The mention for the name Langkawi comes from the combination of two words ‘Lang ‘ and ‘Kawi ‘ . Lang is slang for ‘Helang ‘ in Malay which means bird of Jove while ‘Kawi ‘ agencies marble in Sanskrit ( Malaysia Tour Guide, 2010 ) . The ground for this name is the copiousness of bird of Joves and marble in Langkawi. In the early 1980 ‘s, Langkawi was one of the most under developed territories in the province of Kedah ( Din, 1990 ) . The chief beginning of income for the occupants was angling or turning rice. On 1st January 1987 the authorities declared Langkawi as a Duty Free Port ( Kayat, 2002 ) . This was the pinnacle of transmutation and the chief ground behind the sudden acceleration of economic growing in Langkawi. It opened a batch of chances for concern, commercial and service sectors ( Kayat, 2002 ) . In 1999, The Langkawi Residential/Socioeconomic Study reported that merely 19 % of the working population was in the agricultural, forestry, piscary and runing industries ( Langkawi Island Development Authority, 1999 ) as compared to in 1987 when 63 % of the working population was employed in the primary sector ( Langkawi District Council, 1992 ) .Since 1990 there has been a cardinal addition in the degree of investing. Around 110 million US dollars have been invested for substructure and public installations while about 1 billion US dollars have been put in by private developers for hotels ( North Review, 1995 ) . The figure of tourers coming into Langkawi has changed drastically every bit good. In 1986 around 200,000 tourers came while in 1997 the figure of tourers coming in to Langkawi was 1,800,000 ( Langkawi Island Development Authority, 1999 ) .
It is said that touristry has a love-hate relationship with its local population. On the one manus it increases economic growing, generates employment, income and revenue enhancement gross and is the medium of regional development ( Grey, Edelman & A ; Dwyer, 1991 ) while on the other manus, it destroys the local societies, civilizations and takes environmental devastation wherever it goes ( Rosenow & A ; Pulsipher, 1979 ) . The economic benefits of international touristry are helpful particularly to developing states, like Malaysia, but touristry can besides been seen as holding a negative side as it has many inauspicious societal, cultural and environmental impacts.
McKercher ( 1993 ) in his diary mentioned some cardinal truths about touristry:
Tourism uses resources and increases pollution as it is an industrial endeavor
Tourism carries with itself the capableness of over utilizing resources including the 1s which are scarce
It is really hard to command as it is a really complex industry
International tourers ne’er get the opportunity to cognize the occupants and their traditions and civilizations as they are modified harmonizing to the tourer ‘s penchants. As a consequence the traditional civilization is under menace. Tourists are normally in the host state for a little period of clip so all they get is a speedy and undistinguished feeling of the local civilization. This was named ‘Staged Authenticity ‘ by Dean MacCannell, for illustration, The Monkey Dance in Bali, Indonesia is normally of continuance of 4 hours ; nevertheless, it is barely of all time performed for the proper length ( Lyth, 2011 ) . Anthropologists emphasize on societal break and say that international touristry can damage alone traditional civilizations and the impact of touristry on the local occupants is largely negative ( Lyth, 2011 ) . The occupants may get down to compare their manner of life to tourers taking to a sense of subordination which can ensue in a higher offense rate. It is a known fact that wherever there are affluent tourers, there are stealers ( Lyth, 2011 ) . Hostility is besides strong between occupants and tourers when the economic system is mostly dependent on the touristry industry like Langkawi. Different cultural value systems can besides ensue in aggravated ill will between the two. Malaya is an Muslim State whereas the tourers are largely Europeans and Americans who are non used to following the system in an Islamic State which may take to a deficiency of cordial reception. An illustration is the intoxicant ingestion of the tourers in Langkawi.
The unwanted impacts of touristry are reduced if the local people have ample clip to turn accustomed to the presence of tourers ( Cooper et Al, 2008 ) . The fast growing of Langkawi as a tourer finish has added to the impacts of touristry. As occupants of London or Rome have had the clip to acquire used to tourers being about, the occupants of Langkawi have non.
Some authors were critical about the rapid development of touristry in Langkawi mostly due to the power and authorization issues related to development. Bird ( 1989 ) felt that throughout the planning and development of touristry on the island, the demands of the occupants were non considered. The local communities ‘ engagement increases the likeliness for a sustainable touristry development in the locality but jobs still linger in the diverse ways in which engagement is put into pattern ( Mowforth and Munt, 1998 ) . The present state of affairs in Langkawi is due to the deficiency of authorization of the occupants as most of the people are marginalized in forepart of tourers ( Din, 1997 ) . Tourists are good informed, better linked and wealthier than the local people, and so can acquire a greater net addition of the benefits offered by the touristry on the island ( Din, 1997 ) . Lyth ( 2011 ) negotiations about the development of such a servant master-relationship between good off tourers and the dependent locals.
These were the societal and cultural impacts of touristry in Langkawi ; nevertheless, the most serious impact of touristry is environmental. First, the inauspicious effects of touristry are lessened if the growing in tourer population is comparatively slow ( Cooper et Al, 2008 ) . The short sighted purpose to maximise net incomes in the short tally is the chief ground behind the negative environmental impacts such as over development, deforestation, sea pollution and home ground pollution ( Lyth, 2011 ) . Coastlines get eroded due to overdevelopment, beaches polluted by natural sewerage, toxic wastage dumped into the sea and littering in sensitive wildlife countries ( Lyth, 2011 ) . Due to the rapid addition in the demand of touristry in Langkawi, air hose operations have been magnifying. Consequently low cost bearers such as Air Asia are get downing to run which lead to higher C emanations which contribute to planetary heating and clime alteration ( Lyth, 2011 ) . Other than that, noise is one of the cardinal negative environmental impacts. The repose in Langkawi has been disturbed by the rise in air hose operations and the increased demand for amusement by tourers such as dark nines and discos.
As everything is based on net income maximizing, the long term benefits are non taken into consideration such as conserving the natural environment. Tourism is blamed to devour the environment ; they pollute it and destruct it ( Lyth, 2011 ) .
In 1987, The World Commission on Environment and Development ( WCED ) issued the official definition of sustainable touristry which is that we should run into the demands of the present without compromising the demands of the hereafter ( Sustainable Tourism, 2009 ) . Sustainable touristry can be referred to as touristry that is taking into history the ecological and socio-cultural capacities of the environment affecting the community and including all this in the touristry development planning ( Cooper et Al, 2008 ) . It even involves that touristry should be matched with the current economic and growing policies, so as to cut down the negative impacts of mass touristry on the environment. Theobald ( 1998 ) negotiations about the ecological attack of sing both workss and people when implementing the sustainable touristry program. This is in entire contrast to the economic attacks to tourism planning, which do non see the injuries of touristry on the environment.
Presently, Langkawi is non taking a sustainable attack towards touristry. This implies that the island will most likely lose its appeal to tourers every bit good as the locals in the close hereafter, given the ego destructive nature of touristry. Another tourer topographic point which besides had a rapid addition in touristry but subsequently took a sustainable attack was Barbados in the Caribbean. Similarities between the two are that they both are islands and the chief beginning of income for both islands is touristry. Sustainable touristry has been the chief precedence for Caribbean Countries since the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States held in 1994 ( Mycoo, 2006 ) .
Training plans were implemented to help in the development of institutional capacity in coastal resources and ecosystem direction related to the touristry industry by The Caribbean Environmental Programme ( Mycoo, 2006 ) . In 1998 preparation classs were carried out in three chief countries ( Mycoo, 2006 ) :
Water and Solid Waste Management for the Tourism Industry
Integrated Coastal Area Management and Tourism
Siting and Design of Tourist Facilities
In order to smooth the passage, a Caribbean Regional Training Manual on Solid Waste and Waste Water Management was besides prepared ( Mycoo, 2006 ) .
Local concerns in Barbados usage ISO 14001 and Agenda 21 enfranchisements which set a criterion for waste disposal, recycling, energy efficiency and besides societal and cultural development ( Mycoo, 2006 ) . Such a enfranchisement regulates the impacts on the societal and natural environment. A policy similar to this can be really good for the hereafter of Langkawi and can put up the basicss of the earlier mentioned sustainable touristry attack. Barbados besides adopted the Green Globe 21 programme for sustainable touristry ( Mycoo, 2006 ) . They rank figure two in the part based on the figure of certified green hotels ( Mycoo, 2006 ) . With a Green Globe Merit Badge, the touristry industry of Langkawi will be able to concentrate further on environmental sustainability. The Green Globe 21 programme sets ordinances and marks for assorted facets of the touristry finish environment including ( Lyth, 2011 ) :
Green house gas emanations
Management of fresh H2O
Ecosystem preservation and direction
Waste minimisation reuse and recycling
Langkawi can besides take certain enterprises, as taken by the authorities of Barbados, for bettering its touristry pattern. Government functionaries of Barbados have transplanted their coral reefs and have therefore been able to market Barbados as an environment friendly finish ( Coastal Zone Management Unit, 2003 ) . If Langkawi takes similar ‘green ‘ stairss so it is likely to pull affluent tourers, while bear downing more for a sustainable touristry merchandise. Assuming that good off tourers are willing to pay more for services in Langkawi, this can be good for both the economic system and the environment. If a tourer finish serves to wealthy tourers, so although tourer Numberss decrease, gross is more likely to increase and in a sustainable manner. The scheme mentioned here, pulling richer but fewer visitants, is classified as one manner of accomplishing sustainable touristry as noted by Lyth ( 2011 ) .
The authorities and the touristry industry of Langkawi has to see both short term and long term public assistance and take a way which keeps in head both these facets in order for sustainable touristry ( Lyth, 2011 ) . A displacement from the scientific ‘paradigm ‘ of modern society to a green ‘paradigm ‘ is ideally needed to accomplish sustainable touristry ( Lyth, 2011 ) . The displacement is a clip devouring procedure ; nevertheless, it is already in advancement in Barbados. Langkawi needs to alter its policies in order to procure their long term hereafter.
There are some chief points which should be implemented in Langkawi which are already being used in Barbados. First, the local community should acquire trained in the touristry industry which will better their productiveness and besides aid in the direction of the services they provide. Once made an built-in portion of the touristry procedure, the locals will experience belonged and might non envy the tourers as they would hold otherwise. Trained and educated locals will besides assist in cut downing the spread between them and the tourers. They can hold preparation classs similar to the 1s in Barbados mentioned above. The authorities should be involved every bit much as possible in order to advance sustainable touristry and they should hold the power to act upon all the determinations made by the touristry industry. They can do certain that Langkawi is besides accredited with the ISO 14001, Agenda 21 and Green Globe 21 enfranchisements so that they set a minimal criterion which the industry has to maintain up with. Langkawi should advance surrogate agencies of transit which are eco-friendly instead than winging at that place. This will assist with the image of Langkawi as a sustainable one. Promoting eco-tourism will besides assist in constructing up the image of Langkawi.
Eco-tourism is travel to of course beautiful countries where the tourers visit these topographic points with a sense of duty towards the people of the tourer finish and towards the environment. As Langkawi offers bird’s-eye sceneries, diverse wildlife, and a alone civilization, eco-tourism serves as a sustainably profitable option for Langkawi. As an illustration, tourers could sit their rented motorcycles to travel for their snorkelling trips alternatively of utilizing autos. The Malay civilization could besides function as a positive point for the proviso of eco-tourism. Langkawi can portray their typical civilization, which the tourers can larn to appreciate even when the civilization is non staged.
There are some defects in the sustainable touristry patterns mentioned above every bit good. Although the Barbados ‘ sustainable touristry policy encourages public engagement, the local communities do non hold the authorization to act upon the determinations on the touristry development in which they are non in favor of ( Mycoo, 2006 ) . Initially there was a deficiency of sustainable touristry indexs ; nevertheless, The International Development Research Centre ( 1998 ) developed the Barometer of Sustainability which will help in planning of touristry. A similar job could happen in Langkawi, but it could be addressed by a similar solution. Furthermore, the Green Global 21 Programme does non take into history jobs of the local people at the finish ; it merely negotiations of the injuries to the environment. The other two enfranchisements, Agenda 21 and ISO 14001, set a minimal criterion and hence do non supply a ground to stand out and travel beyond the minimal criterions. Besides, it is rather hard to measure jobs of the local people and because they are comparatively tougher to see as Numberss, the application of sustainable touristry might non bring forth seeable consequences. Some tourers are willing to pay more for eco-friendly touristry finishs, which might take some companies to utilize green enterprises merely as a agency to work the consumers ( Lyth, 2011 ) . Furthermore, it can be really dearly-won to learn and develop concerns of Langkawi about the dangers that they perchance present to the environment around them. By and large, given the current head frame of the people of Langkawi, in the trade off between economic sustainability and environmental sustainability, people would take economic sustainability, non recognizing the impacts that this can hold on the hereafter.
Eco-tourism may be a really good thought for an island like Langkawi but it comes with its drawbacks. Most if non all of these drawbacks occur in the execution phase. First, it will be really tough to alter the image of Langkawi and market it as a ‘green ‘ topographic point. Second, this alteration can be really expensive to convey about.
Equally far as cut downing the alteration between the people of Langkawi and visitants is concerned, this alteration ‘s roots begin at a really basic degree. The focal point should be on altering the general attitude of the common individual at Langkawi. This can be facilitated by similar instruction systems between Langkawi and the tourer bring forthing states. In respects to sustainability, this new system could be unsafe. Changing the attitudes of the people will reenforce the destructivity of civilization and will govern out the possibility of the societal and cultural facet of eco-tourism.
Even though there may be some jobs in accomplishing sustainable touristry for Langkawi, we must look at the overall benefit in the long tally. In the long run the economic system, the touristry industry, and the people and environment of Langkawi will all profit by sustainable touristry. As mentioned by Farrell and his co-workers ( 2005 ) , there are seven stairss that could be taken towards accomplishing sustainable touristry. The base of these seven stairss lies in the thought that one must understand all the environing factors. One must therefore realize that the people of Langkawi and the environment are non two separate entities but are one entity. Understanding everything as a portion of the same system is indispensable in accomplishing sustainable touristry. One must besides understand that a alteration in one of the entities may do a alteration in another entity, for illustration if the coral reefs get destroyed at Langkawi, so the tourers will halt visiting and the locals will non do as much money. The whole system is really complicated and hence one should plan the sustainability program really carefully and must maintain updating the program as our milieus are of all time altering.
To reason, sustainable touristry will be really good for Langkawi, as one must understand that sustainable touristry does non impede the touristry sector ‘s growing but instead defines the bounds in which the touristry sector should turn. It will be hard to use the constructs of sustainable touristry to Langkawi because of the monolithic socio-cultural differences between the tourers and the occupants. Consequently, the apprehension of the whole composite system at Langkawi, which includes the environment and the people, is necessary for the executing of the sustainability attack.