Mexico Essay, Research Paper
The Temple of the Warriors, besides known as Templo de los Guerreros, was purportedly built by the Itza civilisation between the ten percent and the 12th century in the ancient metropolis of Chichen Itza, Mexico. ( See figure 1 ) Chichen Itza is located in the Mexican Lowlandss. The Itza purportedly occupied Chichen Itza at two different times, the first being from 495 A.D. to 692 A.D. and the 2nd being from 948 A.D. to 1204 A.D. The temple was built in the 2nd business of Chichen Itza ( Vargas, 1 ) . Tula, the ancient capital of the Toltec & # 8217 ; s gave most of the influence in architecture to the Itza & # 8217 ; s. The Temple of the Warriors is located on the east side of the ancient metropolis near the Court of a Thousand Columns. ( See figure 2 ) The temple was chiefly used for sacrificial intents and ceremonials were conducted to delight the Gods that they worshipped. Located straight inside of the temple is another temple known as the Buried Temple. The Temple of the Warriors was built straight over the top of the preexistent 1.
In 1925, the Carnegie Institute discovered the Temple of the Warriors in the ancient ruin metropolis of Chichen Itza. Ann Axtell Morris was one of the archaeologists that took on the undertaking of unearthing the Temple of the Warriors. In her book Excavation in the Yucatan, she describes the hurting venturing procedure of conveying the edifice back to the original province. Diging in the Yucatan is fundamentally a primary beginning based off of archaeological surveies done during the clip Morris was in Chichen Itza. In her book, Morris describes the artefacts pulled from the destroyed construction, the rebuilding of the construction and the parts of the digging that she did on the Temple of the Warriors. This book was published in 1931, which means that the book was published before any more analysis could be done on the temple & # 8217 ; s letterings or hieroglyphics. Morris & # 8217 ; book allowed a first manus penetration into the digging of the temple through the eyes of an archaeologist that was on site during the flowering of the concealed hoarded wealths.
In the book, Your Yucatan Guide, by Henry F. Godfrey. The book is fundamentally a usher around the Yucatan but delves into the topic of the Temple of the Warriors. Throughout the selected pages, he describes the different artefacts and assorted facets of the temple. This book should be considered a primary beginning because it is trusting on the artefacts that are still present at the temple. It should besides be considered a secondary beginning because the accounts he gives are his ain and no mention is made to authority figures about what he is proclaiming.
Maya: The Riddle and Rediscovery of a Lost Civilization, a book by Charles Gallenkamp. Gallenkamp studied anthropology at the University of New Mexico and has been a leader of several archaeological expeditions throughout the Southwest, Mexico, and Central America. He is the manager of the Mayan Research Fund, a research associate of the Instituto Interamericano and an advisor to the Department of Anthropology of the Houston Museum of Natural History. Maya is considered a primary beginning since the writer, Gallenkamp, is an expert on the Mayan civilization and has been on many archaeological digs throughout his life-time. Since this book was published in 1959, some of his findings and readings might be a small out dated since more surveies have been done on the ruins of the Temple of the Warriors.
John S. Henderson a Professor of Anthropology at Cornell University published a book, The World of the Ancient Maya, which gives a great overview of the Temple of the Warriors. His book is both a primary and secondary beginning based on archaeology and actual research. It is a primary resource because Henderson is drawing information from the existent temple. It is besides a secondary resource because Henderson incorporates his ain analysis into points of the book.
A website written by Dr. Eduardo Vargas entitled, Chichen Itza, is a primary beginning because it is based off of the temple and the ruined metropolis which is all archaeological research. Another web site that I found entitled Temple of the Warriors, Chichen Itza, is besides a primary beginning. In this the writer, who is non disclosed, describes the edifice and some of the different facets that gives the temple a alone character.
In Morris & # 8217 ; s book, Digging in the Yucatan she describes the procedure taken by the archaeologists of the Carnegie Institute. From the inadvertent discovery to the concluding handing over of the Temple of the Warriors to the Mexican Government, her book covers much item. Earl H. Morris, the hubby to Ann Axtell Morris, discovered the Temple of the Warriors while watching over the digging of the Court of a Thousand Columns. He ventured over to a immense hill for that seemed to be attached to the Court. After chew overing about the hill a few yearss, he gave the orders to get down uncluttering it. ( See figure 3 )
Within a few yearss, two columns were found and following to them were two rock rattlings snake dress suits. They instantly realized that it was portion of the Plumed Serpent because it was the symbol for the main God of Chichen Itza. & # 8220 ; His image is painted and carved upon temple walls, 100s of times reiterating goggling fanged jaws and feather-covered slimy curves & # 8221 ; ( Morris, 106 ) . They dug to the underside of the columns and found the two snake caputs in perfect status. After many yearss of seting the dress suits back together and reconnecting them to the big columns, they had found the entryway to the top of the temple. ( See figure 4 )
When the balance of the temple was cleared of the debris, they found a high request wall with a narrow door, which led into an interior room. Behind the wall Morris found an interior sanctuary, which at one clip must hold contained the Altar of Sacrifice. Not surprisingly, there was an communion table smashed to spots and pieces but through much attempt they were able to set the communion table back to together. Nineteen small work forces supported the Atlantean communion table. ( See figure 5 )
On each side of the pyramid was a series of four patios of jumping sloping and perpendicular zones. The zones were officially narrow sets, which encircled the pyramid. The sets were carved with 100s of funny figures standing about two and a half pess tall. They were lean backing human figures, panthers, bird of Joves, and some funny half bear and half prairie wolf animals, which were each keeping a human bosom in its claws. At the terminal of the 2nd twelvemonth, in 1926 the archaeologists found a column that they expected to happen. ( Morris ) They went up the side of the pyramid and after delving seven pess down, they found a ruddy polished floor. They started delving and found the inhumed temple. The sanctuary of the inhumed temple with exclusion of painted walls and colored sculptured columns, was rather au naturel. ( Morris ) ( See figure 6 )
Towards the terminal of the digging after four long exciting old ages, Earl Morris decided to seek and happen any entombments located in side the temple. The lone entombment that was found was outside the temple following to the expansive stairway, which was a cremation cavity. He was tapping around the floors of the inhumed temple when he heard a little reverberation come from the floor. He broke the floor and lifted the immense heavy rock. At the centre of the pit lay a big spherical ball of dark jade polished as glass. This was one of the Zaz-Tuns or & # 8220 ; light rocks & # 8221 ; which the old priests had used for prognostication. ( Morris ) Next to it was a piece of green apple jade carved to stand for a human face and attach toing it were two more jade beads and strings of shells. ( Morris ) Underneath was a jar, which contained a turquoise mosaic. The mosaic was nine inches in diameter and contained over three 1000 pieces of turquoise. ( See figure 7 ) From research done on the hieroglyphics it was determined the Buried Temple that was merely in usage for 15 old ages before they decided to construct the Temple of the Warriors over the top of it.
In Maya: The Riddle and R
ediscovery of a Lost Civilization, Gallenkamp says that the Carnegie Institute with Earl H. Morris in charge foremost laid the temple bare in 1925. At the base of the hill were fragments of tonss of square columns that one time formed the impressive colonnade along the forepart of the terraced edifice, which contained weathered images of Itza Warriors. ( See figure 7 ) While unearthing the ruins, they found a Chac Mool, a figure of Atlantean figures, and subdivisions of immense columns sculptured in the signifier of plumy snakes which originally had been set up on either side of the temple’s room accesss.
Gallenkamp negotiations about a concealed temple inlayed within the Temple of the Warriors in which they called the Buried Temple. It contained wall paintings and four painted warrior columns. ( See figure 8 ) Earl Morris started to research several communion tables uncovered in assorted parts of the edifice in the hope of happening some kind of hoarded wealth, which turned out to be a flop. Then he probed the floor of the Buried Temple were he found a jar buried in the floor. Within the jar, laid a ball of jade and besides the ball partially covered by a white movie, was an irregular shaped plaque of jade that was carved to resemble a human face. Under all of that laid a turquoise mosaic nine inches in diameter made out of over three 1000 pieces of polished turquoise. ( Gallenkamp ) ( See figure 9 )
In Henry F. Godfrey & # 8217 ; s book, Your Yucatan Guide, he describes the basic ballad out of the Temple of the Warriors. & # 8220 ; As you ascend the stairss you come out on a wide platform. Immediately confronting you is the figure of a Chac Mool. Framing the Chac Mool are two mammoth snake columns & # 8221 ; ( Godfrey, p 72-73 ) . ( See Figure 8 ) The outside of the temple is decorated with ternary masks of Chac, the Rain God. Behind the Chac Mool is a wide communion table, held aloft by Atlantean columns, named after the Greek God that held the universe upon his shoulders. ( Godfrey ) ( See Figure 5 )
From the web page, Temple of the Warriors, Chichen Itza, the writer tells us that the Temple of the Warriors is 10 metres tall and over 40 metres broad and is a good illustration of the Toltec influence on Mayan architecture. The temple is besides referred to as the Templo de los Guerreros. The valance of the upper temple was built over the top of a preexistent temple that is wholly engulfed with motives of heart-eating panthers and bird of Joves. ( Temple of the Warriors, Chichen Itza ) These images refer to the military elite to whom the platform is named after, the Temple of the Warriors. There are besides images of Kukulc? n as the Sun of the Earth. The writer negotiations of the impressive entryway guarded by the Chac-Mool. It is believed that offerings were placed on the tummy of the reclining figure that would move as courier to the Gods. ( Temple of the Warriors, Chichen Itza )
John S. Henderson, The World of the Ancient Mayas, describes the Temple of the Warriors complex as striking like Tula & # 8217 ; s Pyramid B, a Quetzalcoatl temple with next colonnaded halls. He describes a Chac Mool as being a massive figure of lean backing work forces with raised articulatio genuss and caputs, keeping a bowl like vass on their venters. ( See figure 9 ) Standard-bearers guard the top of the stairss of the temple. Runing along side of the temple are benches that over look the big ball tribunal. ( Henderson ) Henderson exclaims that no 1 is buried in the Temple of the Warriors ; the lone organic structure that was found was of a babe.
Dr. Vargas describes the Temple of the Warriors as a four terraced pyramid decorated vastly with personages, bird of Joves, and Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelams. The upper portion has walls of what was a ritual edifice, rectangular in form 21 metres on each side. Pillars which one time held the roof where decorated with the monster of the Earth, a priest, and the Bacab. The pillars were absolutely located in the four central waies each with it & # 8217 ; s ain colour.
The Mayan people of Chichen Itza built the Temple of the Warriors in between the ten percent and 12 century during the Early-Post Classic Era ( Vargas, 1 ) . It was built to honour the warriors of the folk, the Plumed Serpent, and Chac the rain God. Looking at the sculptures inside and outside the temple can turn out this. Many images of the Plumed Serpent, Chac and warriors are depicted on many of the columns and wall pictures around the temple. The temple had one intent, to give persons to delight the Gods. The Chac Mool that guards the entryway of the temple was used to keep the offerings of the Gods. The Chac Mool was the courier between the people and the Gods. The sacrificed persons bosom was removed and placed in a bowl on the Chac Mool.
Surrounding the temple was a series of four patios of jumping sloping and perpendicular zones. The zones were officially narrow sets which encircled the pyramid which was carved with 100s of funny figures standing about two and a half pess tall. They consisted of a funny half bear and half coyote each that had a human bosom in its claw ( Morris ) .
On the top of the temple beyond the Chac Mool and the Feathered Serpents dedicated to the Plumed Serpent lays a high-petitioned wall. Beyond the wall is where all the forfeits were done. Through a narrow room access in the wall, the Altar of Sacrifice bases held up by 19 small-carved work forces. ( Morris ) As the room is blossoming in forepart of you, your eyes are directed towards the ruddy bleached floor ( Morris ) . The room merely 21 metres long has columns with the images of the monster of the Earth, a priest and the Bacab. These four columns base erect in the four central waies used to keep up the roof of the Inner Sanctuary ( Vargas, 2 ) .
The arrangement of the columns can be used to convey in Mireca Eliade & # 8217 ; s view on how spiritual people split the universe into two. It is split into the profane kingdom and into the sacred kingdom. The sacred is considered to be the ideal and is divided into the extraordinary, the ageless unchanging, and the religious kingdom. The sacred kingdom is fundamentally the bluish print or theoretical account of the universe around us. On the other side of the universe is the profane which is a transcript of the sacred. It is broken up into different parts such as the ordinary, the historical & # 8211 ; alteration, and the material facets of the profane universe. The lone manner for the sacred to leak into the profane is through a hierophony that is a paradox impermanent connection of the sacred and the profane. This is a really of import portion of Eliade & # 8217 ; s thought. It is based on the four central waies that mean the Mesoamerican temple is on the zenith of all four waies. The temple of the metropolis is really the centre of the universe.
The temple is set up with the four central waies around the communion table. This allows Eliade & # 8217 ; s expression to travel into affect. When an person is sacrificed, it allows the two universes to unite the upper and the lower for a brief 2nd to let the victim to go sacred.
Inside the Temple of the Warriors lays another temple, the Buried temple. This temple was merely used for 15 old ages before the swayer at the clip decided to construct the Temple of the Warriors around the preexistent 1 ( Morris ) . Inside this much smaller temple, the Carnegie Institute found a nine inch turquoise mosaic that they believe is an offering to one of the Gods. However, this raises a inquiry, why is at that place no other offerings buried in the floor like the mosaic. One account given by Morris is that the temple was looted before the roof collapsed.
The Temple of the Warriors was chiefly used for sacrificial intents. Persons were placed upon the Altar of Sacrifice and given to the Gods through the act of forfeit. Eliade & # 8217 ; s formula tantrum in with the temple because inside the Inner Sanctuary, the four columns that held up the roof were in direct alliance of the four central waies. After many more old ages of research, the Temple of Warriors might slop all its secrets out to us. Causing archaeologists to happen new and exciting things about the temple.