Last updated: September 25, 2019
Topic: ArtBooks
Sample donated:

Psychology as a scientific subject can be divided into four major historical forces. The first historical force being depth psychology. the 2nd force behaviourism. the 3rd force humanistic. and the 4th force multicultural. Each historical force represents the Zeitgeist or predominating school of idea for its historical clip. and each school of idea brought about the development of different theoretical applications and ideological attacks. This paper will concentrate on theoreticians and theoretical applications of the 2nd and 3rd historical forces. Behaviorism is the school of idea founded by John B. Watson and is the 2nd historical force in psychological science. The footing of behavioural psychological science suggests that all behaviours are learned and hence can be unconditioned and changed. Watson. like most other behaviourists were of the mentality that merely discernible. or open behaviours. should be studied because constructs such as emotion and knowledge were excessively subjective ( Cherry. K. 2011 ) .

Cognitive applications of behavioural psychological science known as Cognitive Behavioral psychological science or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy ( CBT ) differs from the orientation of Behaviorism in that it focuses on the mental procedures. perceptual experiences. and readings of the head. every bit good as how information is retrieved. Cognitive Theorists believe emotions are triggered by ideas and beliefs. It is in this mentality that Cognitive Behavioral psychotherapeutics was developed as a type of “talk therapy” which is clinically proven to be more effectual than medicine for handling insomnia. depression and several other psychological issues. One of the most noteworthy Cognitive Behavioral theoreticians of modern twenty-four hours psychological science is Dr. Albert Ellis. I focus on Albert Ellis and his theoretical applications because of their similarities to the foundations of Buddhist psychological science.

Albert Ellis founded Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy ( REBT ) . Rational Affectional Behavior Therapy can be viewed as a doctrine of life. every bit good as a signifier of psychotherapeutics. Dr. Ellis besides believed that sadness could be alleviated by larning to place 4 types of irrational thought and cultivating “Universal Self-Acceptance” ( USA ) which overlaps Buddhism’s “three Markss of existence” ( annicca. anatta. dukha ) ( Tsering. 2006 ) . Dr. Ellis believed that “self-esteem” was an irrational and harmful construct for grounds likewise found in Buddhism. Many psychologists believe that self-esteem issues help or exacerbate most mental wellness issues. Dr. Ellis advocated replacing the construct of “self-esteem” with “Universal Self-Acceptance” ( USA ) ( M. G. T. Kwee. 2006 ) Rational-emotive behavior therapy. or REBT. can possibly be summarized by understanding the A-B-C theoretical account for psychotherapeutics. ( Ellis. 1994 ) REBT says that the most common error people make is in presuming that hardship ( A ) is responsible. or causes. emotional effects ( C ) .

For illustration. one might believe that making ill on a undertaking at work ( the hardship. or A ) is what causes them terrible anxiousness and emphasis ( the effect. or C ) . The REBT healer. nevertheless. argues that it is non the hardship ( A ) which causes the anxiousness and emphasis ( C ) . but instead it is the individual’s perception–their unrealistic and over generalized beliefs ( B ) about the hardship that causes the anxiousness and emphasis. It was non that a individual did ill on the undertaking. but instead her belief that she must make good on everything she does. This unrealistic belief that she must make good all the clip led her to state herself how “awful” it was that she did non make good. Therefore. it was her perceptual experience that she did non make what must be done. and that it is atrocious that she did non make what must be done. that resulted in her feelings of emphasis and anxiousness. While most people believe that A=C. the REBT healer shows them that. in world. A ten B = C. If the healer can set the clients believing by doing her realize that she doesn’t ever have to make good. or that it’s non truly that “awful” that she didn’t do every bit good as she would hold liked. so her feelings of anxiousness and emphasis may be lessened. ( Ellis. 1994 )

As a cognitive-behavioral manner of intervention REBT postulates that emotional and psychological upsets are mostly the consequence of believing irrationally. dysfunctionally. negatively. perfectly. or illogically. Furthermore. REBT theorizes that rational and irrational ideas are incompatible. ( Tsering. 2006 ) Humans are able to acquire rid of most of their emotional and mental sadness. inefficaciousness. or perturbation if they learn to maximise rational and minimise irrational ideation REBT holds that sustained negative feelings. such as intense depression. anxiousness. choler. and guilt. are about ever unneeded to human life. ( Ellis. 1994 ) After researching different facets of Buddhist psychological science it is my sentiment that Dr. Ellis’ ( REBT ) transcends multi-cultural boundary lines and values. I find this attack to psychotherapy to be really good and of import in American psychological science which historically has failed in many facets to embrace other civilizations and ideological attacks in psychotherapeuticss and interventions. Many similarities besides exist between the ways that Taoism. Zen Buddhism. and the self-actualization theories of Rogers and Maslow. Both Maslow and Rogers described the self-actualizing individual as 1 who has personal liberty and who is free to do picks. The actions of the self-actualizing individual are non determined entirely by the physical and societal environment. because a individual has entree to personal resources that are. in bend. growing promoting.

Harmonizing to Maslow ( Maslow. 1968 ) ) the self-actualizing individual does non avoid confronting or moving on feelings or ideas that are experienced. The self-actualized individual of Maslow. Rogers. Zen Buddhism. and Lao Tzu feels a affinity with all human existences. These people care about others with a lovingness that is soft and non moralistic. The humanistic attack of the 3rd historical force in psychological science reflects the self –actualization political orientations put away in Buddhism and Taoism and suggested by Maslow and Rogers. Carl Rogers. created client-centered therapy. and designated unconditioned positive respect ( UPR ) as one of the three conditions were necessary for positive alteration. along with empathy and genuineness ( congruity ) . Harmonizing to the Rogers’s theory. mental unwellness is frequently caused by the absence of love or by a faulty sort of love that the client received as a kid. By demoing the client unconditioned positive respect and credence. the healer is supplying the best possible conditions for personal growing to the client. ( Campbell. 1985 ) One respects ‘each facet of the client’s experience as being portion of that client. ( Bozarth. 2001 )

While all four of the historical forces have contributed to the development of American psychological science and psychological theories. I believe it is the cognitive behavorial and existentialistic political orientations such as the theories of Ellis’ ( REBT ) and Rogers’ ( UPR ) that have had the greatest impact on psychotherapeutics and its multi-cultural applications. I can candidly state that my positions and sentiments have been changed by the cognition I have gained from the History and Systems category besides known as psychological science 308. From a cultural position I have ever felt I belonged to two different universes. I was born in Kentucky and raised in a really conservative. shockable community. The prevailing school of idea was really racist. My cultural heritage is Scotch-Irish and I was taught as a kid to hold a disfavor for those who were non like me. Imagine. if you will. the struggle I felt as a kid who played with dolls. hated baseball. and had an attractive force to members of my sex. Researching the different theoritical orientations in psychological science has been an highly informative experience. While I do non profess to be of any spiritual or religious mentality. I have developed an involvement in the Buddhist attack of self-acceptance to life. I am about 46 old ages old and I have made my portion of errors along the manner.

Self credence has ever been something I have struggled with. Dr. Ellis’ REBT and Buddhist psychological attacks have given me the tools to take a greater expression at myself and to be okay with what I see. I intend to be an advocator for those people like myself who have felt cheated by the cultural values or norms put away by American psychological civilization. Timess may be altering. but in my sentiment non fast plenty. As we move to a more culturally diverse state I hope that the predicament of homosexual. sapphic. and transgendered individuals will be considered in the greater development of multi-cultural psychological science. Brook. J. S. . & A ; Whiteman. M. ( 2008 ) . Onset of adolescent imbibing: a longitudinal survey of intrapersonal and interpersonal ancestors.

Bozarth. J. ( 2001 ) . Unconditional Positive Regard ( Rogers Therapeutic Conditions Evolution Theory & A ; Practice. Pccs Books. Campbell. P. A. ( 1985 ) . Bio-spirituality: focussing as a manner to turn. Loyola University Press. Ellis. A. ( 1994 ) . Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy. Birch Lane. Hanh. T. N. ( 1999 ) . The Heart of the Buddha’s Teaching: Transforming Suffering into Peace. Joy. and Liberation. Broadway Books. M. G. T. Kwee. K. G. ( 2006 ) . Horizons in Buddhist Psychology: Practice. Research & A ; Theory. . Chagrin Falls: Taos Institute Publications. maslow. A. ( 1968 ) . Toward a Psychology of Being. New York: Princeton. Tsering. G. T. ( 2006 ) . Buddhist Psychology: The Foundation of Buddhist Thought.