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Overview

In all of Rome s conquerings, Rome grew so big so rapidly that crises in society, authorities and ethical motives began to develop beyond control. The concluding consequence ended in the autumn of the Republic and the beginning of the Empire. There are many grounds as the concluding autumn, and I will lucubrate on a few that I think are most pertinent.

So Many Rulers, So Small Time

Rome had the pleasance of meeting its first civil war in 133 BC, and portion of the cause for this was due to opinion of the Empire and jobs between the swayer and the senate. The first to meet such a job was Tiberius Gracchus, elected as a tribune to the assembly. Bypassing the senate, Gracchus had a reform that would return Rome back to its original illustriousness passed, which greatly displeased those in the senate. This reform was good to little husbandmans, and most of those in the senate were big landholders. When Gracchus planned to run for a 2nd term, senators at the election did what they felt was their lone hope, and had him assassinated. ( 4 )

After Tiberius Gracchus, Gaius Gracchus was elected tribune. Quite popular throughout all of Italy for reformation stairss, Rome was non so pleased. He was defeated in his running for a 2nd term, after which the senate made usage of soldierly jurisprudence and had Gaius and many followings killed. This usage of force paved the manner to farther force. ( 1 and 4 )

Marius and Sulla followed Gaius Gracchus doing more jobs for the Republic. Marius recruited voluntaries for the ground forces with the promise of land, which made them loyal to the swayer than to Rome. After Marius, Sulla was made consul, but while commanding over the war against Mithridates, Marius came back into position and Sulla s power was bestowed back to Marius. Upon this intelligence, Sulla marched on Rome and Marius fled which returned the power once more to Sulla s custodies. Once once more, Sulla left for war, and one time once more, Marius came back to Rome this clip with the aid of consul Cinna. Marius held consulship until his decease, after which Cinna took over power. Sulla returned prehending Rome one last clip and proclaimed himself dictator. Once things had calmed, he restored power back to the senate. ( 4 )

Even after Sulla s catching of the authorities, jobs still persisted one time he was relieved of bid. Everything that he had accomplished was lacerate apart with the First Triumvirates formed with Crassus, Pompey and Julius Caesar. With such power held between the three, they dominated all political relations. Crassus was subsequently killed in conflict, and when the senate asked that Caesar lay down weaponries and return to Rome as a private citizen, he refused get downing a civil war between Caesar and Pompey, which Caesar one and became dictator. Having ne’er wanted Caesar to govern, the senators once more took affairs into their ain custodies and assassinated him. ( 2 )

After Caesar s decease, his great-nephew Octavian took bid of his forces and joined up with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus organizing the Second Triumvirate. Lepidus was subsequently pushed aside go forthing Rome split between Octavian and Mark Antony resulting struggle between the two. This struggle began the last of the civil wars, and the last of the Republic with Octavian get the better ofing Mark Antony and commanding Rome. ( 2 )

Political and Societal Mayhem

Not merely was their awful discord in governing authorities from a leader point of view, but besides from the structural make-up of the authorities proved to do awful jobs for Rome as a Republic. The senate was developed during the regulation of monarchy and served as the chief constituent of the Roman Republic authorities. Two consuls were chose to harness as leader/ruler. There are several officers below the senate and consuls, but these two parties controlled bulk of the power. Initially, all places were available to merely the affluent patrician category, and the low-class plebeians were non allowed to take part. The discord and battle between the two categories is what finally lead to the autumn of

the Republic. This battle of the orders reached a little via media when plebeians were easy given more rights, but the patrician category still dominated control. ( 2 )

Where control didn t cause discord, the Punic and Macedonian Wars finished the rhythm. After Hannibal laid waste to all he crossed waies with throughout Italy during the Second Punic War, the poorer plebian husbandmans and labourers could make nil other than run to the metropolis of Rome for aid. With no 1 to work or have the land, the affluent patricians bought all they could. Then, upon licking of Hannibal and Carthage, so Macedonia, slave Numberss skyrocketed. With far cheaper slave labour, there was no demand for the plebian working category, and they therefore had no occupations, no money, and nil to populate or feed off of other than choler. Having so many angry and unhappy people within the metropolis of Rome, it is no admiration civil agitation blossomed into civil war. ( 4 )

Decline to Fallen

Such expansive enlargement and such impressive growing with small alteration to authorities construction eventually ended the Republic. It is as though in the heads of the leaders, all Rome needed was to go on to turn, catch all neighbours, be the governing power for the known universe and all else would fall into topographic point. Reformations seem to be the furthest thing from their heads, and so when they began, those that weren T benefited straight, personally, revolted in order to hold things their manner. The rich get richer, the hapless get poorer. Since there was no planning whatsoever into the Republic s go oning growing, the metropolis, and its people, finally fell apart. ( 3 )

Sallust s View

It appears to me that Sallust s blames Rome s diminution and failure as a democracy on its ability to suppress in a sense. Those that had to work hard for their money found that through conquest, wealths would be won. A love of money and power overshadowed the virtuousness of being a Roman. Ethical motives declined when such virtuousnesss as good religion and unity were lost to avarice. Corruption and larceny followed shortly after. Friendships turned out to be falsities merely showing themselves when aspirations of power were presented. Along with moral and virtuous diminution in the people, the authorities functionaries and leaders had the exact same jobs. ( 5 )

Sallust pinpoints these times to be after suppressing Hannibal and Carthage, which would do sense because this was the turning point for Rome s enlargement. No longer were they merely the Mediterranean power, but now an international one ( after they defeated Hannibal s ally in Macedonia ) . ( 6 ) It is apprehensible, and agreeable, that this is besides the point that Rome s virtuousnesss and ethical motives hit their low and continued in their decent. Like so many other jobs that plagued the Republic, they grew to fast with small attending paid to the inner-workings of the Republic or the metropolis. All focal point was placed on spread outing, countervailing any menaces that may originate, and go on to rake in the wealth. Greed overpowered any ideas in how to efficaciously govern the Republic beginning with the bosom the authorities and it s people.

Bibliography:

( 1 ) Western Civilization 3rd Edition, by Jackson J. Spielvogel, Chapter 5, pages 157-168

( 2 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch15.htm The Rise of Rome, Antiquity Online, Copyright 1998 by Frank E. Smitha, Accessed 5/11/01

( 3 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch18.htm The Fall of Rome s Republic, Antiquity Online, Copyright 1998 by Frank E. Smitha, Accessed 5/11/01

( 4 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.aquella.com/rome/rhistory.htm Roman History, Aquella Educational Center, Accessed 05/11/01

( 5 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www-unix.oit.umass.edu/ ogilvie/courses/spring99/100/readings/sallust_conspiracy.html The Conspiracy of Catiline Sallust ( C. Crispus Sallustius, 1999 UMass / Amherst, Accessed 05/11/01

( 6 ) hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ancientlanguages.org/claslattexts/sallust/bellumcat1e.html Catiline & # 8217 ; s War

by Gaius Sallustius Crispus, last modified February 2001, University of Alabama, Accessed 05/11/01