It is by and large agreed that the challenge of population growing is one of the most serious obstructions to development faced by LDCs in the twenty-first century. In the long procedure of human history, the relationship between the production of material goods and human reproduction is ever mutualist. Therefore, a certain economic system is the foundation of the being and development of human existences ; meanwhile, the reproduction of human existences is the status for the development of economic system. The historical experience has proved that the population growing has to maintain comparative balance with the development degree of economic system ; otherwise, the human society will be punished by nature surely.
It is undeniable that the birthrate of Africa is ever out of control since the independency of African states. In 1970s and 1980s, the mean birthrate rate of Africa reached 6.8 and 6.7 ; nevertheless, it was still high was about 5.4 in 2004 [ 1 ] . Besides the high birthrate rate, the size of African population has ne’er stopped increasing. In 1960, the African population was 282 million, which was 9.3i?… of the universe population ; nevertheless, in 2005, the African population had reached 906 million, which was 14.0i?… of the whole population in the universe [ 2 ] , in the 45 old ages, the African population increased trebly. Since Africa has the highest population growing rate and the 2nd largest population in the universe, the “ population load ” will set more force per unit area on the development of economic system though Africa is ever enduring from poorness. To acquire through hard state of affairss, the African states have to acknowledge the negative effects of rapid population growing on the development of economic system.
First, the hapless capital accretion is the constriction of development in Africa. The development of economic system requires solid foundation, and the material capital is the motor force of the development. The classical economic expert, Adam Smith emphasized that the accretion of capital was the stipulation of specialisation [ 3 ] . For African least developed states, they have abundant resource and labour, and the capital input can find the degree of economic development. Either of low capital end product ratio and hapless capital accretion will impede the development. Harmonizing to the demographist ‘s appraisal, an 1i?… addition on the population will take the state to pay 3i?… to 4i?… of gross national income on the investing of extra population [ 4 ] . If more national income invests on the population growing, which means the investing on production will be limited strongly. As the rapid addition on the population in Africa, the construction of population is really vernal and the young person dependence ratio is ever highest in the universe [ 5 ] . Every twelvemonth, African authoritiess have to take a certain portion of new end product value to put on the latest extra population, but Africa is besides the part consisting many hapless states. In 2000, the World Bank made public a name list of 50 nine poorest counties in the universe, and 30 eight of them were in Africa [ 6 ] . Therefore, significant fund have been “ ate ” by the big population, which leads to moo salvaging ratio and big fiscal spread.
The 2nd negative consequence of the big population on LDCs refers to the low quality of the population. In fact, the quality of population can find the quality of labour straight, and human capital is ever regarded as the key of the economic development. Theodore Schultz, the victor of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, believed that a wellness and extremely educated population was playing an of import function in a state ‘s development [ 7 ] . However, the high rise of African population truly hinders the betterment of human capital. On one manus, the investing from authoritiess on instruction has fall much behind the rapid population growing in Africa, which leads to highly heavy force per unit area on the instruction, such as the deficit of educational outgos and instructors, low school registration ratio, high illiteracy rate. In 2001, the UNESCO reported that Africa was the poorest continent in instruction where the literacy rate was less than 60i?… [ 8 ] . On the other manus, since the mid of 1970s, the African population growing rate was ever traveling beyond the agricultural productiveness rate, the autonomy rate of grain and the per capita nutrient outgo kept diminishing. Harmonizing to the Malthusian Population Trap, the cosmopolitan inclination for the population of a state will turn at a geometric rate, nevertheless, the nutrient supplies can spread out merely at a arithmetic tae [ 9 ] . Therefore, the nutrient supplies can ne’er fulfill the demand by rapid population growing in Africa. In fact, the African malnutrition population increased from 94 million in 1970s to 210 million in 1990s [ 10 ] , and now the per capita nutrient outgo for African population reaches merely 85i?… of the criterion set by United Nations [ 11 ] . Since the African economic system truly depends on the agribusiness and the export of primary merchandises, the physical labour is still needed in the most parts. So, we have to doubt such big unhealthy and uneducated population could do parts to the economic development in twenty-first century.
Third, the LDCs have to confront the high unemployment rate which is brought by rapid population growing. Todaro points that an surplus of occupation searchers over occupation chances in the LDC economic system is the 1 of the major negative effects of population growing [ 12 ] . In fact, it is normal that every state has a certain sum of people are in unemployment, but one time the proportion of unemployment is extra, the economic development will be hindered and the whole society will go instable. Since the independency of Africa, every twelvemonth the population within working age is going larger, and the labour force growing rate has excessed the economic system growing rate, the economic sectors can non make adequate occupation chances to carry through demands. In 1990s, there were mean 10 million African people seeking occupation per twelvemonth, nevertheless, the economic sectors could merely absorb half of the extra labour force [ 13 ] . Even though the largest economic system in Africa, the unemployment rate of South Africa was 41.8i?… in 2002 [ 14 ] . We can conceive of how awfully high the unemployment rate of other more backward African states is. Therefore, significant labour force can non be made full usage of in Africa which truly hinders the expansion of production graduated table and optimisation of industrial construction, in return, the economic retardation will increase the unemployment rate. Finally, it is difficult for the LDCs to acquire rid of the barbarous circle which combines high employment rate and hapless economic system.
In fact, the “ population growing ” is a impersonal phenomenon, in the 3/4 clip of twentieth century, the development of economic system was accompanied by the population growing. However, the rapid population growing can decelerate down the economic system growing and impede the betterment of populating criterion, particularly for LDCs whose foundation of economic system is rather weak. If LDCs truly want to accomplish the Millennium Development Goals in 2015, they should acknowledge the importance of instruction and wellness to command the rapid population growing instantly.