challenge becomes how can the system work with individual offenders to
reconnect them back with society and reduce the possibility of them
Approaches to study of recidivism is
difficult, as it deals with a segment of the population that is very difficult
to investigate, a majority of individuals present a low level of education and
being often reserved in communication.
Criminal Acts are caused by individuals in certain
types of structures and social society which do not provide them with appropriate
means to access the goals of society.
There are certain groups of criminal kind
that have emerged as a form of protest to the patterns and ideals of the
Coercive Confinement in Ireland, (Eoin
O’Sullivan and Ian O’Donnell 2007 & 2011), looked at the confinement of
individuals in work houses, psychiatric hospitals etc. in the 1950’s.
They ascertained that rural families, views
on property and lack of opportunities, thus the institutions of confinement provided
a means where surplus populations could be housed, the vulnerable and the
nonconforming members of society were sent to these institutions by the state.
Thus enabling the privileged whom held the property,
that their status quo could be maintained, reflecting a Marxist Point of view
on the bourgeoisie. Concluding this
system has not changed much in 50 years.
As rural communities declined, and a
transition from traditional to modern society the rural values that created
order is eroded thus a huge decline in numbers incarcerated in works houses and
Individuals become more mobile, migrating to
cities, thus the old institutions of rural and church lost their ability to
restrain individuals. This “surplus”
population has been marginalised and put into urban areas of social
deprivation, thus continuing the cycle.
recidivism rates are important, the relationship between age and offending is
reflected in attitudes, life circumstances that will influence re offending.
that 45% will re-offend within 3 years, with 49.8% in the under 21 category,
begs the question, is the system working at all?
for non-payment of fines, with a repeat fine within 4 years at levels of 85%
clearly states this system is not working.
Prison system is recommending a joined-up policy with Probation Services, with
a multi-agency approach to release offenders and then monitor their re
introduction into the society, thus attempting to reduce recidivism.
After release, individuals experience either
social inclusion or exclusion.
Exclusion leads to situations similar to
those faced before being imprisoned, which adds to a relapse into criminality, and
thus the detention-release cycle.