Summary Wireless sensor network are on thetop in market, wireless sensor users grow per annum.

Wireless sensors are madeup to very tiny chips which are capable of commutating with each other orgather data by sensing. Wireless sensor network can be deployed randomly orplanted. Wireless sensor network are very useful but it also have somelimitation E.g. Wireless sensors have very limited energy once the battery isdead then it cannot be rechargeable so to solve this issue many researchershave done work on this issue and proposed some methodology and once the networkis established then further nodes cannot be added to that network.Wireless sensors have nodes whichare deployed in the field while all the data were send to the Base-Station (BS)by these nodes.Once the nodes are deployed in the fieldthen they transmit their location and residual to the base station andBase-station make an clusters and then the cluster head (CH) is selected by theBS.

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The Node sense data and send it tothe respective Cluster head and further these cluster head send this data tothe base station.All in this process the node areactive and energies are used and as we already discuss those nodes have verylimited energy and cannot be replaceable.To take care of this problem wehave some proposed solution.  1.   High EnergyNodes: In Addition Small number of high energy nodesare added which sends the residual energy and location to the BS of respectednode while these nodes cannot participate in sensing the nodes goes to sleepmode and after completing the round these nodes were active and send energy andlocation e nodes.  M=Message send by each node R=no of nodes 2.   I-ECBR:i-ECBR isdivided into two main phases. ·      Firstly, i-ECBR performs nodesclustering and·       secondly optimal paths are constructed forrobust routingWehave nodes (n no.

of nodes) which are randomly deployed in the field at thestart each sensor node currier its location and energy to the base station byits adjacent nodes based on the optimal number of clusters (p) and then the Bsdivide the entire network work with identical size partitions.Z=n*p                                      (1)Nodeswhich are more closer to each other make an cluster having unique ID.Afterthe formation of equal clusters then the CH election is announced and thosenodes is participate which were high energy only participate in the election.

                        (2) Thosenode which have high energy and near to Centerior is elected as CH and then itbroadcast the ADV message to all these respective nodes and clusters. Theentire cluster has their TDMA in which CH collect the sensory data from nodesand send to the BS.Afterthis the intermediate nodes are elected to create the routing path. Those whohave less hops counts send addition when the nodes reached to his threshold value and the dataare send by this path the node show a error to the sender then message goesfrom another rout path by this the energy is saved.

 3.   2D Elliptical Gaussian Distribution FunctionThis method has great influence on the energy balancingand enhancing the network life time because the standard deviation had a greatinfluence on the energy and network life timea0,b0 will be equal to zero. Whileeach sensor node has an specific area to continue sensing and can communicatedirectly to the base station if the node has high energy. These mode are relaying on the distance between thetransmitter and receiver Optimal number of cluster heads is formed and the energyconsumption in the cluster head node in a single frame is.And the energy consume by non-cluster head nodes areThe average distance between the cluster head and noncluster head is calculated by and the network radius R and thearea of each cluster M2/C .M/ determine the radius of energy ofcluster in single frame.frame energydissipated 1.

   Modified TDMAStep 1. Each clusterhead computes the number of sensor nodes assigned to its cluster based on thenumber of receiving requests.Step 2.

Each clusterhead will broadcast a message includes the number of its own nodes attached tothe entire cluster heads in the WSN. At this end, each cluster head knows thecapacity of the largest cluster.Step 3. The capacityof the largest cluster is selected to be the implemented duration of the TDMAschedule in all clusters for steady state phase.Step 4.

Each sensornode within each cluster has a chance to transmit data according to modifiedTDMA in steady state phase. So, All nodes will send the same amount of data to theircluster heads. Thus, All nodes will drain the same amount of energy. Clustersthat contain a small number of nodes after sending their amount of data for thecurrent steady state phase, they go into the sleep mode during theremaining time ofsteady state phase. It’s also avoiding that nodes go into an idle listeningmode that affects on the node’s energy level.                   4.   Clusterarchitectures: network is organized as clusters whereeach cluster is has a cluster head (CH) that takes the responsibility ofcoordinating the communication activities of members. CHs communicates withanother·       CHs or to the base station.

Clustering techniques enhance energy efficiency by limiting energy consumptionof the nodes. Network scalability is also improved by the hierarchicalstructures in the network.·       _Energy as arouting metric: the setup path phase considers energy asa metric. By doing so, routing algorithms can select the next hop by focusingnot only the shortest paths but also on its residual energy.·       _Multipath routing:single way directing quickly depletes vitality of nodes on a chose way and whenthe node depletes out of energy, another course should be remade.

Multipathsteering conversely, substitutes sending node along these lines adjustingvitality among the nodes. It empowers the system to recoup quicker fromdisappointment and upgrades the system unwavering quality.·       _Relay nodeplacement: the beginning time exhaustion of Nodescan be kept away from by the even dispersion of nodes by putting a couple oftransfer nodes. This enhances the vitality balance between nodes, scope, andlimit and maintains a strategic distance from sensor problem areas·       _Sink mobility:A colossal workload is focused on the hubs nearer to the sink (base station)since all the movement is coordinated towards the sink through them.

Henceforththeir battery gets drained quicker than other sensor hubs. The heap can beadjusted by permitting a versatile base station which gathers hub data bymoving in the system. Sink portability enhances availability, unwaveringquality and decreases impact, conflict and message misfortune.