Last updated: August 17, 2019
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Term ofReference : -This report was writtento get you to know a science that might be a new science for you , but itconsider one of the oldest science on Earth which is ( Astronomy ) , at the endof this report you will understand and  learn more about Astronomy , and the historyof Astronomy  , and the differencebetween Astronomy and Astrology , and their similarity , and subfields ofAstronomy . Contents :- Subjects Page number Introduction 4 Method 6 Result 8 Discussion 9 Conclusion 13 Summary 14 Appendices 15 Bibliography 16 Reference 17  Introduction: -Astronomy is a naturalscience that studies celestial  objectssuch as       ( Stars , planets , comets, galaxies ) the phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, andcosmic microwave background radiation . A related but distinct subject ,physical cosmology , is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole .

Astronomyis one of the oldest of the natural sciences . The early civilizations inrecorded history , such as the Babylonians , Greeks , Indians , Egyptians ,Nubians , Iranians , Chinese , Maya , and many ancient indigenous peoples ofthe Americas performed methodical observations of the night sky . Historically ,astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry , celestial navigation, observational astronomy and the making of calendars , but professionalastronomy is now often considered to be synonymous with astrophysics , Itapplies ( mathematics , physics , and chemistry ) In an Effort to explain theorigin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution.  NASA defines astronomy as simple “thestudy of stars , planets and space . ” Astronomy and astrology werehistorically associated , but astrology is not a science and is no longerrecognized as having anything to do with astronomy . During the 20th century ,the field of professional astronomy split into observational and theoreticalbranches . Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data fromobservations of astronomical objects , which is then analyzed using basicprinciples of physics . Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward thedevelopment of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objectsand phenomena .

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The two fields complement each other , with theoreticalastronomy seeking to explain observational results and observations being usedto confirm theoretical results . Astronomy is one of the few sciences where amateurs stillplay an active role , especially in the discovery and observation of transientphenomena . Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many importantastronomical discoveries , such as finding new comets. Astronomy (from theGreek ?????????? from ?????? astron, “star” and -????? -nomia from????? nomos, “law” or “culture”) means “law of thestars” (or “culture of the stars” depending on the translation).Methods :-As we talked about it  before astronomy contains  stars , galaxies , planets and comets  -A star is a luminous sphere of plasmaheld together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun about 93million miles away . Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earthduring the night in the sky , appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous pointsin the sky due to their immense distance from Earth. Historically, the mostprominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms , the brightestof which gained proper names.

Astronomers have assembled star catalogues thatidentify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations .However, most of the stars in the Universe , including all stars outside ourgalaxy , the Milky Way , are invisible to the naked eye from Earth . Indeed ,most are invisible from Earth even through the most powerful telescopes .-A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system ofstars, stellar remnants , interstellar gas , dust , and dark matter. Galaxies range in size from dwarfs with just a few hundred million (10*8)stars to giants with one hundred trillion (1014) stars , each orbiting itsgalaxy’s center of mass .

 – A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a staror stellar remnant that . The term planet is ancient , with ties tohistory , astrology , science , mythology , and religion . Several planets inthe Solar System can be seen with the naked eye .- Acomet is an icy small Solar System body that , when passing close to the Sun ,warms and begins to release gases , a process called outgassing . This producesa visible atmosphere or coma , and sometimes also a tail . These phenomena aredue to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind acting upon thenucleus of the comet . Comet nuclei range from a few hundred metres to tens ofkilometres across and are composed of loose collections of ice , dust , andsmall rocky particles .

The coma may be up to 15 times the Earth’s diameter ,while the tail may stretch one astronomical unit . If sufficiently bright , acomet may be seen from the Earth without the aid of a telescope and may subtendan arc of 30° (60 Moons) across the sky . Comets have been observed andrecorded since ancient times by many cultures .                                                                                Results : -Basically  all the methods that we talkedabout they all together form the science of astronomy   Discussion : – Modern astronomers tend to fall into twofields : thetheoretical and    the observational. Observational astronomers focuson direct study of stars , planets , galaxies , and so forth .

Theoretical astronomers modeland analyze how systems may have evolved .Unlike most other fields of science , astronomers are unable to observe asystem entirely from birth to death ; the lifetime of worlds , stars , andgalaxies span millions to billions of years . Instead , astronomers must relyon snapshots of bodies in various stages of evolution to determine how theyformed , evolved and died . Thus , theoretical and observational astronomy tendto blend together , as theoretical scientists use the information actuallycollected to create simulations , while the observations serve to confirm themodels — or to indicate the need for tweaking them . Astronomy is broken down into a numberof subfields , allowing scientists to specialize in particular objects andphenomena .-Planetaryastronomers (also called planetary scientists) focus on the growth ,evolution , and death of planets . While most study the worlds inside the solarsystem , some use the growing body of evidence about planets around other starsto hypothesize what they might be like . According to the University CollegeLondon , planetary science ” is a cross-discipline field including aspectsof astronomy , atmospheric science , geology , space physics , biology andchemistry .

“-Stellarastronomers turn their eyes tothe stars , including the black holes , nebulae , white dwarfs and supernovathat survive stellar deaths . The University of California , Los Angeles , says, ” The focus of stellar astronomy is on the physical and chemicalprocesses that occur in the universe . “-Solarastronomers spend their timeanalyzing a single star — our sun . According to NASA , ” The quantity andquality of light from the sun varies on time scales from milli-seconds tobillions of years . ” Understanding those changes can help scientistsrecognize how Earth is affected . The sun also helps us to understand how otherstars work , as it is the only star close enough to reveal details about itssurface .-Galacticastronomers study our galaxy , the Milky Way , while extragalacticastronomers peer outside of it to determine how these collections of stars form, change , and die .

The University of Wisconsin-Madison says , ” Establishingpatterns in the distribution , composition , and physical conditions of starsand gas traces the history of our evolving home galaxy . “-Cosmologistsfocus on the universe in its entirety , from itsviolent birth in the Big Bang to its present evolution , all the way to itseventual death . Astronomy is often (not always) about very concrete ,observable things , whereas cosmology typically involves large-scale propertiesof the universe and esoteric , invisible and sometimes purely theoreticalthings like string theory , dark matter and dark energy , and the notion ofmultiple universes .

 Astronomical observers rely on differentwavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum ( from radio waves to visible lightand on up to X-rays and gamma-rays ) to study the wide span of objects in theuniverse . The first telescopes focused on simple optical studies of what couldbe seen with the naked eye , and many telescopes continue that today . CelestialPhotos : Hubble Space Telescope’s Latest Cosmic Views But as light waves become more or less energetic , they move faster or slower .Different telescopes are necessary to study the various wavelengths . Moreenergetic radiation , with shorter wavelengths , appears in the form ofultraviolet , X-ray , and gamma-ray wavelengths , while less energetic objectsemit longer-wavelength infrared and radio waves.- Astrometry , the most ancient branch ofastronomy , is the measure of the sun , moon and planets .

The precisecalculations of these motions allows astronomers in other fields to model thebirth and evolution of planets and stars , and to predict events such aseclipses meteor showers , and the appearance of comets . According to thePlanetary Society,  ” Astrometry isthe oldest method used to detect extrasolar planets , ” though it remainsa difficult process . Early astronomers noticed patterns in the skyand attempted to organize them in order to track and predict their motion .Known as constellations , these patterns helped people of the past to measurethe seasons . The movement of the stars and other heavenly bodies was trackedaround the world , but was prevalent in China , Egypt , Greece , Mesopotamia ,Central America and India. The image of an astronomer is a lone soul at atelescope during all hours of the night . In reality , most hard-core astronomytoday is done with observations made at remote telescopes — on the ground or inspace — that are controlled by computers , with astronomers studyingcomputer-generated data and images .

Since the advent of photography, andparticularly digital photography , astronomers have provided amazing picturesof space that not only inform science but enthrall the public . All-TimeGreat Galaxy Photos Astronomers and spaceflight programs alsocontribute to the study of our own planet , when missions primed at lookingoutward (or travelling to the moon and beyond) look back and snap greatpictures of Earth from space . Astrology is a pseudo-science which claims thatthe positions of the heavenly bodies have an effect on the lives of humanbeings and events on Earth . A long time ago , astronomy and astrology werethe same .

People studied the motions of the planets and hoped to used them topredict not only the behavior of the heavens , but also wars , naturaldisasters , the rise and fall of kings , and other earthly matters . However ,around the time of Johannes Kepler , Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton ,astronomers came to realize that astrology was basically bunk . From that timeon , the primary job of an astronomer was to use physics to understand what wasgoing on in the sky .

Some people stuck to astrology , though .Astrologers use computer programs that tell them the positions of the planets(using the work of real scientists , incidentally) , and they do not lookthrough telescopes or learn about stars and planets and galaxies and so forthlike astronomers do–except perhaps for fun . Astrology has many of the trappings of realscience, like math and complicated diagrams and a specialized vocabulary , butastrologers do not follow the scientific method. Real scientists make carefulmeasurements in well-controlled studies. Astrologers don’t do experiments toprove their theories . Instead , they like to provide anecdotalevidence–stories people tell about how accurate they think astrology is .Anecdotal evidence is not acceptable in a real science because it’s too easy toleave out all the negative experiences people have , and people not very goodat recalling and accurately reporting experiences .

Don’trefer to an astronomer as an astrologer !Conclusion : -If you are new to astronomy , you have probably reached the end of our brieftour with mixed emotions . On the one hand , you may be fascinated by some ofthe new ideas you’ve read about and you may be eager to learn more . On theother hand , you may be feeling a bit overwhelmed by the number of topics wehave covered , and the number of new words and ideas we have introduced .Learning astronomy is a little like learning a new language : at first it seemsthere are so many new expressions that you’ll never master them all , but withpractice , you soon develop facility with them . Now that you have expandedyour knowledge of the vast universe and the world beyond our atmosphere we areready to look even further as we continue our reading Back Through the Stars . rememberwhat you have learned in this study .

 Let’s enjoy and continue learning more about what makes the universe sogreat !Summary ( Abstract ) : -There is much more to astronomy than observingthe planets through a telescope . This science is the study of anything  related to the universe , which can include several complex mathematical andscientific theories and concepts . Astronomy is one of the oldest of thenatural sciences .

The early civilizations in recorded history , such as theBabylonians , Greeks . Astrology, is the belief that the positioning ofthe stars and planets affect the way events occur on earth. Totallydifferent from astronomy , one similarity that exists between astrology andastronomy is the way in which they originated . There are many astronomerfields like (Planetary astronomers , Cosmologists , Galactic astronomers , Solar astronomers ,Stellar astronomer ) .Appendices : -Appendix (A) Appendix (B) Bibliography: -1- An Introduction to Astronomy & Cosmology(PDF)2-Astronomy (PDF)3-Fundamental Astronomy (PDF)4-General Astronomy (PDF)5- SpaceBased Astronomy Educator Guide (PDF)References : -1- https://www.space.com/16014-astronomy.html  (By NolaTaylor Redd, Space.com Contributor | September 7, 2017 09:20pm ET )2- https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/dictionary/Astronomy.html