C. The Diversity of American Colonial Socities, 1530-17701. What were the most important elements of the Columbian exchange?  How did this “trade” in plant and animal species shape the future development of both Europe and the Americas?The 5 most important elements of the Columbian exchange are plants and animals which includes American corn, Potato, Horse, sugar and Disease .First is the American corn, this grass which is properly known as maize is domesticated by Native Americans about 5,000-7,000 years ago from the state of Puebla, Mexico in the Valleys of Tehuacan. It is used as human food, livestock feed and export. Maize is significant in terms of agronomy and worldwide economic impact.Potato is cultivated by people from the Andes of South America.

Native Americans from the high mountains of Bolivia during 8,000 b.c are the main people responsible fro cultivating this crop. Potato is considered as one of the major source of food calories in the world. This is of great help for the European and American societyy since it is an energy provider for workers and the most deterring outright for starvation.

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Horse is one great animal since it is used both for transportation and warfare. The role of the horse in conquest, with new pastoral tribes, and in sheer economics for breeding and labor makes the horse the greatest influence in the Columbian Exchange.Sugarcane was a major component of the Columbian Exchange and unfortunately the principle commodity for stimulating the American slave trade. Today, English and Americans are still the highest consumers of sugar (more than 120 lbs. per person per year), more than any other people on earth.  The medical repercussions of this are just being recognized with sugar metabolism problems, alcoholism, and dental problems being just the tip of the iceberg. Today, a great deal of sucrose is derived from corn syrup and recently grape fructose.

Rather than reducing our desire for sweet tastes, we have developed a whole new stimulus for the chemical production of artificial sweeteners, like saccharine, aspartame, and cyclamates.Disease is considered as one great weapon brought by the Europeans to America. Biological isolation and the limited intrusion of disease in America before A.D. 1492 affected Native people and made damages to major populations.

Influenza, typhoid, measles and small pox devastated epidemics which cause loss of leadership in America. More incipient diseases such as tuberculosis, syphilis, and pneumonia would be compounded by nutritional, sanitation, and labor conditions in colonial America.This trade in plant and animals shape both Europe and America’s future by means of Liberty, corporate structure and ecology.2.

Compare and contrast the different regions of British settlement in North America.  How were early settlement patterns manifested in regional culture and society?British Settlements in North America is considered as pne of the most important colonized society because it brings out dramatic upheaval upon indigenous civilizations in the Americas through Military fore and cultural disruption by means of European diseases.Though many of the indigenous societies had a developed warrior class, and long history of warfare, they were not able to withstand the technologically superior British force and eventually succumbed. Many of the conquered peoples vanished or were incorporated into the colonial system.British settlements are more responsible in their types of givernment and are more prepared fro independence. There are 2 countries in North America, 10 in the Carribean and 1 in South America that was granted with freeedom by United Kingdom. European diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles and typhus) to which the native populations had no resistance, and cruel systems of forced labor, decimated the American population.

The diseases usually preceded the British invaders, and the resulting population loss (between 30 and 90 percent in some cases) severely weakened the native civilizations’ ability to resist the invaders. After conquering an area, the colonists usually enslaved the native people, using them for forced labor. However disease continued to kill them off in large numbers, and so African slaves, who had already developed immunities to these diseases, were quickly brought in to replace them.  http://daphne.palomar.edu/scrout/colexc.htm