The Biological approach focuses on the
behaviours that are genetic and have an adaptive or evolutionary purpose. This
can be genes, hormones and brain structures that influence our behaviour and
everyday life. The neurotransmitter dysfunction to the biological approach would
explain that depression suggests that individuals who suffer from depression
will have an imbalance of a low level of Serotonin in their brain.

 

There is a way to help raise the serotonin
levels in the brain and this would include taking medications. The medication
that will help with depression will be anti-depressants and these are a type of
medication that will be used to be able to treat clinical depression or to prevent
it from recurring. These will help by being able to balance the chemical neurotransmitters
in the brain. Anti-depressants will help to improve individual’s moods, help them
sleep better and increase their appetite and concentration. By being able to
increase the neurotransmitters they can disrupt pain signals that are sent by
nerves and therefore, antidepressants can help to decrease long-term pain.  

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The drugs
that were discovered first for anti-depressants were the monoamine oxidase inhibitors
and tricyclic anti-depressants. Anti-depressants have now been adapted and
placed with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) as well as Sertraline
and Paroxetine. Anti-depressants have been adapted further and can be used for
other mental health problems, such as the drug called fluvoxamine that can be
used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder. Today, there has been more
medications for depression introduced called serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake
inhibitors (SNRIs). The SSRIs have been adapted and can not only be used for
depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder but also panic disorder, social
phobia, bulimia nervosa and anxiety.

 

A strength of
anti-depressants and SSRIs is that they’re easy to use and have less side
effects and aren’t found to be fatal in overdose, like the tricyclics can be. The
SNRIs have very similar effects to SSRIs and are safe in overdose. The SNRIs
have helped a very significant number of patients who have responded well to these
but no other antidepressant drugs, and these are slightly more effective than
SSRIs in major depression. A weakness of SSRIs is that there is no evidence to
show that they are more effective than other types of antidepressants.

 

The Cognitive Approach is to
understand the human cognition by viewing the behaviour of individuals that act
differently to cognitive tasks. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a type
of talking therapy that focuses on the individual’s negative thoughts and feelings.
CBT can help individuals to deal with overwhelming problems in a more positive
way and decreasing the issue with a more manageable tactic. Cognitive
Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is a very successful treatment for depression. CBT
can help a person with depression by helping them learn to recognize their
negative patterns of their thoughts, evaluate their effectiveness and then
replace them with a positive way of thinking. CBT can help people with depression
by encouraging individuals to speak about how they’re feeling and helping them
feel better about themselves. If someone was thinking about the negatives; their
therapist would encourage them to think of the positives, the more they do this
the more it will boost their mood and the more they will think of the positives.

 

The cognitive therapy approach from
Beck’s was first discovered and developed for the treatment of depression and
was then discovered for anxiety disorders. In depression, the individuals will be
a lot more inclined to make biased understandings of themselves, their world and
their future. In the cognitive therapy, the clients will be made mire aware of
the connection that is between their patterns of thinking and their emotional
responses. The individuals that suffer from depression are first taught to identify
their own thoughts and keep records of them and their emotional reactions.
Their therapist will help them to identify the logical errors in their thinking
and will help the client to learn to challenge the validity of these thoughts. The
negative thoughts and feelings will then be changed into positives.

 

There has been an adaptation to Beck’s
cognitive therapy and it can be used today for mental health disorders. This
cognitive therapy today can be used for a broad range of conditions, including;
eating disorders, obesity, personality disorders, substance abuse and even schizophrenia.
This therapy mechanism is still being used today to be able to help healthy
people to cope with everyday stress and being able to help them to prevent frim
developing mental health disorders. A strength of this therapy is that it can
prevent people from having relapses in their mental health. It can produce
dramatic results in the treatment of the depression disorder, and the cognitive
behavioural therapies are also now the treatment of choice for bulimia. This approach
can be used for the treatment of conduct disorder in children, substance abuse
and personality disorders in the future. A weakness of this is whether the effects
of the cognitive treatments are the results of the cognitive changes that the theorists
suggest that they might be. For depression, it appears that there could be a
long-lasting outcome for as long as the cognitive theory maintains.

 

 

The Humanist approach is the psychological
perspective that looks at the study of the whole person. This is where we have
freedom and our own reasonability to be able to control our own behaviour,
reflect on our own problems, make our own choices and take positive action. The
client-centered therapy is also known as ‘person-centered counselling’, this is
where the therapist won’t focus on offering understanding or guidance, but they
will over empathy, acceptance, respect and unconditional resect. This can help
the clients to feel more encouraged and capable of being able to find their own
solutions to their problems. If the therapist and the client have an accepting and
empathetic relationship, then the client might become a lot more self-aware and
independent. The client-centered therapy can help with depression by helping
individuals to discuss the feelings that will rise in combination with depression
as well as helping them to overcome any personal challenges or frustrations. Therapists
can help depression sufferers to think about the positive things in their lives
and help them to feel much happier by speaking about the problems that occur,
their thoughts and feelings.

 

 

The client-centered therapy by Carl Rogers
focuses on the power of the organism to be able to heal itself. Rogers saw this
therapy as the process of removing the negatives that people think about
themselves, as well as a condition of self-worth they will believe that thy
shouldn’t have certain feelings, such as hostility. When denying those
feelings, they will become a lot more unaware of their own “gut” reactions. The
object of this therapy is to resolve the incongruence, damaged personal
relationships, and various forms of alienation. The client-centered therapists can
establish a psychological climate in which the clients can feel unconditionally
accepted, understood, and valued as a person. To manage this the therapist will
use nondirective techniques such as; empathetic reflecting, or repeating the
client’s descriptions of their life difficulties.  If this goes to plan then the clients will
feel free for maybe the first time, explore their real feelings and thoughts, and
to accept the hate, anger and ugly feelings about themselves. The therapist won’t
give answers, interpret what the client says, or steer the client towards
topics. They will listen consistently and accepting to what the client says and
only interrupting them to change what the client says.

 

This has been adapted and can be used
today for other mental health such as; anxiety, trauma, and marital
difficulties. This will help people to talk about their feelings and problems
to encourage them to speak more about their thoughts and feelings, to change
them into a more positive thought about their lives. Today this therapy will
help individuals to become more themselves, make them feel more free and help
them to explore their feelings in much greater depth. This is also used today
because the more their self-concept becomes reliable with their experience,
they will become more self-accepting and a lot more open to new experiences and
new perspectives, they become more integrated people with the help of the
therapist. A strength of this is that the therapists will listen to what the
client says and will help them to change any negatives that they have into
positives to give them a better mind set. This can be used for many mental
health problems that people suffer with. A weakness of this is that there is a
lack of agreed-upon therapeutic procedures and their vagueness about what
procedures are really used between a client and the therapist. Another negative
Is that there has been no research to prove that this approach can decrease people’s
concepts, decrease their real worth and deny their uniqueness.

 

These different
types of therapies and medications can all help with depression and are valid
to help people to speak more about their problems, thoughts and feelings. These
types of treatments are all equally valid and relevant to be used today for not
only depression but other mental health disorders.