Free Software For Society : Selected essays of Richard –Book 1 This book is about open source method and how it works in real life. The author explains difference between free software & free and open source software. Goshua says that open source does not mean it has to be free. Furthermore he says that commercial software can be open source and still the vendors can charge for their products, which will help the customer because consumer will get the usual tech support and upgrades, while advance users can change that software by their preference. Ultimately leaving both the user and vendor satisfied.
Author mentions the counterattacks taken by software vendors, to prevent open source software being popular. (Gay . J 2002 p57) says that “Sooner or later users will be invited to switch back to proprietary software for some practical advantage. Countless companies seek to offer such a temptation, and why would user decline? ” also he adds the importance of software freedom “Only if they have learned to value the freedom free software gives the for its own sake” The Values of software freedom is a emphasized issue in this book. The author is pointing out the flaws of teachings when it comes to open source.
According to(Gay . J, 2002 . p57) “We are failing to keep up with influx of free software users, failing to teach people about freedom and our community as fast as they enter. This is why non free software, and partially free operating system distributions, find such fertile ground ” Software Copyright Law—Book 2 This book is by David Bainbridge, and which is mainly focused on the legal implication of free and open source software. Author states that commercial software can be open source, but vendor should charge reasonably for the source code. Which will give the user the freedom to change the software as preferred.
According to (Bainbridge,D. 1994 . p207) “if a receiver appointed, he or she may be prepared to allow the client to have a copy of the source code and the other materials such as the specification and flowcharts but will require payment for these items” Moreover the author mention the escrow arrangement ,which enable the user’s ability to manipulate the source code, He define the escrow arrangement as “the software producer deposit, with an independent third party, a copy of the source code of the programs together with copies with all the documentation nd flowcharts relevant to the design and development of the software. ” (Bainbridge,D. 1994 . p207) also he mention that the user ability to change the source code is somewhat limited, yet in special occurrences it is possible.
On free vs. proprietary—Website 1 This web article is all about the “War” between free software and proprietary software (commercial software). the Author Edward Macnaghten is trying to vividly explain both sides of the stories. And the aftermath of this conflict. He (Edward) says that there is currently a competition going on between two types of business models. Each have their strong advocates, supporters and enemies. Flame wars has raised the temperature of various communication channels. So called “independent” analysts have thrown in their lot with one, singing the praises of their choice, while condemning to the depths of Hades the other, regardless of the facts. In short, it’s good old fashioned fun for all and sundry”. Furthermore he shows how Commercial software works, and why do people sell software. According to the author “Say you write and create an amazing piece of software.
You then sell and license this software, keeping tabs on it, such that you are the only one to have control over it. Should you sell enough you can reduce the price to what would be a pittance to most. You can then re-invest the money you receive to make even better and more amazing pieces of software. With cross-licensing agreements with other software companies and acquisitions, you can produce yet even better software, and so it goes on, bringing cheap software to the world, fortunes to yourself and benefit to all. ” (Macnaghten, E)
Why Open Source Software / Free Software (OSS/FS, FLOSS, or FOSS)? Look at the Numbers! —Website 2 As the title suggests it’s about numerical figures, diagrams and charts of marketing data. This website clearly demonstrates the actual numbers that matters in this ongoing free software vs commercial software war. At the introduction author says “This is an excellent look at the some of the reasons why any organisation should consider the use of [OSS/FS]… [it] does a wonderful job of bringing the facts and figures of real usage comparisons and how the figures are arrived at.
No FUD or paid for industry reports here, just the facts”. This paper been referenced by many other works, too. It’s my hope that you’ll find it useful as well. ” (David A. W) The data from studies shows the significant growth in Open source software. Apache (an OSS/FS web server) dominating the public Internet web server market ever since Apache grew into the #1 web server in April 1996. According to the author that the Reliability of Open source softwares are much greater than commercial softwares. Proving his point he says that “numbers don’t lie”. Equivalent OSS/FS applications are more reliable, according to the Fuzz study. “The paper “Fuzz Revisited” paper measured reliability by feeding programs random characters and determining which ones resisted crashing and freeze-ups. This approach is unlikely to find subtle failures, yet the study authors found that their approach still manages to find many errors in production software and is a useful tool for finding software flaws. What’s more, this approach is extremely fair and can be broadly applied to any program, making it possible to compare different programs fairly. (Wheeler, 2007) The Impact of Open Source Software on the Strategic Choices of Firms Developing Proprietary software This Journal is aiming to point out the impact of free and source on commercial software, how they are going adapt to this situation and change their marketing aspect accordingly. The quality and reliability are commonly popular terms, in this condition software vendors (commercial software developers) worrying about their products because Free and open source software are much more reliable and greater in quality comparing to CSS(Closed source software).
Author states “Would a firm producing CSS produce higher-quality software when it faces competition from an OSS than when there is no OSS in its market? Would there be a change in the firm’s response if the CSS faced competition from another CSS in addition to competition from the OSS? We show that the firm produces lower-quality CSS when it faces competition from an OSS than when it does not. Also, the quality of the CSS decreases as the quality of the OSS increases. ”( Jaisingh, J ,et al) The entire structure of software marketing is trembling because of free and open source software. the author point out hat this expansion of OSS culture is going takeover the software industry thus devastating the commercial software industry. Jaisingh says “The novel contribution of this paper is in the analysis of resource investment decision (which affects the quality of the software produced) of a CSS vendor when faced with competition from an OSS. We capture the special type of threat to the CSS from an OSS product. When CSS firms compete against one another, each firm chooses its strategies actively. The OSS, on the other hand, is produced by a volunteer-based community and may not behave strategically.
The OSS is thus a passive type of threat to CSS firms. We find that when CSS faces competition only from an OSS, or faces competition from an OSS and another CSS that is not a close substitute, then the incentive of the firms to develop higher-quality products decreases when the quality of the OSS increases. ” ( Jaisingh, J ,et al) Software innovativeness. A comparison between proprietary and Free/Open Source solutions offered by Italian SMEs An Article about Advantages of Free and open source software. throught the article, the author points out the importance of FOSS ; legal implications. urthermore he states that the widespread success of Free/Open Source Software (FOSS) raises new research issues, dealing with whether and how the free circulation of ideas championed by the movement and its collective management of intellectual property rights fosters innovation. Offering a vivid technical view of the innovativeness of Free Open Source Software ,writer says “Figures support that FOSS solutions are more innovative than proprietary ones: indeed, for all three dimensions, experts’ evaluations are higher for FOSS than for proprietary software” (Lamastra, Cristina Rossi. 009) in addition writer says comparing the results of FOSS(Free Open Source Software) and CSS(Closed-source software) “insightful as they point at the advanced technical features of FOSS solutions, thus confirming the efficacy of the FOSS model of knowledge creation,sharing, and accumulation. ” which clearly points out that the abilities of Free Open Source Software.