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Text And Traditions: Work Requirement One Historical Reconstruction Essay, Research Paper

Text and Traditions: Work Requirement One Historical Reconstruction

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Major events in Judaic history to the first century AD

1250 BC Fall of Jerusalem to the Romans.

931 BC Divided Kingdoms.

721 BC Fall of Samaria.

587 BC Fall of Jerusalem, Babylonian imprisonment.

333 BC Jews under Hellenistic regulation.

63 BC Jews under Roman regulation.

70 AD Fall of Jerusalem to the Romans.

Major events between 50 BC & # 8211 ; 100 Ad

63 BC & # 8211 ; 40 BC Hyrcanus2 regulations, but is capable to Rome.

41 BC & # 8211 ; 30 BC Antony Caesar Roman Emperor.

40 BC & # 8211 ; 37 BC Parathions conquer Jerusalem.

38 BC & # 8211 ; 4 BC Herod regulations as male monarch. Capable to Rome.

37 BC Jerusalem besieged for 6 months.

32 BC Herod Defeated.

31 BC & # 8211 ; 14 AD Caesar Augustus Roman Emperor.

19 BC Herod & # 8217 ; s Temple begun.

16 BC Herod visits Agrppa.

4 BC Herod dies ; Archelaus succeeds.

37 AD & # 8211 ; 41 AD Caliguta Roman Emperor.

41 AD & # 8211 ; 54 AD Claudius Roman Emperor.

54 AD & # 8211 ; 68 AD Nero Roman Emperor. The first tormentor of Christians.

66 AD Jews in Palestine tried to revolt. Were crushed by


69 AD & # 8211 ; 79 AD Vespasia Roman Emperor. He continued the persecution.

70 AD Judaic temple destroyed. Small portion of the wall left


79 AD Titus Roman Emperor.

Detailed analysis of major Judaic groups of the clip

Pharisees The Pharisees were a group of Jews, that believed strongly against the

acceptance of Greek ways. They wanted to continue and protect their delicate Judaic

civilization, from the Grecian influence that was deluging into Israel at the clip.

They developed as haters of the tradition Greek ways, because of their imposts

were related to idolatry and immorality. They joined up with a group know as the

Hasmoneans and proceeded to carry on a rebellion against the Greek. After deriving

spiritual freedom, they so separated from their new spouses, and formed the

breakaway party, known today as the Pharisees ( intending? the detached & # 8217 ; ) . They

had utmost power in the temple, and finally turned it into the centre of

the Judaic religion. This didn & # 8217 ; t last everlastingly, as it was eventually replaced by the

temple, erected by David.

Saducees The Sadducees ( Sons of Zadok ) seemed to be a group of blue

priestly households, that were powerful within the High Priesthood. They held a

monopoly over all the High Priesthood places and were besides powerful in the

Sanhedrin. They came across as being a really selfish group that retained their

rights and traditions, and besides seeking to remain on the good side of the Roman

Empire. Unlike the Pharisees, they were stiff and closed in religious order, and non open

to alter. When the Romans destroyed the temple, they disappeared and were ne’er

heard from once more.

Zealots The Zealots were a group of extremist extremists, that were the cause of

many rebellions throughout their history, and finally they lead a rebellion

against the Romans in 66-73 AD. To halt this, the Roman Emperor destroyed the

3rd temple, which lead to the terminal of the rebellion. This non merely take to their

ruin, but that of the Jews when they were crushed by Emperor Titus in 73 AD.

Qumrans/Essenes They were an of import Judaic group in the community around the

clip of Jesus. Although it wasn & # 8217 ; t until 150 BC until they emerged, they lived

their lives harmonizing to a rigorous set of beliefs and regulations. To fall in the group a

three twelvemonth provisional period was imposed to new comers. Members were bound to

maintain secret the philosophies and patterns. Its is believed that John the Baptist

was and Essene, and had high connexions to their community. The find of

the Dead Sea Scrolls has shed a batch more visible radiation on the patterns of the Essenes.

These finds have proved that some Christian qualities and beliefs are an

exact transcript of that of the Qumrans/Essenes.

Samaritans Samaritans originated from the country located between Judea and Galilee,

when the Assyrian colonists intermarried with the Jews that lived there. The

population created followed all the Torahs of Torah in their ain particular manner, and

considered themselves to be Judaic. The normal Jews did non accept this, as

exogamy between Jews and Gentiles was forbidden. Throughout the bible, it

has been documented that the Samaritans and the Jews were at each other pharynxs,


Analysis of major philosophical thoughts of the clip

Platonism Plato was an ancient Grecian philosopher who taught in the period

between 427 and 347 BC. He reasoned that the senses can & # 8217 ; t be trusted, and that

one must utilize ground and maths, to work out jobs and to steer oneself throughout

life. Plato was a pupil of Socrates and throughout his plants, he drew from

other Grecian doctrines, although as clip progressed, he developed an wholly

different philosophical signifier of believing that became his ain.

Aristotelianism Aristotle was a Grecian philosopher that was born about 400 twelvemonth

BC. During his well documented life, he served as the coach to Alexander the

Great and besides wrote many documents on assorted subjects such as Ethical motives, Physicss and

Metaphysicss. Aristotle besides developed theories on the human psyche in relation to

God. He represented it as a three of affair, being vegetable, carnal and human

in nature, and proposed a? non-abstract theory of signifier, where the instigator of

all being is acknowledged as God.

Epicureanism Epicurus set up a school in Athens that taught moralss, based on his

Hagiographas and sentiments, in the Hellenistic universe. He proposed that the chase of

felicity should be adult males greatest concern, instead than patterning his life on the

pleasing of Gods and of the workss needed to be completed for one to hold a

enjoyable hereafter. His doctrine was that the pleasance seeking of world,

would non merely supply fulfillment for one & # 8217 ; s ain ego, but besides lead to the

promotion and development of society in general.

Stoicism Stoicism was a celebrated school of Hellenistic idea. Its instructions were

non merely philosophical, but could be used by mundane people, in mundane life.

The chief end for the tradition was to achieve felicity and release from

emotion, through the chase of cognition and wisdom. We can pull many

comparings between the Christian religion and that of Stoicism. We can besides see

the influence that the tradition had on many of the late Christian theologists.

Mystery Cults/Religions The enigma cults originated from many topographic points in the

first century AD. They developed to replace the Olympic pantheons that were

going implausible and disappointing. The followings of these cults worshiped a

assortment of Gods or doctrines, each with their ain set of vague regulations and

rites. Secrecy played a great portion in these cults ( hence the name? enigma

faiths & # 8217 ; ) as one could incur the decease sentence by uncovering the enigmas

through address, dance, dumb show, or any other signifier of communicating. Although

one can debate the point of holding these faiths, it does turn out that the human

psyche requires some signifier of spiritual worship, mainstream or otherwise.

Gnosticism The Gnostics were a group/sect that existed in the first half of the

twentieth century, and were thought to take Christians astray by learning

uses of the Gospel. The assorted the thoughts of

the Christians with that of

the Greeks, bring forthing a faith that wanted release from the prison of this

universe. It draws on the Judaic monldthum, Babylonian anthology and Persian Deulum,

and believes that visible radiation and darkness are entwined in a changeless conflict of cosmic


First Century Roman Judea

Summary of major New Testament Christian Leaders

Peter Peter was one of the first, and major adherents. Peter & # 8217 ; s original name was

the Heb. Simon. His male parents name was Jonah. He worked as a fisherman at the two

topographic points of which he took abode: Beth-saida and Capernaum in Galilee. At these

topographic points he was in contact with the heathens. He was likely effected by John the

Baptist & # 8217 ; s motion. He was frequently the interpreter for all the of the followings

and friends. Before Pentecost it was Peter who took the lead function of educating

the people and prophesying the word of the bible. The church had made a big

impact on the community, but it was Peter that was seen to be the hero and

leader. He besides was the first apostle to be associated with the Gentiles. At

that clip in history this move was bound to pull him a batch of unfavorable judgment. Despite

this unfavorable judgment Peter with some support from his friends was able to do some

advancement in the credence of other racial groups. After the decease of Stephen,

Peter & # 8217 ; s whereabouts and activities became really scarce. At one phase he was

imprisoned at Jerusalem and so subsequently escaped. It has been thought that he

travelled through many metropoliss, taking many brief occupations and take parting in some

spiritual events

James James was one of the boies of Zebedee. Was a fisherman when called to

go one of the 12 apostles with his brother John. These two along with

Peter formed the interior circle of the apostles. This interior group was present at

most of the major events and were widely respected for their dedication and

sheer religion. James was good friends with Jesus and with his brother John, were

adeptly nicknamed Boanerges, that is, boies of boom. It was these two once more

that cause a splash when bespeaking Jesus for a topographic point in the Holy Christ & # 8217 ; s

Kingdom. The two were non promised this privilege, they continued to believe and

hold the religion that would, in theory, acquire them at that place anyhow.

John John was the other boy of Zebedee. Was the brother James ( the boy of

Zebedee ) . It is besides possible that John was the cousin of Jesus on his female parents

side. As with his Brother James, he was present at many really important events

on the history of Christianity. He was besides sent by Jesus to fix the concluding

base on balls over repast. John was the 1 that was likely the closest to Jesus, he was

trusted with duties that Jesus himself had given him.

James, brother of Jesus James was Jesus & # 8217 ; s younger brother who, along with his

other siblings, refused to accept Jesus & # 8217 ; s claims of authorization before his

Resurrection. He along with some of his close friends were a group which failed

to accept the power and authorization of Jesus before the Resurrection. The consequence

the Resurrection had on James was unmistakable. He became the leader of the

Jewish-Christian Church at Jerusalem. The tradition stated that he was placed

the first leader of the religion by the Godhead himself. He remained leader of the

Church, by himself, for some clip. He was still the leader when Paul visited

Jerusalem for the last clip. After having a decease by lapidating, James was named

the & # 8220 ; merely & # 8221 ; for his Judaic piousness. James is besides said to hold described himself as

& # 8220 ; a retainer of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ & # 8221 ; .

Paul ( Saul of Tarsis ) Paul was born in Tarsus a Roman citizen. After a simple

get downing Paul was merely effected by prophesying of Jesus after he had contact with

the risen Christ. Paul so spent the following three old ages prophesying in Damascus.

After some force per unit area from the Jews of the country, Paul fled to Jerusalem where he

met up with Barnabas. Barnabas so introduced Paul to the leaders of

Christian religion. His stay merely lasted a brief two hebdomads because several Hebrews were

seeking to kill him. Withdrawing for some ten old ages, Barnabas contacted Paul and

encouraged him to rejoin the now booming Gentile mission. Paul and Barnabas

were sent on a mission to set up Christianity in the country environing Cyprus

and the S Galatia. Despite several set dorsums and violent outbursts the mission

was really successful with new districts become adapt to the Christian ways. As

one would anticipate the relationship between the Gentiles and the freshly turned

Jewish community was one that was tested frequently. Differing beliefs lead to a

figure of verbal and physical struggles and Barnabas and Paul were called upon

to decide these. They used the aid and counsel of their seniors and fellow

Christians to assist with their determinations. Paul one time once more set off through parts

of Europe to change over people to Christianity. This clip Barnabas did non go

with him because of a rift in there relationship. Paul discovered new friend

that he took with him through Greece and the surrounding parts. He helped put up

a big sum of new mission which set the criterion for others to turn by. The

following country to converted was the lands of Asia. This end was rapidly accomplished

by Paul. He was so returned to Greece to assist procure the religion at that place. It was

in the old ages that followed that he wrote several stating letters. This letters

were to go a important portion of the Christian religion in old ages to come.

Judas Iscariot Judas was a member of the 12 adherents, and was the 1 who

betrayed Jesus, which ended in his crucifixion. The chance came about when

Judes turned Jesus to the governments. After the event, guilt was beset upon

this treasonist. Unable to over come this guilt, his life ended in self-destruction. Judas

is widely retrieve for his perfidy and treachery of the other 11 apostles.

He was thought of as a adult male who was touched by Satan and influenced into immorality

ways. He was bribed and accepted money to make evil workss. He claimed this money

would be used for the poor..

Barnabas Barnabas was born into a Jewish-Cypriot household. He a member of the

Jerusalem church, and as he progressed he became really serious about faith. He

besides had a important consequence on several affairs. He introduced a converted Saul

to the chief apostles, which lead to Saul being accepted after originally being

called an imposter. It was Barnabas who stuck up for the heathens when they were

being condemned. Barnabas thought the motion to accept the Gentiles as peers

was an act ignited by God and therefor took the side of God. Bing a cardinal member,

he took a journey with Paul from Cyprus, to Asia child, which was taken with the

end of puting up a group of successful Gentile churches. Barnabas was besides

placed in forepart of the Jerusalem council with Paul. Barnabas & # 8217 ; importance to the

issue is clearly shown by the mere fact that he is mentioned before Paul in

histories of the proceedings.


Puting the scene, Goosen & A ; Thomlinson & # 8220 ; Jesus ; Mystery and Surprise & # 8221 ; ( Sydney: EJ

Dywer, 1989 )

Doctrines, Elwell ( ed. ) & # 8220 ; Evangelical Dictionary of Theology & # 8221 ; ( Grand Rapids:

Baker Bookhouse, 1990 )

& # 8220 ; The New Bible Dictionary & # 8221 ; ( Wheaton: Tyndale House Publishers Inc, 1962 )

Logos Bible Software v2.0 ( Oakharbour: Logos Research System )

World Book Encyclopedia

World Wide Web ( Internet )