Technology And Mass Transportation Essay, Research Paper
At a clip when world is using engineering in our day-to-day life at unprecedented velocity, and as the figure of autos on the route is increasing and making more engorged main roads than of all time before, the figure of people who opt to take advantage of mass theodolite and other alternate transit continues to turn every bit good. Metro-North Railroad, the 2nd largest commuter line in the United States, provides more than 200,000 trips each weekday and some 62 million trips per twelvemonth in New York and Connecticut. & # 8220 ; Choosing mass theodolite or ridesharing as a agency to and from work has ne’er had more advantages, & # 8221 ; said Philip J. Clark, regional manager for the New York State Department of Transportation. & # 8220 ; With the addition in the figure of riders on mass theodolite, train and coach agendas are being changed to suit extra riders, leting more freedom in taking going times to and from work. Sharing the drive besides reduces traffic congestion, is less nerve-racking than driving entirely, reduces air pollution, and allows riders the clip to make other things that can non be done while driving alone. & # 8221 ; Choosing alternate transit is besides financially good. With the lifting cost of car attention, go forthing a single-occupancy vehicle at place can intend large nest eggs from the money saved on gas and insurance to have on and rupture on the auto.
Mass theodolite has besides served as a manner to increase capacity safely ( by leting closer vehicle spacing, with computing machines that react faster than worlds to avoid hit ) , cut down travel clip ( by operating vehicles at higher velocities ) , and cut down costs. Mass theodolite every bit good requires less fuel ingestion and emits less pollutant per rider than autos ; requires less pavement to be laid, fewer parking garages etc. ; and occupies less vehicle infinite on the route, hence cut downing traffic jams. The Federal Transit Administration ( FTA ) has established the Advanced Public Transportation Systems ( APTS ) Program as portion of the U.S. Department of Transportation & # 8217 ; s initiative in Intelligent Transportation Systems ( ITS ) . ITS, the integrating of several information and control engineerings, is a tool to heighten mobility, energy efficiency, and environmental protection. The APTS plan was established to promote invention and to develop worthwhile attacks that use advanced engineering to better public transit and ridesharing.
Computer-based vehicle tracking systems are being used extensively by theodolite bureaus to supervise their vehicles. Over the last four old ages, their utilizations by theodolite systems in the U.S. has increased more than 200 per centum, and there are now at least 58 automatic vehicle location ( AVL ) systems in operation, under installing, or planned for the hereafter. The benefits of AVL are legion and varied. Most systems experience more efficient and on-time operations as their agendas are improved and are better able to react to breaks. Safety and security typically addition, since the starter knows instantly where to direct aid. AVL information besides provides really utile inputs to passenger information and traffic signal discriminatory intervention systems.
Traveling at the gait of our of all time technological society has al
lowed geographic information systems ( GIS ) to better the mass theodolite concern. GIS combines an electronic map and a relational database and allows users to visualise and analyse relationships between non-related informations whose lone common characteristic is that they are in the same basic location. A GIS has four necessary constituents: computing machine hardware, a package bundle, informations, and people to plan and utilize it. There are many utilizations for GIS in theodolite, including show and analysis of installations, exigency call location, trip planning path picks, on-time public presentation informations, and beginning and finish of clients. Travelers can entree this information through a assortment of media, including telephones, proctors, overseas telegram telecasting, variable message marks, booths and personal computing machines ( Personal computers ) . With links to automatic vehicle location, traveller information systems, specifically for theodolite, are get downing to supply real-time information, such as arrival times, going times and holds.
Automatic Passenger Counters ( APCs ) are an machine-controlled agencies for roll uping informations on rider embarkations by clip and location and have become popular with mass conveyance of people. This information may be used as an add-on to location informations for rider information or determinations on disciplinary action, future planning and programming, or National Transit Database coverage. Most bureaus presently be aftering to get Armored personnel carriers are including them in their AVL systems, in order to take advantage of the location information. APCs provide much more complete informations at a much lower cost than is possible utilizing manual draughtss.
Information provided includes theodolite paths, agendas, menus, and other pertinent information. The most common media employed are touch-tone telephones and homo operators, but some newer systems besides utilize Personal computers, the Internet ( and World-Wide Web ) , beepers, personal communications devices, booths, or voice synthesists. These systems have enabled theodolite bureaus to cut down the clip and the cost of a client & # 8217 ; s bespeak for information. Information entree is quicker, and many calls do non even necessitate human intercession. The Information Intensive Transit System ( IITS ) aims to cut down the uncertainness of choice up and trip times ( estimations would be within 60 seconds of the existent clip ) , and besides give commuters mobility one time they arrive at work. The system is based on digital radio communicating, planetary placement system ( GPS ) turn uping engineering and high-octane computing machines to supply real-time service for riders and vehicle drivers.
There has been rapid growing in advanced fare payment systems, doing possible more sophisticated menu pricing systems based on factors such as distance traveled and clip of twenty-four hours ; riddance of hard currency and coin handling ; improved security ; lowered hard currency handling costs ; mechanization of the accounting and fiscal colony procedure ; and improved dependability and maintainability of menu boxes. In Paris, France, Schlumberger Electronic Transactions has launched a compatible scope of smart cards for fining applications available for all types of mass theodolite from coach and ferry to metro and inveigh webs. Smart cards enable 100 % military-grade security and designation. No hard currency, no more taxi robberies or hazards whatsoever.