Range, Massachusetts Essay, Research Paper
Temperature and Betula distribution on the Holyoke Range, Massachusetts
In this survey, it will be tested whether temperature affects tree densenesss in the genus Betula on different inclines of the Holyoke Range, specifically the North and south faces of the mountain scope. My anticipation is that the north face of the mountain will hold a higher denseness of these trees than the south face of the scope because of the temperature differences of the north incline being warmer than south incline for the scope of growing for these trees. This experiment can be used to foretell forms of flora in other similar latitudes and inclines around the universe. On September 20, 2000, the birch tree genus, Betula, denseness was measured on the north face of the Holyoke Range and on September 27, 2000, Betula? ? s denseness was besides measured, but on the south face of the Holyoke Range. There were eight sites laid across a 150m transect line running across the incline get downing from a subjectively chosen point. Based on the informations collected on the Holyoke Range, the birch trees densenesss were non significantly higher on the north face than on the south face of the mountain scope. Eight separate t-tests were performed, four on the denseness of the grownup birch trees, and another four on the basal denseness of grownup birch trees. From this information analysis it was possible to find that the consequences were due to opportunity, non congruent with my anticipation. From the consequences of my informations, it can be concluded that temperature is non a factor in the tree denseness of Betula. In fact, temperature is non the lone factor that can find the growing of Betula, or other species of trees. Certain biotic and abiotic factors that can explicate flora forms of similar countries compared to this survey.
In this survey, it will be tested whether temperature is one of the factors that affect tree densenesss in the genus Betula on different inclines of the Holyoke Range, specifically the North and south faces of the mountain scope. In mid-latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, northern-facing inclines are cooler than south-facing inclines because they receive less direct solar radiation. R. B. Livingston found that incline fluctuation on the scope exerts marked influence on all environmental factors ( Livingston 1982 ) . The upper, north-facing inclines are steep and disconnected ( 35? a to 40? a ) , while the south-facing inclines are more moderate ( 20? a ) . Consequently, the angle of mid-day sunstroke is typically 55? a to 60? a greater on the south inclines than on the north inclines, except in late autumn and winter when no direct visible radiation strikes the steep north-facing hill ( Livingston 1982 ) . Even though the country this experiment took topographic point in does non precisely exhibit the same temperature fluctuations discussed by Livingston, this can be still be used as a representation of north-facing inclines being warmer than south-facing inclines around the universe.
On the Holyoke Range there are assorted species of Betula that have similar countries of optimum growing. The cherry birch, Betula lenta, can be found both in forests and in unfastened and uplands on moist, protected, north-or east-facing inclines ( Elias 1980 ) . The xanthous birch, Betula lutea, can besides be found among red birch, but in the southern part of its scope, it can turn in ice chest fens. The paper birch, Betula papyrifera, is found at lower lifts and frequently on north and east-facing inclines. Besides the paper birch is one of the first species to busy countries devastated by fire. Another species with similar traits to the paper birch is the grey birch, Betula populifolia, which occupies broad countries of abandoned Fieldss and burnt lands ( Elias, 1980 ) . These features of these four Betula species are of import because sometimes these trees are non in their optimum growing country, so connoting that other factors are present impacting the growing of Betula on the Holyoke Range.
My anticipation is that the north face of the mountain will hold a higher denseness of these trees than the south face of the scope due to environmental factors such as temperature.
On September 20, 2000, the birch tree genus, Betula, denseness was measured on the north face of the Holyoke Range and on September 27, 2000, Betula? ? s denseness was besides measured, but on the south face of the Holyoke Range. There were eight sites laid across a 150m transect line running across the incline get downing from a subjectively chosen point. The replicates were formed by taking eight random sites above the transect line, and eight below ; so numbering each as a individual replicate giving a sample size of 16. Within these eight sites, the size, denseness of grownups and saplings of other trees along with Betula. From the transect line, two 10 & # 215 ; 10m secret plans were measured, one above the transect line, one below the transect line. In the upper left corner of these secret plans, a 4 & # 215 ; 4m secret plan was besides measured. Within the 10 & # 215 ; 10m secret plans, the species and the dbh ( diameter at chest tallness, measured at approximately 1.5 above land ) of each grownup tree was recorded. An grownup was defined as an person that had a dbh that was greater than 10cm. For trees with multiple short pantss, the dbh of each bole was recorded individually, noted the values of these as x+y+ ? K Besides within the secret plan, dead trees were non counted. In the 4 & # 215 ; 4m plots the figure of saplings of each tree species along with Betula was recorded. A sapling was defined as being over 1m tall and less than 10cm in dbh. Besides within these secret plans bushs and shrubs were non included in the count.
Average densenesss were sig
nificantly higher on the north face versus the south face of the mountain scope in the instance of merely one of birch tree species recorded, Betula lenta, ( Table 1 ) . Besides average basal country ( cm2 m-2 ) of birch trees found was significantly larger in merely Betula lenta ( Fig 1 ) . Frequency of Betula lenta was highest on the north face of the mountain scope, and overall birch species have a higher frequence on the north face of the mountain ( Fig 2 ) .
Eight separate t-tests were performed, four on the denseness ( ind ha-1 ) of grownup Betula, and another four on the radical country ( cm2 m-2 ) of the grownup Betula. For Betula lenta, the radical country ( cm2 m-2 ) was significantly higher on the north versus the south face of the mountain scope ( t = 9.435 ; P * 0.001 ) . For average denseness ( ind ha-1 ) of Betula lenta, the information was significantly higher on the north versus the south face of the mountain scope ( t = 10.26 ; P * 0.001 ) . For Betula lutea, average basal country ( cm2 m-2 ) was higher on the north-facing incline ( Fig 1 ) , but was non important ( t = 1.343 ; 0.1 * P * 0.2 ) . For average densenesss of Betula lutea, it was higher on the north face, but was non important ( Table 1 ) ( t = 1.382 ; 0.1 * P * 0.2 ) . For Betula papyrifera besides the mean basal country was higher on the northern-facing incline of the scope ( Fig 1 ) , but the trial found it non important ( t = 1.651 ; 0.1 * P * 0.2 ) . For the average denseness of Betula papyrifera ( ind ha-1 ) the information was marginally important ( t = 1.769 ; 0.05 * P * 0.1 ) . For Betula populifolia, once more the mean basal country ( cm2 m-2 ) was larger on the north face of the scope, but the trials of the information found them non important ( t = 1.480 ; 0.1 * P * 0.2 ) , but like Betula papyrifera, the average denseness of Betula populifolia ( ind ha-1 ) was marginally important ( t = 1.896 ; 0.05 * P * 0.1 ) .
From the consequences of my informations, it can non be concluded that temperature could be the exclusive factor in the tree distribution of Betula on the Holyoke scope. This is so because the chance of the informations occurring by opportunity is big, the exclusion of the species Betula lenta, which means that densenesss recorded at these inclines of the mountain are non an accurate representation of the population as a whole. Two other species of birch tree densenesss ( ind ha-1 ) were marginally important, Betula papyrifera and Betula populifolia, but their average basal country ( cm2 m-2 ) wasn? ? T important. Although these species of Betula are normally found chiefly on north confronting inclines, there was non adequate important informations to back up this, proposing a different ground for the densenesss of Betula on the Holyoke scope. One factor that could lend to the higher densenesss of Betula on the Holyoke Range is inter-specific and intra-specific competition. This is a possible account of the information because the xanthous birch, Betula lutea, is found normally around red birch, or Betula lenta. This could bring on intra-specific competition between the two birch tree species, which would take down densenesss of one of the two species of birch trees. Besides birch trees grow in countries that other trees occupy and this could either aid or impede the growing of Betula on either side of the scope, or inter-specific competition between trees. Another possible ground for Betula densenesss to alter is herbivory. Wilsey ( 1998 ) describes the effects that herbivorous insects and Fungis have on foliages asymmetry by increasing it, which would increase productiveness of the foliages of the trees ( Betula ) . While discoursing some of the certain biotic factors, abiotic factors must besides be considered for possible grounds of birch tree densenesss. A survey on hurricane perturbation on a wood was done in the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts, and it was found that after this monolithic perturbation, there is a reorganisation of biomass and gaps into the forest canopy ( Cooper-Ellis et al. 1999 ) . In this experiment, perturbation had small consequence on composing of the forest, but does take to a possible account for the densenesss differences of Betula. Possibly the irregular growing of Betula on the Holyoke scope can be contributed to the, or the deficiency of a major perturbation ( i.e. hurricane ) in the country. With the combination of both biotic and abiotic factors, it is best explained by Claus ( 1999 ) : ? ? Compositions and construction of a community are shaped by both abiotic factor and interaction among organisms. ? ?
Fig 1. Average radical country ( cm2 m-2 ) of grownup Betula species on Holyoke scope
Fig 2. Frequency of grownup Betula species on the Holyoke scope
Betula Betula Betula Betula
lenta lutea papyrifera populifolia
North side 110.9 ( 10.7 ) 4.7 ( 3.4 ) 2.3 ( 1.3 ) 5.5 ( 2.9 )
South side.8 ( .8 ) 0.0 ( 0.0 ) 0.0 ( 0.0 ) 0.0 ( 0.0 )
Table 1. Average grownup densenesss ( ind ha-1 ) and standard mistake in parerthses. Betula species
on the Holyoke Range, Massachusetts. ( Sept 20 and Sept 27, 2000 )
1. Elias, T. E. 1980 The Complete Trees of North America, Outdoor Life/Nature Books
New York, USA
2. Livingston, R. B. 1982. Microclimates and Vegetation of the Holyoke Range, Dept of
Biology, University of Massachusetts
3. Cooper-Ellis, .S, Foster D. R. , Carlton, D. , Lezberg, A. , 1999. Forest response to ruinous air current: consequences from an experimental hurricane, Ecology
4. Wilsey, B. J. 1998 Leaf fluctuating dissymmetry addition with hybridisation and lift in tree line birches, Ecology
5. Holzapfel, C. , Mahall, B. , 1999 Bidirection facilitation and intervention between bushs and annuals in the Mojave Desert, Ecology