Most of import hazard factor is the coffin nail smoke which is taking to development of COAD. Smoking histories for every bit much as 80-85 % instances of COAD while merely 15 % tobacco users develop clinically diagnostic COAD. One possible ground why merely a little proportion of tobacco users develop COAD might be familial fluctuation in the enzymes that detoxify coffin nail fume merchandises. We hence studied the frequences of familial polymorphisms of GST M1 and GST T1 in patients with COAD and healthy topics.Methods: The survey comprised of 120 COAD instances and 120 healthy controls. Work force with COAD in age group 30-60 old ages were taken, diagnosing of COAD being made on the footing of history, clinical scrutiny, radiological scrutiny, ABG and pneumonic map trials ( PFT ) . Blood samples were taken from both survey and control groups.

Analysis included genomic DNA extraction and PCR elaboration of GSTM1 and GSTT1 cistron to observe their void polymorphism in instances and controls along with control albumin cistron.Consequences: The average age in the survey group was 51.67i‚± 8.

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9 and in the control group was 51.40 i‚± 7.65. The age distribution between the instances and controls was non statistically important ( p=0.91 ) . The mean battalion old ages in the instance group was 20.

77 i‚± 4.754 whereas it was merely 10.27 i‚± 2.913 for the control group which was statistically important ( p & lt ; 0.001 ) .

16.7 % ( 20/120 ) of COAD instances were GSTM1 nothing in comparing to 33.3 % ( 40/120 ) in controls which was non statistically important ( p=0.

135 ) . A sum of 40 % ( 48/120 ) of the instances presented homozygous omission of GSTT1 genotype as compared to command 13.3 % ( 16/120 ) which was statistically important ( p=0.019 ) .GST is a complex supergene household of soluble isozymes which catalyse the nucleophilic onslaught of glutathione on a broad scope of hydrophobic electrophiles5. Among the isoenzymes of GST, homozygous nothing GST M1 genotypes have been reported to hold association with the pathogenesis of lung cancer6-8, vesica cancer9, pituitary adenoma10, and peculiarly, emphysema11. GSTT1 conjugates glutathione and assorted possible carcinogens including halomethanes12 which are present in coffin nail fume and its void type mutation has been suggested as a hazard factor in colon cancer13, myelodysplastic syndrome14, meningioma and astrocytoma15.

However, no association between COAD and the homozygous void genotype of GST T1 has been reported.There is increasing grounds that several cistrons act upon the development of COAD. When multiple cistrons are runing in the pathogenesis of diseases, the influence of each cistron might be comparatively weak. Multiple cistron polymorphisms should hence be investigated to find the familial markers that predict the hazard for developing COAD. We hence studied the frequences of familial polymorphisms of GST M1 and GST T1 in patients with COAD and healthy topics to find whether multiple polymorphisms of these cistrons are linked to a familial susceptibleness to COAD.


The survey was carried out in the Department of Medicine, Maulana Azad Medical College and associated Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi, India. The survey comprised of 120 COAD instances.

The control group comprised of 120 healthy persons. All control topics were male and were current tobacco users free from pneumonic disease with normal PFT. None of the control topics had household members affected by COPD.Capable choice: The survey group comprised of 120 COAD instances from the medical out patient section and wards of LN Hospital, New Delhi. Work force with COPD in age group 30-60 old ages were taken, diagnosing of COPD being made on the footing of history, clinical scrutiny, radiological scrutiny, ABG and pneumonic map trials ( PFT ) . Pneumonic map trials were done in all instances and controls.

Glutathione S-Transferases ( GSTs ) are members of a household of enzymes which play an of import function ailment detoxicating assorted aromatic hydro- Cs found in coffin nail fume. GSTs conjugate electrophilic substrates with glutathione and this facilitates farther metamorphosis and elimination. GSTM1 is expressed in the liver and the lung. Homozygous omission of the GSTM1 cistron occurs in about 50 % of Caucasians. Homozygous lack for GSTM1 was associated with emphysema in patients who had lung malignant neoplastic disease ( OR = 2.1 ) 17 & A ; heavy tobacco users holding terrible chronic bronchitis ( OR=2.8 ) . However, in a Korean survey there was no association between GSTMI and GSTT1 polymorphisms and COPD18.

The present survey was conducted in 120 stable patients of chronic clogging air passage disease and 120 controls. All topics were males. These patients were subjected to thorough history and clinical scrutiny including a elaborate scrutiny of the respiratory system and a elaborate pre-structured proforma was filled along with taking the informed consent of the patient. All patients underwent spirometry and were divided into survey and control group. The undermentioned parametric quantities were assessed:1. Age distribution in survey and control group.2. Categorization of badness of COPD in survey patients was done on footing of pneumonic map trial.

3. The battalion old ages of the survey and control group was analyzed.4. The distribution of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes in patients with COPD and healthy topics were compared.Statistical analysis was done utilizing the chi-square trial for categorical variables and the pupil ‘t ‘ trial for uninterrupted variables.

1. Age distribution of COPD patients

The average age of patients in the survey was 51.67 old ages while the mean in the control group was 51.

40 old ages. The maximal figure of patients were in the 45-54 old ages age group ( 51.4 % ) and so in the & gt ; 55 old ages age group ( 52.

9 % ) .Surveies reported on COPD patients in western literature demo a higher average age of patients. A survey by Pauwels et al19. , on COPD patients in Europe showed that about half of the patients were in the age scope of 60-69 old ages. Another survey by Katherine Gary20 et al.

, showed a average age of 63.1 old ages in survey patients. Redelmeier21 et al.

, in their survey had a average age of 67 old ages in stable COPD patients. The National Health and nutrition Examination Survey III in USA besides showed that maximal patients of COPD were & gt ; 60 old ages old. These consequences show that the average age of the COPD patients in our survey was less than the average age of COPD patients in western literature.

This may be explained on the footing of the familial make-up of the Indian population, environmental factors, hapless life conditions or smoking wonts. The exact cause is still a affair of survey and is non known.

2. Smoking drumhead

All the patients in both survey and control group were tobacco users.

The figure of bidi tobacco users was more than the figure of coffin nail tobacco users. The average figure of battalion old ages in the survey group was 20.77 old ages as against 10.27 old ages in the control group which was statistically important ( p & lt ; 0.

001 ) . An Indian survey by Jindal et al22 showed that tobacco user is to non-smoker ratio was 82.3 % and the prevalence of COPD amongst tobacco users was 8.3 % which was significantly more than non-smokers ( p value & lt ; 0.

01 ) . Another Indian from CMC, Vellore by Ray et al23 showed that 63 % of the patients were tobacco users. Pauwels et al19 showed that 50 % of the patients were tobacco users and had an norm of 39 battalions of cigarette/bidi per old ages of smoke.Association between smoking and COPD was besides shown by Victor Sobradillo Pena24 et Al who showed that work forces & gt ; 60 old ages and & gt ; 15 battalion old ages smoking history had a higher chance of developing COPD. The prevalence of COPD was 15 % in tobacco users as against 4.1 % in non-smokers. This went up to 40.

3 % in patients with & gt ; 30 battalion old ages and & gt ; 60 age. Thus it was seen that COPD developed earlier in the Indian population with a shorter battalion twelvemonth history. This can be due to factors as mentioned in relation to early age of oncoming. Siafaskas et al25 had shown that difference in nutrition could besides play a function in protecting against oxidative emphasis from smoke and hence preventing COPD. Besides the Indian population is different from Western population with respect to baseline lung map, smoking wonts and populating conditions. Although maximal patients in our survey smoked bidi ‘s, literature shows that this signifier of smoke is every bit risky as others.

3. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotyping in patients with COPD and healthy topics.

It could be accepted without any uncertainty that coffin nail smoke is the major hazard factor for COPD and familial susceptibleness is besides there for the complicated disorder26of cistron. Protease-antiprotease and oxidant-antioxidant are the possible susceptible cistrons.

Alternatively of holding tonss of experimental surveies in carnal existences every bit good as in human existences which is back uping the function of unbalanced oxidant- antioxidant systems for the pathogenesis of COPD27 ensuing from smokingbut few comparative surveies are at that place which have been done to look into the function of polymorphisms of antioxidant cistrons with COPD For this current survey, polymorphisms of GSTM1 and GSTT1 antioxident cistrons have been investigated by us to cognize whether they are associated with development of COPD. There are significant differences in the baseline frequences of void genotypes for GSTM1 and GSTT1 in different cultural groups28. The prevalence of GSTM1 nothing genotype has been reported to change between 39-62 % in Europeans, 33-63 % in East Asians and 23-45 % in Africans29. The highest frequences have been reported in surveies affecting little figure of topics from parts of the South Pacific i.e. 64-100 % 30. The prevalence of GSTM1 nothing genotype has been reported to be 17 % and 24 % in Indian population from Bombay and Trivandrum parts, respectively31,32. The prevalence of GSTM1 null genotype was 16 % in Indians from Malaysia and Singapore, while in Asiatic Indians from Los Angeles or Malaysia it was 36 and 33 % respectively33.

The prevalence of GSTMA­1 null genotype was 33.3 % and GSTT1 null genotype was 12.5 % in controls from Delhi in a survey conducted by Sharma et al34. The frequences of the GSTM1 void genotypes among controls in the present survey were comparable with informations that has been reported in assorted surveies from different cultural groups. We observed the prevalence of 33.3 % for GSTM1 nothing genotype which was comparatively lower than in Caucasic populations ( 50 % ) 35 and higher than Indian population from Bombay ( 17 % ) and Trivandrum ( 24 % ) 31,32.

In our survey the prevalence of GSTT1 null genotype was found to be 13.3 % in Indian population. The presence of GSTT1 null genotype was less in Indian population as compared to GSTM1 nothing. Our consequences are comparable to those of others31,32 reported by other surveies, 12.3 % , 22 % for GSTT1 void genotypes in controls. Surveies of GSTT1 void genotype from assorted geographical parts have demonstrated the scope of frequences from 16 % to 64 % in Asia, 44 % or higher in China and Japan28.

It has been suggested that in Asiatic states the frequence of GSTT1 nothing is similar to that of GSTM1, whereas in Africans, African-Americans and white populations, the frequence of GSTT1 void genotype is lower than for GSTM1 void genotype. Nair et al32 did non happen any topic with homozygous nothings genotype for both GSTM1 and GSTT1 in 82 controls in Indian population from Trivandrum, proposing that this combination is rare in Indian cultural population, but we have found 13.33 % topics with void genotype for both GSTM1 and GSTT1 in controls. Till now, there are non many surveies on the function of GSTs in COPD.

This is amongst the few study from Indian population on the function of GSTs in COPD.In the present survey, 16.7 % of COPD instances were GSTM1 nothing in comparing to 33.

3 % in controls which was non statistically important ( p=0.135 ) . A sum of 40 % of the instances presented homozygous omission of GSTT1 genotype as compared to command 13.3 % which was statistically important ( p=0.019 ) .

An effort was made to measure the proportion of the instances that were null for both genotypes GSTM1 and GSTT1. It was observed that COPD instances had marginally higher proportion of topics who had the homozygous void genotypes of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 as compared to controls. However, differences were non statistically important ( p=0.

35 ) .This was in contrast to other surveies that was conducted for proving of association of COPD and GST polymorphism. The association was weak which was reported to go out between emphysema and void GSTM1 in the combination with the lung malignant neoplastic disease ( OR-2.

1 ) ) 36 and chronic bronchitis which was terrible in nature with heavy smokersOR=2.8 ) 37 among Whites population.. But among the Korean population, there was no verification about the association between GSTM1 and COPD and could non establish any association between GSTM1 and COPD in the survey conducted by Ishii et al38.

In their survey the genotypes of 83 patients with COPD and 76 healthy smoke controls were determined by manifold PCR for GSTM1 and GSTT1 cistrons. They concluded that the frequence of void genotypes of both GSTM1 and GSTT1 in patients with COPD ( 34 % ) was non really different from that of control group ( 38 % ) .In instance of complicated polygenic disease like COPD, there is a possibility of familial susceptibleness which is dependent on the activity of assorted genepolymorphisms runing in concert.Polymorphisms in instance of single cistron might leave a comparatively low hazard of COPD and that is the possibility that the cumulative consequence of more polymorphisms would be of import in it ‘s pathogenesis. . The account of the association could be done by the fact of baccy smoke which is known to hold many substraces for GSTM, GSTT and GSTP1. GSTM, GSTT and GSTP1.

There will be greater hazard of fume induced diminution of map of the lung in comparative with them who is merely holding one faulty genotype.for those persons who have more than one faulty genotypeThe restrictions of the survey were related to the fact that controls were younger than the patients with COPD. This could hold reduced the effects of polymorphous genotypes of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of COPD as some of the control topics could be destined to develop COPD in the hereafter.

Furthermore, merely a few cistrons involved in the detoxification of fume merchandises were studied.In drumhead, we have shown that GSTT1 null genotype might be associated with the pathogenesis of COPD. In footings of the figure of topics examined, this survey is a preliminary work and a farther survey utilizing a larger population is needed to clear up the association of GSTT1 null genotype and single susceptibleness to development of COPD. Furthermore, probe of the map of other xenobiotic enzymes such as GSTP1 may supply more penetration to the pathogenesis of COPD in tobacco users. Hence, the informations presented here indicates that the incidence of homozygous GSTT1 nothing genotype is important in COPD instances as compared to controls, but GSTM1 null genotype consequences showed that this is non a critical factor in COPD development.

Further surveies are needed to look into more figure of instances and besides examine polymorphisms of other detoxicating agents.