Texas Annexation Essay, Research Paper
Narrative History of Texas Annexation, Secession, and Readmission to the Union
Texans voted in favour of appropriation to the United States in the first election following independency in 1836. However, throughout the Republic period ( 1836-1845 ) no pact of appropriation negotiated between the Republic and the United States was ratified by both states.
When all efforts to get at a formal appropriation pact failed, the United States Congress passed & # 8211 ; after much argument and merely a simple bulk & # 8211 ; a Joint Resolution for Annexing Texas to the United States. Under these footings, Texas would maintain both its public lands and its public debt, it would hold the power to split into four extra provinces “ of convenient size ” in the hereafter if it so desired, and it would present all military, postal, and imposts installations and authorization to the United States authorities. ( Neither this joint declaration or the regulation passed by the Republic of Texas & # 8217 ; Annexation Convention gave Texas the right to splinter. )
In July 1845, a popularly-elected Constitutional Convention met in Austin to see both this appropriation proposal every bit good as a proposed peace pact with Mexico which would stop the province of war between the two states, but merely if Texas remained an independent state.
The Convention voted to accept the United States & # 8217 ; proposal, and the Annexation Ordinance was submitted to a popular ballot in October 1845. The proposed Annexation Ordinance and State Constitution were approved by the Texas electors and submitted to the United States Congress.
The United States House and Senate, in bend, accepted the Texas province fundamental law in a Joint Resolution to acknowledge Texas as a State which was signed by the president on December 29, 1845. Although the formal transportation of authorities did non happen until February 19, 1846, Texas statehood day of the months from the 29th of December.
Resistance to Texas & # 8217 ; admittance to the United States was peculiarly strong in the North during this period. If a challenge to the constitutionality of the move could hold been made successfully at that clip, there is small uncertainty that the leaders of the resistance would hold instituted such a suit in the Supreme Court.
Sixteen old ages subsequently, in January 1861, the Secession Convention met in Austin and adopted an Regulation of Secession on February 1 and a Declaration of Causes on February 2. This proposal was approved by the electors, but even before Texas could go “ independent ” as provided for in the text of the Ordinance, it was accepted by the Probationary Government of the Confederate States of America as a province on March 1, 1861.
The Secession Convention, reconvened on March 2, approved an regulation accepting Confederate statehood on March 5. Texas delegates to the Provisional Confederate Government had already been elected, and they were among those who approved the proposed Confederate Constitution. Their action was confirmed by the Secession Convention on March 23.
Throughout the Civil War period, Texas existed as a province in the Confederate States of America, its position confirmed by the elective representatives of the Texas citizens. ( Sam Houston, although accepting the determination of the electorate to splinter, protested the Convention & # 8217 ; s determination to fall in the Confederacy since the affair was non submitted to popular ballot. His resistance was deficient to do either the electors or the members of the province legislative assembly to set aside the actions of the Convention. ) John H. Reagan, a Texan, was the Postmaster General of the C.S.A. , and other Texans held outstanding authorities stations throughout the period.
When the war ended in April 1865, Texas was still considered to be in rebellion ( the last conflict of the Civil War was fought on Texas dirt after the resignation at Appomattox ) . Although a province of peace was declared as bing between the United States and the other Southern States on April 2, 1866, President Andrew Johnson did non publish a similar announcement of peace between the U.S. and Texas until August 20, 1866, even though the Constitutional Convention of 1866 had approved on March 15, 1866 an regulation to invalidate the actions of the Secession Convention
Southern States remained under military authorities until their legislative assemblies adopted the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the United States Constitution. Their readmission to full national position varied from province to province ( Georgia was readmitted twice ) .
In April 1869, the U.S. Congress passed an Act authorising electors of Virginia, Mississippi and Texas to vote on their new province fundamental laws and to elect province officers and Members of Congress. Three months subsequently, President U.S. Grant signed a announcement subjecting the Texas Constitution to the electors of the province.
Texans voted on a revised province fundamental law in November 1869 and elected a province authorities. Once convened, the legislative assembly voted to sign the 14th and 15th amendments to the U.S. Constitution ( the 13th amendment holding already been to the full ratified ) and elected two U.S. Senators, thereby finishing the demands for reinstatement. President Grant signed the act to readmit Texas to Congressional representation on March 30, 1870, and this federal act was promulgated throughout Texas by a general order issued by General Reynolds on April 16, 1870.
No demand exists & # 8212 ; either in the Reconstruction Acts regulating the Rebel provinces or in the papers readmitting Texas to full statehood & # 8212 ; for the governor of Texas to subscribe a papers reaffirming Texas & # 8217 ; place as a province within the United States democracy. The lone on-going demand of Texas authorities was that no constitutional alteration should deny the ballot or school rights to any citizen of the United States.
A thorough cheque of the volumes of federal legislative acts for the full period of Reconstruction ( 1865-1870 ) and through 1872 revealed no other statute law necessitating farther cogent evidence of entry to the U.S. authorities on the portion of Texas or any other of the “ rebel provinces. ”