A elephantine among provinces, huge Texas was one time a autonomous state. During 300 old ages of regulation by Spain, it had sprawled like a sleeping giant, its wealths undeveloped and its colonisation limited to a few missions, supported by presidios ( military stations ) . When Mexico became an independent state in 1821, Texas became a Mexican province and new colonists from the United States were welcomed. The big inflow of Anglo-American settlers and African American slaves led to brushs with Mexican military personnels.
After a successful war of independency against Mexico, the Texans raised the Lone Star flag over their ain democracy in 1836. This authorities was officially recognized by the United States and by several European states. Then in 1845 Texas accepted appropriation by the United States and was admitted to the Union as the 28th province. Texas is 2nd merely to Alaska in country. It covers more district than the entire country of five Midwestern provinces — Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan. There are 254 counties in Texas. Its largest county, Brewster, is approximately every bit large as Connecticut and Rhode Island combined. Its smallest, Rockwall, is merely 147 square stat mis ( 381 square kilometres ) in country. For a clip Texas had a peak milage of more than 17,000 stat mis ( 27,358 kilometres ) of main-track railway, but the sum has been worsening of all time since the 1930s. Cotton, foremost raised on the Blackland Prairies, has long been the most of import harvest of Texas. Much of it is now grown on the Great Plains, an accomplishment made possible by the find of a sandy, water-laden undersoil beneath the country ‘s dry surface. On the Rio Grande irrigation has given rise to a great fruit-growing belt, while along the Nueces River vegetable harvests are harvested in an 11-month growth season. Texas leads the state in beef production, an industry that began to boom in 1866, when cowpunchers foremost drove wild longhorns north to market. Today scientifically bred cowss are raised on the fields. “ Black gold, ” or crude oil, was found in Texas in the nineteenth century, but it was the find of the mammoth E Texas oil field in 1930 that revolutionized the agricultural province. Although much of the wealth of modern Texas stems from its widespread petroleum-bearing formations, industry has become progressively diversified since the terminal of World War II. The name Texas comes from a Caddo Indian word significance “ friends ” or “ Alliess. ” The Spanish adventurers pronounced the word tejas and gave this name to the country. The nickname Lone Star State comes from the individual star in the Texas flag, which was officially adopted by the Republic of Texas in 1839. The Texas and Hawaii flags are the lone province emblems that originally flew over recognized independent states. Survey of the Lone Star State Texas lies in the south-central part of the United States. Its southwesterly and southern boundary is formed by the Rio Grande. Across the river are the Mexican provinces of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Le & # 1091 ; n, and Tamaulipas. On the sou’-east Texas boundary lines on the Gulf of Mexico for 367 stat mis ( 591 kilometres ) . To the E are Louisiana and Arkansas, with the Sabine River organizing the boundary with Louisiana for 180 stat mis ( 290 kilometres ) . To the North is Oklahoma, with the Red River supplying the boundary line for 480 stat mis ( 772 kilometres ) . New Mexico is to the West. The Lone Star State is both longer and wider than any other province except Alaska. Its greatest length, from north to south, is 801 stat mis ( 1,289 kilometres ) — a figure that includes the Panhandle, which extends North of the upper Red River for approximately 133 stat mis ( 214 kilometres ) . The province ‘s greatest breadth is 773 stat mis ( 1,244 kilometres ) . Both of the overall distances are greater than the air hose milage between New York City and Chicago. The country of the province is 266,807 square stat mis ( 691,027 square kilometres ) , including 4,790 square stat mis ( 12,406 square kilometres ) of inland H2O surface. Natural Regions Texas has a broad assortment in its geology, minerals, dirts, flora, and wildlife. Its lift ranges from sea degree along the seashore of the Gulf of Mexico to 8,751 pess ( 2,667 metres ) at Guadalup The Gulf Coastal Plain screens southern and eastern Texas and includes about 40 per centum of the province ‘s country. Along the seashore are many long barrier beaches, such as Padre Island, separated from the mainland by lagunas. Galveston is the largest of the bays. The field extends 150 to 250 stat mis ( 240 to 400 kilometres ) inland to a series of hills that sweep across Texas from Denison on the Red River to Del Rio on the Rio Grande. The western portion of this line ( between Austin and Del Rio ) is called the Balcones Escarpment. The Gulf Coastal Plain may be divided into five distinguishable subdivisions. They are: the Rio Grande field, in the South ; the coastal prairies, from the San Antonio River to the Sabine River ; the Pine Belt, or Piney Woods, from the Louisiana line due west about 100 stat mis ( 160 kilometres ) ; the Post Oak Belt, West of the Pine Belt ; and the Blackland Prairies, along the western border of the Gulf Coastal Plain from the Red River to a point near San Antonio. vitamin E Peak in Culberson County. Within the province are four big natural parts. The Central Lowland covers the eastern border of the Panhandle and the north-central portion of the province. It extends southbound to include Fort Worth, Abilene, and Colorado City. The eastern portion of this part includes the Grand, or Fort Worth, Prairie, sandwiched between the East and West Cross Timbers belts. The balance of the Central Lowland consists of turn overing fields. The Great Plains extend over most of the Panhandle and west-central and cardinal Texas. This huge plateau ranges in lift from 2,500 to 4,700 pess ( 760 to 1,430 metres ) . In the Panhandle are the High Plains, or Llano Estacado ( Staked Plain ) , a dry, level, unwooded country. To the E the cardinal Texas subdivision extends about every bit far as Waco and Austin. The southeasterly extension of the Great Plains is the Edwards Plateau. Across the lower Pecos River the field continues westward as the Stockton Plateau. This subdivision is sometimes called the Trans-Pecos. The Basin and Range Region covers the utmost western portion of the province. It has a series of rugged mountain scopes and dry, flaxen basins. In Hudspeth County is the Diablo Plateau, or Bolston, between the Guadalupe and Hueco mountains. In a southbound cringle of the Rio Grande is a rugged country that includes Big Bend National Park. The Chisos Mountains lie within the park. Thousands of estates in the upper Rio Grande vale near El Paso are irrigated from Elephant Butte Reservoir in New Mexico. Most of the rivers of Texas flow in a southeasterly way into the Gulf of Mexico. From the province ‘s eastern boundary line to its western boundary line, the largest of these rivers are the Sabine, Neches, Trinity, Brazos, Colorado ( of Texas ) , Guadalupe, San Antonio, Nueces, and Rio Grande with its head subdivision, the Pecos. The northern border of the province lies in the Mississippi River basin. Within this subdivision are the Canadian River, which flows across the Panhandle, and the Red River, on the Texas-Oklahoma boundary line. Climate Texas has three chief types of clime. A narrow strip along the seashore has a marine clime tempered by air currents from the Gulf of Mexico. Here temperatures are reasonably unvarying, with pleasant summers and mild winters. The Gulf seashore country, from Brownsville northerly, can see terrible ocean-borne storms, including destructive hurricanes. The mountain clime of western Texas brings dry, clear yearss with dramatic dips in temperature at nightfall. The remainder of the province has a Continental clime with cold winters and hot summers. Quick temperature alterations are common in this country. The warmest portion of the province is the lower Rio Grande vale, which has an mean one-year temperature of 74 & # 176 ; F ( 23 & # 176 ; C ) . The coldest is the northwest Panhandle, with a 54 & # 176 ; F ( 12 & # 176 ; C ) norm. Average one-year precipitation ( rain and melted snow ) varies from 58 inches ( 147 centimetres ) in the utmost eastern portion of the province to less than 10 inches ( 25 centimetres ) near El Paso. In most parts of the province, the greatest sum of rainfall occurs between April and July and is particularly heavy during May. Snow is by and large limited to the northern fields country, where it averages about 15 inches ( 38 centimetres ) yearly. Natural Resources Texas has a rich supply of natural resources. The eastern portion of the province is a productive agriculture part with fertile dirt and ample rainfall. Where western Texas can be irrigated, it has immense croping countries and valuable cropland. Almost 10 per centum of the province is forested. The largest sum of lumber is in eastern Texas, where the forest country extends over 43 counties. The main commercial trees are several assortments of pine and oak, elm, hickory, magnolia, sweet gum, black gum, and tupelo. The mineral resources, led by crude oil, are the most valuable in the state. The major commercial advantages of the province are its first-class ports for trade with Central and South America. The Gulf seashore outputs valuable gimmicks of runt. The main preservation job is the care of an equal H2O supply, peculiarly in western Texas and in the big urban and industrial centres. Since 1930 many dikes have been built to supply inundation control, power, and irrigation. Today about one 4th of the reservoirs they formed have a storage capacity of more than 100,000 acre-feet each. The largest is Toledo Bend, on the Sabine River. Next in size are Amistad, on the Rio Grande, and Sam Rayburn, on the Angelina. Other big undertakings include Lake Texoma, formed by Denison Dam, on the Red River and Falcon Reservoir, on the Rio Grande. Amistad and Falcon profit both the United States and Mexico. The Texas Water Commission administers H2O rights and control. There are besides many separate river governments and H2O territories. Timber preservation is directed by the Texas Forest Service, a division of Texas A & A ; M University. Wildlife is protected by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. The federal Department of the Interior maintains 11 national wildlife safeties, including the Aransas safety, along the seashore. Peoples of Texas The early Native American occupants of Texas were the Caddo in the sou’-east, the Tonkawa in the sou’-west, and the Atakapa and Karankawa along the seashore. Subsequently the Comanche moved into cardinal and western Texas from the North. Fierce Plains Indians, the Comanche were non brought under outside control until about 1875. This action opened the Panhandle and the western fields to colony. During the early yearss of Spanish regulation, Texas attracted few new colonists other than missionaries. By 1806 the population was no more than 7,000. After the constitution of a settlement of Anglo-americans by Stephen Fuller Austin in 1821, similar colonists came in increasing Numberss. Many came from the South, conveying slaves with them. Subsequently, fledglings arrived from the East and Midwest. Today most of the migration into Texas comes from Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Arkansas. Of the Texas-born people populating in other provinces, the largest figure are in California. Texas has more than 3 million people of Latino beginning, most of whom are concentrated along the Rio Grande and in southern Texas. The province besides has more than 2 million African Americans, chiefly in the South and E. Almost 6 per centum of the people are foreign born — chiefly emigres from Mexico. The population besides includes about 50,000 Native Americans and about 39,000 people of Chinese and Nipponese descent. Cities Texas has 16 metropoliss with a population of more than 100,000. The largest is Houston, a fiscal and industrial centre. The metropolis is connected to Galveston Bay by the 52-mile ( 84-kilometer ) Houston Ship Channel, along which is one of the universe ‘s greatest concentrations of industry. With the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration ( NASA ) nearby the country is besides a focal point of the infinite industry. Dallas, the 2nd largest metropolis, is a manner, insurance, and finance centre. Third in size is the historic metropolis of San Antonio, place of the celebrated mission turned military station — the Alamo — and the main trade centre of southern Texas. Nearby are four bases of the United States Air Force — Brooks, Kelly, Lackland, and Randolph. Located on the Rio Grande, El Paso serves as a busy gateway to Mexico and is the main trade centre of western Texas. West of Dallas is Fort Worth, a celebrated farm animal and grain market. Austin, the 6th largest metropolis, is the province capital ; located in the south-central portion of Texas, it grew harmonizing to programs laid out in 1839. The following largest metropolis in the province is Corpus Christi, a year-around resort and deepwater port located on the Gulf of. Lubbock, the commercial hub of a rich cotton-growing country in the Great Plains, and Amarillo are the main metropoliss of the Panhandle. Beaumont, the main metropolis of the Sabine-Neches industrial country in the utmost sou’-east, is noted for its cargos of crude oil. Waco is an agricultural and industrial centre on the Brazos River about halfway between Dallas and Austin. Between Dallas and Fort Worth is Arlington, an industrial and commercial centre for the automotive and aerospace industries. Wichita Falls is a crude oil centre in north-central Texas. Galveston, a cotton- and sulfur-shipping port on the Gulf of Mexico, besides boasts a booming touristry industry. Manufacturing In 1900 the two taking fabricating industries in Texas were pounding and the processing of grain. Since that clip there has been a rapid addition in the figure and types of fabrication workss. During World War II the value of Texas fabrication multiplied about four times. Manufacturing value today exceeds 53 billion dollars. Texas is the main fabrication province in the South, and the value of its fabrication is surpassed merely by that of California among the provinces west of the Mississippi River. Most of the addition in industry has been due to the rise of crude oil refinement, which followed the find of the great Spindletop oil field in 1901 and has become the most of import industry in Texas. Texas now refines more crude oil than any other province. Graded second is the industry of chemicals and allied merchandises, which includes organic chemicals and plastics. The 3rd most of import industry is the processing of nutrient merchandises. This includes meat-packing and the readying of bakeshop goods, flour and repast, and soft drinks. Fourth in importance is touristry. Agribusiness In farm income, Texas is first among the Southern provinces and 2nd or 3rd in the state. The one-year hard currency income from Texas agricultural merchandises, estimated at approximately 9 billion dollars, is normally surpassed merely by the agricultural income of California — and sometimes Iowa. Texas has approximately 160,000 farms, more than any other province. Some farms contain 1000s of estates. The mean size is about 838 estates ( 339 hectares ) . Texas leads all the provinces in the production of cotton, cowss, wool, and sorghum grain. Irrigation is a major factor in harvest production. Much of the irrigated land is in the High Plains. Other big irrigated countries are the lower Rio Grande vale, the Coastal Prairies, the Pecos Valley, and the Rio Grande Plain. Livestock and related merchandises normally account for more than half the annual farm income. Crops history for the remainder. Texas leads nationally in the figure of cowss, Equus caballuss, sheep, and lambs. Cattle ranks in value as the most of import trade good in about every Texas county. The province ‘s main hard currency harvest is cotton. Texas leads the state in cotton lint and cottonseed. The major bring forthing counties are Gaines, Dawson, Terry, Cameron, and Martin. Sorghum grain is normally 2nd in value. Wheat for grain is the 3rd most valuable harvest ; the Panhandle is noted for its wheat. Corn ranks 4th in value. Other farm merchandises are milk, eggs, poulets, hay, hogs, peanuts, rice, Meleagris gallopavos, wool, oats, and mohair. Texas ranks among the first five provinces in the production of Sorghum vulgare technicum, linseed, Citrus paradisi and oranges, pe
tins, sweet trefoil seed, Sweet murphies, carrots, and onions.
Mining. The mineral resources of Texas yield an one-year value of about 45 billion dollars — more than that of any other province. Most of the income is derived from crude oil, in which Texas leads the state. The East Texas field is one of the most productive in the universe. Top bring forthing counties in Texas are Pecos, Yoakum, Gaines, Ector, and Gregg. Gregg was the first county to bring forth more than 2 billion barrels of crude oil of all time since records have been kept. The 2nd and 3rd most valuable minerals are natural gas and coal. Grapevines carry natural gas, every bit good as crude oil, from Texas to all subdivisions of the state. Texas is one of the state ‘ s head beginnings of He, with much of the production centered at Amarillo, Exell, and Dumas. Cement is 4th in importance. Texas ranks among the taking cement-producing provinces. The Gulf Coastal Plain is one of the state ‘s richest beginnings of S. Magnesium is processed from saltwater at Freeport ‘s electrolytic works. Among other minerals produced in the province are rock, sand and crushed rock, calcium hydroxide, salt, and gypsum. Transportation Because of its immense size, Texas has had to develop a huge web of transit paths by route, rail, H2O, and air. The Texas Department of Highways and Public Transportation, established in 1917, maintains about 71,000 stat mis ( 114,260 kilometres ) of province roads. In add-on to the province roads and tonss of federal paths, a figure of main roads in the Interstate system cross Texas. Interstates 10, 20, and 40 are major east-west paths. Traversing parts of Texas from north to Souths are Interstates 35, 45, and 27. Interstate 30 tallies northeastward from Dallas. The first railway in Texas was a 20-mile ( 32-kilometer ) line in the Houston country that was completed in 1853. Transcontinental service became a world in 1881, when the Southern Pacific linked the province with California. Today Texas is served by a statewide web of railwaies and by a figure of major air hoses. The Dallas-Fort Worth Regional Airport is the state ‘s largest in footings of land country and one of the busiest. Thirteen deepwater ports handle cargos of crude oil merchandises, cotton, and wheat. Paths of travel are the Intracoastal Waterway ( widening eastward from Brownsville ) and the Gulf of Mexico. The Houston Ship Channel, which opened in 1915, has helped do that metropolis one of the great United States ports. The other major ports are Port Arthur, Beaumont, Texas City, Corpus Christi, Port Aransas, and Galveston. Diversion In an mean twelvemonth Texas is visited by more than 40 million tourers. One of the main attractive forces is the rugged land of mountains and canons in the Trans-Pecos. This part includes Big Bend National Park and Guadalupe Mountains National Park. Palo Duro Canyon cuts a 1,000-foot- ( 300-meter- ) deep cut through the high fields of the Texas Panhandle. The Gulf seashore has many all right beaches and resorts. Near Kingsville in south Texas is King Ranch, one of the largest in the universe. East Texas boasts more than 11 million estates ( 4.5 million hectares ) of forests, including four national woods. San Antonio is celebrated for the Alamo and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park. Dallas hosts the province just each October and the Cotton Bowl football game on New Year ‘s Day. In Arlington are Six Flags Over Texas, an amusement park styled after the American West, and the place bowl of the Texas Rangers professional baseball squad. In professional football, the Dallas Cowboys drama in Texas Stadium, in Irving, and the Houston Oilers play in the celebrated Astrodome, besides place of baseball ‘s Houston Astros. There are three Texas hoops squads: the Dallas Mavericks, the Houston Rockets, and the San Antonio Spurs. Education The first schools in the Texas part were informal categories for Native Americans held at the missions of Spanish priests. There were merely a few private schools in the country at the clip of the Texas declaration of independency in 1836. One of the democracy ‘s charges against Mexico was that it had “ failed to set up any public system of instruction. ” In 1839 the Republic of Texas began puting aside public land for instruction. An act set uping a province school system was passed in 1854. A lasting school fund was established with a grant of 2 million dollars, and proviso was made for puting up school territories. In 1949 the Gilmer-Aikin Torahs reorganized the public school system to equalise educational chances. Common school territories were consolidated from more than 3,000 to fewer than 1,000. The largest of the province schools is the University of Texas, located in Austin, with subdivisions at Arlington, Dallas, El Paso, Odessa, San Antonio, and Tyler ; wellness scientific discipline centres at Dallas, Houston, and San Antonio ; malignant neoplastic disease centres at Houston and Bastrop County ; a wellness centre at Tyler ; and a medical subdivision at Galveston. The divisions of the Texas A & A ; M University System are located at College Station, Prairie View, Stephenville, and Galveston. Some of the other state-supported establishments are Lamar University, at Beaumont ; Midwestern State University, at Wichita Falls ; Pan American University, at Edinburg ; Texas Southern University, at Houston ; the University of Houston, besides at Houston, with subdivisions at Houston ( Clear Lake City, Downtown College subdivisions ) and Victoria ; Texas Tech University, at Lubbock ; and Texas Woman ‘s University, at Denton. Other big establishments include Southern Methodist University, at Dallas ; Texas Christian University, at Fort Worth ; Baylor University, at Waco ; St. Mary ‘s University of San Antonio, at San Antonio ; Abilene Christian University, at Abilene ; Trinity University, at San Antonio ; Rice University, at Houston ; and Texas Wesleyan College, at Fort Worth. Government and Politics Under Mexican regulation Texas was governed foremost from Saltillo and so from Monclova ( both in Mexico ) . In 1835-36 one or more governmental maps were carried on at San Felipe de Austin, Washington on the Brazos, Harrisburg, Galveston, Velasco, and Columbia. Houston served as the capital in 1837-39 ; Austin, in 1839-42 ; and Washington on the Brazos, in 1842-45. Austin has remained the province capital since 1845. Texas is governed under its 5th fundamental law, which was adopted in 1876. The main executive officer of the province is the governor, who is elected every four old ages. The legislative subdivision consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. Heading the province bench is the Supreme Court and Court of Criminal Appeals. The Democratic party dominated Texas political relations from the beginning of statehood — with lone occasional exclusions — until the seventiess. Sam Houston was elected governor as an independent in 1859, and Republicans were elected in 1870 and 1979. Likewise, in presidential elections Texas voted Democratic in every election after the American Civil War until 1928 and once more until the fiftiess. In recent old ages the Republican party has been deriving strength. A Dallas oil-drilling contractor, William Clements, was elected governor in 1978 and reelected in 1986 — the first Republican to head the province since Reconstruction. John N. Garner of Uvalde was the state ‘s first vice-president from Texas ( 1933-41 ) . Dwight D. Eisenhower, who served from 1953 to 1961, was the first Texas-born president. Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson of Johnson City became the 2nd president from Texas on Nov. 22, 1963, after the blackwash of John F. Kennedy while siting in a Dallas motorcade. The governor of Texas, John B. Connally, who was siting in the same auto as President Kennedy, was wounded. Johnson took the curse of office as president instantly after Kennedy ‘ s decease ; he was elected president in 1964. George Bush was a occupant of Texas when he was elected vice-president in 1980 and 1984 and when he was elected president in 1988. Sam Rayburn of Bonham holds the record for length of service as talker of the United States House of Representatives — 17 old ages, get downing in 1940. One of the first African American adult females to function in Congress, and the first from the Deep South, was Barbara Jordan of Houston, foremost elected in 1972. The married woman of a former governor of Texas, who had been impeached, Miriam A. Ferguson was the 2nd American adult female ( by two hebdomads ) to function as a governor ( 1925-27 and 1933-35 ) . More than any other province, Texas has elected adult females to high political offices in several of its metropoliss. In the 1980s adult females were elected to the top station in Houston, Dallas, San Antonio, Corpus Christi, and El Paso. In 1990 another adult female, Ann Richards, was narrowly elected governor of the province. HISTORY OF TEXAS Six national flags have flown over Texas during its colourful history. The first was Spain ‘s streamer, from 1519 to 1685. In 1685 the Gallic adventurer La Salle raised the Gallic flag over a ephemeral coastal settlement. In 1691 Texas once more came under the Spanish flag, which was replaced by the streamer of Mexico in 1821. From 1836 to 1845 the Lone Star streamer flew over the Republic of Texas. The Stars and Stripes became the official flag in 1845, but during the American Civil War, from 1861 to 1865, it was replaced by the Confederate flag. The first European to see what is now Texas was Alonso Alvarez de Pineda, who mapped the seashore in 1519. Cabeza de Vaca, a Spanish baronial, was the first to research the country. Shipwrecked near what is now Galveston in 1528, he was captured by the Karankawa Indians and traveled with them for eight old ages before get awaying. In 1541 Francisco Coronado crossed the Panhandle in hunt of gold. Subsequently, parties of Spaniards camped in the wilderness, but they left no colonies. The Gallic adventurer La Salle missed the oral cavity of the Mississippi River in 1685 and sailed into Matagorda Bay. He pushed inland and built Fort St. Louis, which two old ages subsequently was wiped out by Native Americans already populating in the country. Fear of Gallic influence hurried the Spanish into widening missions into eastern Texas. By 1800 some 25 missions and a figure of presidios had been built in Texas. The missions had small success in change overing the Native Americans to the foreigner Spanish civilization and failed to pull colonists. A 1795 nose count found 69 households in San Antonio. The few extra households were chiefly at what are now Goliad and Nacogdoches. After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the United States regarded eastern Texas as its district. Spain refused to acknowledge the claim and won control of about 96,000 square stat mis ( 248,639 square kilometres ) through the Adams-On & # 1085 ; s Treaty of 1819. After Mexico gained its independency from Spain, this boundary ( the Sabine River and northerly ) was confirmed by a pact with the United States. The manner to American colony was opened when Moses Austin of Connecticut won Spain ‘s consent to settle 300 Anglo-American households in Texas. His boy, Stephen F. Austin, is called the male parent of Texas because he brought the first group of settlers to the lower Brazos River in December 1821. The capital of the colony was established at San Felipe de Austin, in present Austin County, in 1823. Mexico made extra land grants to other colonists. Drawn by an copiousness of public lands where maize and cotton grew, Whites from the South and Southwest and their black slaves swelled the population. As in-migration into Texas from the United States increased, nevertheless, Mexico grew more hostile. Resentment flared in 1826 when American boosters set up the ephemeral Fredonian democracy at Nacogdoches. By 1830 the population of Texas had grown to about 25,000, and farther American in-migration, including the importing of African American slaves, was forbidden. Disputes with Mexico increased. After Santa Anna became the dictator of Mexico, the Texans revolted. The first unfastened conflict was fought at Gonzales on Oct. 2, 1835. Republic of Texas The Texans held a convention at Washington on the Brazos and adopted a declaration of independency on March 2, 1836. A fundamental law modeled after that of the United States was adopted by the new Republic of Texas. The most dramatic event in the Texas war for independency was the heroic defence of the Alamo in San Antonio. A rebuilt mission, the Alamo was used as a garrison by about 180 Americans. After a besieging of 12 yearss by several thousand Mexican soldiers under Santa Anna, the Alamo fell on March 6, 1836, and the fort was wiped out. Subsequently in the month the Mexicans massacred James Fannin and more than 300 Texas captives at Goliad. “ Remember the Alamo ” and “ Remember Goliad ” became Texas war calls. Independence was won after Gen. Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna on the Bankss of the San Jacinto River near Houston on April 21, 1836. In September Sam Houston was elected president of the democracy. The new state was hemmed in by the Indian frontier from the Red River to the hostile Mexican boundary line along the Rio Grande. These menaces led to the development of the celebrated Texas Rangers, adept equestrians and sharpshooters. The Rangers, the oldest province constabulary force in the United States, are now a subdivision of the Department of Public Safety. From 1836 to 1845 the public debt grew from 1 million to 8 million dollars. Many believed that the hereafter development of Texas would be greater under the United States. In 1844 a convention voted for appropriation and a province fundamental law was adopted. Admission to the Union The proposed appropriation brought a acrimonious battle in the United States over the inquiry of bondage. Finally, on Dec. 29, 1845, Texas was admitted to the Union. The province kept its public lands and reserved the right to split into no more than five provinces. Disputes with Mexico over boundary lines led to the Mexican War in 1846. The United States triumph in the struggle two old ages subsequently established the Rio Grande as the international boundary line every bit far as El Paso. In 1850 Congress purchased from Texas for 10 million dollars the claim of that province to some 100,000 square stat mis ( 259,000 square kilometres ) of land, now portion of New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and Wyoming. Just before the eruption of the American Civil War, slaveholding Texas seceded from the Union and joined the Confederacy. Governor Sam Houston tried to maintain the province in the Union but was deposed. Texas was readmitted in 1870 In the mid-1860s Texas cowpuncher began driving cattle northerly to markets or scopes. Some of their celebrated cowss trails were the Chisholm, Western ( Dodge City ) , Goodnight-Loving, and Sedalia trails. More than 11 million cowss were herded up these trails before the debut of railwaies into the country. These cowpunchers were the inspiration for many tonss of Western novels and movies. Yet in malice of all the Western lore observing the cowpuncher in vocal, narrative, art, and movie, the epoch of the great cattle thrusts was short. It was virtually over by 1890, merely 20 old ages after it began. The Modern State Much of the history of modern Texas is connected with the development of the oil industry. In 1901 Anthony F. Lucas struck oil in the Spindletop field, near Beaumont. Other great work stoppages included those of East Texas, the richest of all, in 1930 ; Scurry County, in 1949 ; and Spraberry Field, near Midland, in 1950. The province particularly benefited from the enlargement of the industry, and its associated petrochemicals, after World War II. In 1960 Texas won a 15-year political and legal battle for rubric to the seaward oil in its Gulf of Mexico tidelands. A Supreme Court determination gave the province mineral rights in an country widening three conferences — about 10 1/2 stat mis ( 17 kilometres ) — offshore. In 1963 the United States ended a boundary line difference with Mexico by holding to interchange land in the Laredo country. The difference began about 100 old ages before, when the channel of the Rio Grande shifted. HemisFair ’68, the first international expounding in a Southwest province, was held at San Antonio. Massive oil spills from oilers have sporadically devastated the Texas shoreline. In October 1989 and, nine months subsequently, in July 1990, there were major fatal accidents at two Texas petrochemical workss within 10 stat mis ( 16 kilometres ) of each other, near Houston.