the purchasing or merchandising of church officesEnlightenment-a period of clip when people started toinquiry traditions, imposts, andcriterions and started trusting on logic and ground, somechief people of the clip were:Diderot, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rene Descartes, Locke,HobbesInquisition- couldn & # 8217 ; t happen this oneRichelieu-advisor of Louis XIV & # 8217 ; s chief adviser, taught Louisto govern as an absolutesovereign more or less the leader of France because Louis wasso immature, he merely told himwhat to make, led France through many old ages of war, raisedrevenue enhancements, but made France reallypowerfulCastiglione-Italian writer of The Courtier ( an etiquettebook stating how to go and& # 8216 ; ideal province retainer & # 8217 ;Secularism-not relating to the church ( faith )Descartes-French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist,shared many of the samesentiments and mathematical cogent evidence as Galileo, inventedanalytic geometry, madeparts to the scientific discipline of optics and natural philosophiesOliver Cromwell- the most of import leader of the EnglishRevolution, one of thechief commanding officers of the Rebel ground forces that defeated theforces of King Charles I, heplayed a prima function in the male monarch & # 8217 ; s subsequent test andexecuting named himself LordDefender, his primary concerns were to supply a stableauthorities and to giveacceptance to all the Puritan religious ordersFlorence- An Italian metropolis, which was based upon thefoundations of money and wool. TheMedici household, wealthiest household in Florence, frequently ruledFirenze. Firenze was thecentre of Renaissance civilization, and the wealthiest metropoliss,until the pestilence occurred.Balance of trade- the difference in value between importsand exports, said to be favourableto a county when exports are greater.Treaty of Versailles- Peace pact between the Allies andGermany in 1919. It putrestrictions on the German ground forces, and the land tally and ownedby Germany.

The harshpenalties set upon Germany were non strong plenty toforestall them from strikingonce more 20 old ages subsequently.Treaty of Westphalia- Treaty stoping the 30 old ages war in1648. Series of understandingsthat established the lineations of political geographics ofEurope.

Gutenberg ( 1400-68 ) – German pressman who was the first toprint with movable type.Printed the Bible, was first book printed with movable typein Mainz Germany.The City Of God- written by Augustine, it was a defence ofChristian religion from the chargethat the catastrophe resulted from Rome abandoning itstraditional Gods. Become a enquiryinto the nature of human society.Rousseau- A French philosopher and societal reformist whopublished several books,particularly The Social Contract. He was portion of theEnlightenment.

Ignatius Loyola ( 1491-1556 ) – Spanish ecclesiastic ; laminitisof the Society of Jesus.Loyola & # 8217 ; s society became Jesuits who were soldiers of God.James I- succeeded his cousin Elizabeth I, he was non aloveable sovereign but he wasgenerous.

He was non liked cause he succeeded a fable andhe was Scots. Was Kingof England and Ireland from 1603-1625.? ? ? ? & # 8211 ; & gt ; need assist for this one Cervantes- Spanish novelist.

( 1547-1616 )Florence- An Italian metropolis, which was based upon thefoundations of money and wool. TheMedici household, wealthiest household in Florence, frequently ruledFirenze. Firenze was thecentre of Renaissance civilization, and the wealthiest metropoliss,until the pestilence occurred.Balance of trade- the difference in value between importsand exports, said to be favourableto a county when exports are greater.

Treaty of Versailles- Peace pact between the Allies andGermany in 1919. It putrestrictions on the German ground forces, and the land tally and ownedby Germany. The harshpenalties set upon Germany were non strong plenty toforestall them from strikingonce more 20 old ages subsequently.Treaty of Westphalia- Treaty stoping the 30 old ages war in1648.

Series of understandingsthat established the lineations of political geographics ofEurope.Gutenberg ( 1400-68 ) – German pressman who was the first toprint with movable type.Printed the Bible, was first book printed with movable typein Mainz Germany.The City Of God- written by Augustine, it was a defence ofChristian religion from the chargethat the catastrophe resulted from Rome abandoning itstraditional Gods. Become a enquiryinto the nature of human society.Rousseau- A French philosopher and societal reformist whopublished several books,particularly The Social Contract. He was portion of theEnlightenment.Ignatius Loyola ( 1491-1556 ) – Spanish ecclesiastic ; laminitisof the Society of Jesus.

Loyola & # 8217 ; s society became Jesuits who were soldiers of God.James I- succeeded his cousin Elizabeth I, he was non aloveable sovereign but he wasgenerous. He was non liked cause he succeeded a fable andhe was Scots. Was Kingof England and Ireland from 1603-1625.secularism the thought that there is a separation of Churchand of nature. The motionoff the church and more toward scientific discipline and engineering forthoughts on adult male and nature.Descartes Gallic philosopher, mathematician, andscientist, transferred European Ideasfrom that of the Medieval Ages to those of more modernfeatures.

Oliver Crumble was the English Lord Protector during theCromwellian Revolutionbetween the reigns of Charles I and Charles II. He set upa Protestant Commonwealth,which the people of England objected to. His reign did nonlast long, and shortly the peopleforced the authorities to alter back to the AbsoluteMonarchy.Black Death- clip between 1347 and 1352 when 1/2 to 1/3 ofEurope & # 8217 ; s population diedfrom a combination of bubonic, septicemic and pneumonicpestilence & # 8211 ; the disease was carriedby fleas who bit into septic rats and came to Italy fromAsia on a merchandiser vas.Natural Rights- rights that every homo is entitled to suchas the right to breathCatherine the Great- ruled from 1762-1796 & # 8211 ; her policieswere complex and wereinfluenced by the Gallic thoughts of societal justness andaristocracy of the human race but werebesides influenced by the traditional Russian ideals of anabsolute regulation & # 8211 ; the most of importevent of her reign was the constitution of a legislativecommittee to reexamine the Torahs ofSoviet unionThe Social Contract- one of the most of import plants ofsocietal theory and was writtenby enlightenment philosphe, RousseauDiderot- editor of & # 8220 ; The Encyclopedia, & # 8221 ; which was one of thegreatest accomplishments of theclip & # 8211 ; it attempted to sum up all acquired cognition knowat the clipVersalius- a great castle in France for King Louis XIV & # 8211 ;castle had immense gardens,fountains and life size statuesda Vinci- one of the celebrated painters of the Renaissancewhose accomplishments besides includedscientific and proficient enterprises & # 8211 ; his most celebratedpictures were & # 8220 ; The Last Supper & # 8221 ; and& # 8220 ; The Mona Lisa & # 8221 ;& # 8220 ; Eternal City & # 8221 ; – I need aid with this 1Peter Breugel- a painter signifier Belgium who painted subjects ofstate landscape andpeasant lifeHabsburg- Alliess of the Luxenbourgs and begun as a childcomitial household in the part ofthe Black forest & # 8211 ; they aquired district from the E andwhen Rudolf I of Habsburg waselected emperor he was subsequently dismissed as & # 8220 ; hapless & # 8221 ;Spanish Armada- comprised of over 130 ships, pride of theSpanish Armadaand Lusitanian naval forcess. These ships were bigger andstronger than anythingowned by the English. However, the English ships werefaster and moremanuevarable. With these advantages, the English preventedthe Spanish frommaking the ports in the Netherlands and destructingsingle ships.

Hohenzollern- name of a European dynasty whose opinion linebecame votersof Brandenburg, Kings of Prussia, and emperors of Germany.Deist- believed in the being of God on rationalevidences merely. Believedthat nature conformed to its ain mercenary Torahs andoperated withoutGodhead intercession.

The opposed the ritual signifiers of bothCatholic andProtestant worship and the function of the Church in instruction.Low Countries & # 8211 ; part in northwest Europe lying on theseashore of the NorthSea between France and Germany. Netherlands, Belgium, andLuxembourg.

Albrecht Durer- German creative person ; marveled at the subtleinventiveness of the work forcesin those distant lands after sing a show of Aztecart.Physiocrats- group of Gallic minds ; thought that landwas wealth andargued that agricultural activity should take firstprecedence in provincereforms. They besides came to believe that the gov T shouldcease to step inwith private economic activity. Laissez faire, laissezpasser. ( Let itbe, Let it go.

)Encyclopedia- edited by Dierot, 35 volumes ; attempted tosum up allacquired cognition and to dispose of all imposedsuperstitious notions.Candide- written by Voltaire ; philosophical novel thatrecounts theescapades and bad lucks of Candide, and satirisingoptimism by his coachPanglossAlexander the Great- King of Macedonia ; conquered Iranianimperium andannexed it into Macedonia ; conquered about all the soknown universe andgave new way to history.Enlightened despot- a male monarch that believes in the thoughts ofthe EnlightenmentThe Divine Comedy- written by Dante ; position of the wholeChristian existence ;Dante s personal sum-up of all that is good and bad inmediaeval civilization andpolitical relations.