Term of
Reference : –
This report was written
to get you to know a science that might be a new science for you , but it
consider one of the oldest science on Earth which is ( Astronomy ) , at the end
of this report you will understand and  learn more about Astronomy , and the history
of Astronomy  , and the difference
between Astronomy and Astrology , and their similarity , and subfields of
Astronomy .

Contents :-

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Subjects

Page number

Introduction

4

Method

6

Result

8

Discussion

9

Conclusion

13

Summary

14

Appendices

15

Bibliography

16

Reference

17

 

Introduction: –
Astronomy is a natural
science that studies celestial  objects
such as       ( Stars , planets , comets
, galaxies ) the phenomena include supernova explosions, gamma ray bursts, and
cosmic microwave background radiation . A related but distinct subject ,
physical cosmology , is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole . Astronomy
is one of the oldest of the natural sciences . The early civilizations in
recorded history , such as the Babylonians , Greeks , Indians , Egyptians ,
Nubians , Iranians , Chinese , Maya , and many ancient indigenous peoples of
the Americas performed methodical observations of the night sky . Historically ,
astronomy has included disciplines as diverse as astrometry , celestial navigation
, observational astronomy and the making of calendars , but professional
astronomy is now often considered to be synonymous with astrophysics , It
applies ( mathematics , physics , and chemistry ) In an Effort to explain the
origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution.  NASA defines astronomy as simple “the
study of stars , planets and space . ” Astronomy and astrology were
historically associated , but astrology is not a science and is no longer
recognized as having anything to do with astronomy . During the 20th century ,
the field of professional astronomy split into observational and theoretical
branches . Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from
observations of astronomical objects , which is then analyzed using basic
principles of physics . Theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the
development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects
and phenomena . The two fields complement each other , with theoretical
astronomy seeking to explain observational results and observations being used
to confirm theoretical results . Astronomy is one of the few sciences where amateurs still
play an active role , especially in the discovery and observation of transient
phenomena . Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important
astronomical discoveries , such as finding new comets. Astronomy (from the
Greek ?????????? from ?????? astron, “star” and -????? -nomia from
????? nomos, “law” or “culture”) means “law of the
stars” (or “culture of the stars” depending on the translation)
.

Methods :-
As we talked about it  before astronomy contains  stars , galaxies , planets and comets
 -A star is a luminous sphere of plasma
held together by its own gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun about 93
million miles away . Many other stars are visible to the naked eye from Earth
during the night in the sky , appearing as a multitude of fixed luminous points
in the sky due to their immense distance from Earth. Historically, the most
prominent stars were grouped into constellations and asterisms , the brightest
of which gained proper names. Astronomers have assembled star catalogues that
identify the known stars and provide standardized stellar designations .
However, most of the stars in the Universe , including all stars outside our
galaxy , the Milky Way , are invisible to the naked eye from Earth . Indeed ,
most are invisible from Earth even through the most powerful telescopes .
-A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of
stars, stellar remnants , interstellar gas , dust , and dark matter
. Galaxies range in size from dwarfs with just a few hundred million (10*8)
stars to giants with one hundred trillion (1014) stars , each orbiting its
galaxy’s center of mass .  
– A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star
or stellar remnant that . The term planet is ancient , with ties to
history , astrology , science , mythology , and religion . Several planets in
the Solar System can be seen with the naked eye .
– A
comet is an icy small Solar System body that , when passing close to the Sun ,
warms and begins to release gases , a process called outgassing . This produces
a visible atmosphere or coma , and sometimes also a tail . These phenomena are
due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind acting upon the
nucleus of the comet . Comet nuclei range from a few hundred metres to tens of
kilometres across and are composed of loose collections of ice , dust , and
small rocky particles . The coma may be up to 15 times the Earth’s diameter ,
while the tail may stretch one astronomical unit . If sufficiently bright , a
comet may be seen from the Earth without the aid of a telescope and may subtend
an arc of 30° (60 Moons) across the sky . Comets have been observed and
recorded since ancient times by many cultures .

                                                                                

Results : –
Basically  all the methods that we talked
about they all together form the science of astronomy

 

Discussion : –
 Modern astronomers tend to fall into two
fields : the
theoretical and    the observational. Observational astronomers focus
on direct study of stars , planets , galaxies , and so forth . Theoretical astronomers model
and analyze how systems may have evolved .
Unlike most other fields of science , astronomers are unable to observe a
system entirely from birth to death ; the lifetime of worlds , stars , and
galaxies span millions to billions of years . Instead , astronomers must rely
on snapshots of bodies in various stages of evolution to determine how they
formed , evolved and died . Thus , theoretical and observational astronomy tend
to blend together , as theoretical scientists use the information actually
collected to create simulations , while the observations serve to confirm the
models — or to indicate the need for tweaking them .
 Astronomy is broken down into a number
of subfields , allowing scientists to specialize in particular objects and
phenomena .
-Planetary
astronomers (also called planetary scientists) focus on the growth ,
evolution , and death of planets . While most study the worlds inside the solar
system , some use the growing body of evidence about planets around other stars
to hypothesize what they might be like . According to the University College
London , planetary science ” is a cross-discipline field including aspects
of astronomy , atmospheric science , geology , space physics , biology and
chemistry . ”

Stellar
astronomers turn their eyes to
the stars , including the black holes , nebulae , white dwarfs and supernova
that survive stellar deaths . The University of California , Los Angeles , says
, ” The focus of stellar astronomy is on the physical and chemical
processes that occur in the universe . ”


Solar
astronomers spend their time
analyzing a single star — our sun . According to NASA , ” The quantity and
quality of light from the sun varies on time scales from milli-seconds to
billions of years . ” Understanding those changes can help scientists
recognize how Earth is affected . The sun also helps us to understand how other
stars work , as it is the only star close enough to reveal details about its
surface .
-Galactic
astronomers study our galaxy , the Milky Way , while extragalactic
astronomers peer outside of it to determine how these collections of stars form
, change , and die . The University of Wisconsin-Madison says , ” Establishing
patterns in the distribution , composition , and physical conditions of stars
and gas traces the history of our evolving home galaxy . ”

Cosmologists
focus on the universe in its entirety , from its
violent birth in the Big Bang to its present evolution , all the way to its
eventual death . Astronomy is often (not always) about very concrete ,
observable things , whereas cosmology typically involves large-scale properties
of the universe and esoteric , invisible and sometimes purely theoretical
things like string theory , dark matter and dark energy , and the notion of
multiple universes .
 Astronomical observers rely on different
wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum ( from radio waves to visible light
and on up to X-rays and gamma-rays ) to study the wide span of objects in the
universe . The first telescopes focused on simple optical studies of what could
be seen with the naked eye , and many telescopes continue that today . Celestial
Photos : Hubble Space Telescope’s Latest Cosmic Views
But as light waves become more or less energetic , they move faster or slower .
Different telescopes are necessary to study the various wavelengths . More
energetic radiation , with shorter wavelengths , appears in the form of
ultraviolet , X-ray , and gamma-ray wavelengths , while less energetic objects
emit longer-wavelength infrared and radio waves.
– Astrometry , the most ancient branch of
astronomy , is the measure of the sun , moon and planets . The precise
calculations of these motions allows astronomers in other fields to model the
birth and evolution of planets and stars , and to predict events such as
eclipses meteor showers , and the appearance of comets . According to the
Planetary Society,  ” Astrometry is
the oldest method used to detect extrasolar planets , ” though it remains
a difficult process . Early astronomers noticed patterns in the sky
and attempted to organize them in order to track and predict their motion .
Known as constellations , these patterns helped people of the past to measure
the seasons . The movement of the stars and other heavenly bodies was tracked
around the world , but was prevalent in China , Egypt , Greece , Mesopotamia ,
Central America and India. The image of an astronomer is a lone soul at a
telescope during all hours of the night . In reality , most hard-core astronomy
today is done with observations made at remote telescopes — on the ground or in
space — that are controlled by computers , with astronomers studying
computer-generated data and images . Since the advent of photography, and
particularly digital photography , astronomers have provided amazing pictures
of space that not only inform science but enthrall the public . All-Time
Great Galaxy Photos Astronomers and spaceflight programs also
contribute to the study of our own planet , when missions primed at looking
outward (or travelling to the moon and beyond) look back and snap great
pictures of Earth from space . Astrology is a pseudo-science which claims that
the positions of the heavenly bodies have an effect on the lives of human
beings and events on Earth . A long time ago , astronomy and astrology were
the same . People studied the motions of the planets and hoped to used them to
predict not only the behavior of the heavens , but also wars , natural
disasters , the rise and fall of kings , and other earthly matters . However ,
around the time of Johannes Kepler , Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton ,
astronomers came to realize that astrology was basically bunk . From that time
on , the primary job of an astronomer was to use physics to understand what was
going on in the sky . Some people stuck to astrology , though .
Astrologers use computer programs that tell them the positions of the planets
(using the work of real scientists , incidentally) , and they do not look
through telescopes or learn about stars and planets and galaxies and so forth
like astronomers do–except perhaps for fun . Astrology has many of the trappings of real
science, like math and complicated diagrams and a specialized vocabulary , but
astrologers do not follow the scientific method. Real scientists make careful
measurements in well-controlled studies. Astrologers don’t do experiments to
prove their theories . Instead , they like to provide anecdotal
evidence–stories people tell about how accurate they think astrology is .
Anecdotal evidence is not acceptable in a real science because it’s too easy to
leave out all the negative experiences people have , and people not very good
at recalling and accurately reporting experiences . Don’t
refer to an astronomer as an astrologer !

Conclusion : –
If you are new to astronomy , you have probably reached the end of our brief
tour with mixed emotions . On the one hand , you may be fascinated by some of
the new ideas you’ve read about and you may be eager to learn more . On the
other hand , you may be feeling a bit overwhelmed by the number of topics we
have covered , and the number of new words and ideas we have introduced .
Learning astronomy is a little like learning a new language : at first it seems
there are so many new expressions that you’ll never master them all , but with
practice , you soon develop facility with them . Now that you have expanded
your knowledge of the vast universe and the world beyond our atmosphere we are
ready to look even further as we continue our reading Back Through the Stars . remember
what you have learned in this study . 
Let’s enjoy and continue learning more about what makes the universe so
great !

Summary ( Abstract ) : –
There is much more to astronomy than observing
the planets through a telescope . This science is the study of anything  related 
to the universe , which can include several complex mathematical and
scientific theories and concepts . Astronomy is one of the oldest of the
natural sciences . The early civilizations in recorded history , such as the
Babylonians , Greeks . Astrology, is the belief that the positioning of
the stars and planets affect the way events occur on earth. Totally
different from astronomy , one similarity that exists between astrology and
astronomy is the way in which they originated . There are many astronomer
fields like (Planetary astronomers , Cosmologists , Galactic astronomers , Solar astronomers ,
Stellar astronomer ) .

Appendices : –
Appendix (A)

Appendix (B)
 Bibliography
: –
1- An Introduction to Astronomy & Cosmology
(PDF)
2-Astronomy (PDF)
3-Fundamental Astronomy (PDF)
4-General Astronomy (PDF)
5- Space
Based Astronomy Educator Guide (PDF)

References : –
1- https://www.space.com/16014-astronomy.html  (By Nola
Taylor Redd, Space.com Contributor | September 7, 2017 09:20pm ET )

2- https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/dictionary/Astronomy.html