The current climate change is projected to have asignificant influence over biodiversity. The changes posesa threat to approximately a quarter or more of all species on the land by theyear 2050. Due to earth’s rapid warming that is now faster than at any time inthe past 10,000 years, the species survival is likely to be at the fullest risk. The rapid heating temperature onearth almost always caused danger to plants, animals, places and even people’slivelihoods. It also damages the ecosystem, including coral reefs, whole lossof unique forms of life that will create a complete disaster on earth.
These changes force the species toadapt to new climate patterns, if species can not evolve to live in a certainranges of temperature, or when it actually lives dependent to a certaintemperature range, then its existence is endangered. With the more intenserising of sea level and warmer ocean, the prolonged period of a shortage ofwater resulted threaten crops, wildlife and storage of fresh water. From polarbears in the Artic to marine turtles off the coast of Africa, the earth’sdiversity of life is at danger from the changing climate.
Numerous studies uncover how speciesshift their geographic ranges in reaction to climate change, usually that aremoving to higher elevations and latitudes. The local extinction also record theloss of population at the warm edge of species ranges that located in the lowerelevations and latitudes. The data specifically show that among 976 species surveyed, local extinctionoccurred in 47%.
Loss of species is commonly occur across the climatic zones, habitats and group of organismbut that usually exist in tropical region. The species mostly are Earth’s speciesanimals that relative to plants and those that are in the freshwater habitats.These loss will almost definitely rise as global climate continues to warm inthe coming years. Since anthropogenic climate changehas impact on species survival.
The Global mean annual temperature wasincreased from 0.85?C between 1880 and 2012 and are likely to rise further by 1?Cto 4?C by 2100. Most studies of species loss resulted by climate change hasmany uncertainty. One of the most important sources of uncertainty cruxes onhow these species respond to climate change. For example, if species can evolverapidly following the rapid change of climate, their extinction might actuallybe limited.
Their respond to climate change will no longer dependent on itscurrent geographic range. Thus, the possible responses of the species might bethat the species realized niche changes to integrate these new climaticcondition by adapting to themodified abiotic or biotic condition, orspecies move to higher latitudes or elevation and going extinct. Theseresponses have been seen in some cases and proven to be real, but the qualifiedoccurrence of each is still unclear. Range shifts observe to havecomposed of one or both of change types; the expansion at the cool edge whichthe higher latitudes and elevation, and the contraction of warm edge which isthe lower latitudes and elevations. The presence of warm edge contraction isimportant.
If a warm edge contractionoccurs when population at the lowest latitudes or elevations of a species nolonger occur at its region, it will lead to overall shift in the species rangetowards higher latitudes or elevations. Contraction indicate that species hasfailed to tolerate the new conditions and these population will extinct. Examples from across diverseclimatic zones, habitats and taxonomic group were found as local extinction.Although not all the species exhibit range shifts showed warm edgecontractions, but almost half of the species surveyed is directly related toclimate change. The result suggest that even a small changes in climate thathas already occurred is enough to cause widespread of local extinctions andmany species are unable to respond fast enough to climate change to avoidextinction. Among the 976 unique speciessurveyed, 460 species had warm edge contractions and 516 did not.
This meaningthat local extinction due to climate change is already common. The study hadnon significant result in the beginning,but the comparison between species that showed warm edge contraction andprovide no potentials discernment to which species may be the most sensitive toclimate change, in terms of the clades they belong to, the climatic zones andhabitats they occur in. Overall, the regularity of local extinction was similaracross most climatic zones, habitats, gradients and clades. Still, there weresome significant differences. There are six highlighted speciesthat already in decline due to climate change found by Scholes, ecologistsystem at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) inPretoria, South Africa and Pörtner, an animal physiologist and marine biologistbased at the Alfred Wegener institute in Bremerhaven, Germany: (1) The Orange-spotted filefish that lives totally dependent incoral reef habitats, which are decliming due to climate change. In addition,this fish is highly sensitive to warm water.
(2)Quiver tree is prevalent to the arid west of South Africa and Namibia. Sincethe tree is moist, they are the most vulnerable to rapid change. Moreover, astudy prove that quiver tree is unable to grow and disperse quickly enough tokeep up with a fast changing climate. (3) Polarbear is a large predator that lives in the Artic sea that currently decreasingduring summer time.
Due to climate change, the sea ice is forming later anddisappearing earlier in the spring. As the Artic sea retreats, they have tofind alternative food. This might resulted the polar bears to come on the landto eat the terrestrial food and might somehow doing find without the sea ice. (4) Adélie penguin that is called krill live on tinycrustaceans. They live on the undersides of ice sheets, where they find refugeand algae as food. But as the Antarctic sea ice retreats, their populations aredecreasing.
This resulted them to migrate further to find food and makes themfailing in breeding and raising the young penguins. (5) North Atlantic cod has dropped in numbers and has not beenable to keep up with the new ecosystem due to changing ocean currents andinvasion of cold Artic waters. (6) Golden toad hasbeen decreasing in numbers and known as amphibians that is going extinct. Thisdecline is attributed to climatic changes. The result of the study show thatlocal extinction related to climate change has spread out and have occurred inhundreds of species. Currently only half of 976 species are surveyed for rangeshift as proof of local extinctions.
Surprisingly, the proportion is similaracross the diverse climatic regions, habitats and taxonomic groups. The resultsuggest that even a modest change in climate is enough to drive species toextinct. The result also suggest how many of the species could not shift theirclimate change rapidly enough to prevent extinction. Most analyses showed thatextinction is more common in tropical species, freshwater and animals. Overall,the result support that negative impacts are more frequent to happen due toclimate change is in the tropical regions.
Given this result, many of thespecies might depend largely on their ability to successfully shift theirgeographic ranges to higher latitudes or elevations. Indeed, the summary showsstable condition among at the cool edge expansions. Unfortunately the movementsmaybe hindered by several factors.
First, humans who always be the one thatprevent species from effectively dispersing or sometimes humans leave no spacefor them to disperse. Second, many species are restrained to islands,peninsulas and mountaintops, where dispersal to a higher latitudes andelevations maybe impossible. Third, even if dispersal is unhindered by humansor natural barriers, it may be actually happen to slower the species for themto remain within their climatic change. The combination of these potentialslimits to dispersal and spreading here is concerning. In summary, the result showed thatextensive spread of local extinctions have occurred among hundreds of specieswith similar patterns of extinctions across varies clades, habitats andclimatic regions. This local extinction offers a possible significant source of information but fail to utilize thetask of predicting the patterns of species survival and extinction in thefuture.