Last updated: May 20, 2019
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Council-manager authorities is a combination of the political leading of elected functionaries with the managerial accomplishments of an appointed director, which represents the policy-administration duality theoretical account. In this signifier of authorities, elected functionaries are assumed to put assorted long-run ends such as community growing, to O.K. policy and budget determinations, to find revenue enhancement rate, to oversee plan achievement, and to measure the metropolis director ‘s public presentation. However, council could n’t straight affect into policy execution and service bringing or in specific disposal. While, metropolis directors are hired to function the council and the community. They are presumed to take the duty to rede the council on the metropolis ‘s ends, propose and implement policies, and manage organisational direction, such as recruit and supervise staff. ( Svara, 1999 ; ICMA ) .

However, the activity of decision makers in policy and that of elective functionaries in disposal has received progressively attending in recent literatures, which is reflected on the council-manager relation as good. The challenge of policy-administration duality theoretical account of council-manager relation has been “ three-pronged: conceptual, with redefinition of the important footings attach toing the behavioural motion in political scientific discipline ; empirical, as the grounds mounted of extended parts of decision makers to policy ; and normative, expressed most dramatically in the New Public Administration which proclaimed that decision makers should do policy to advance values seldom advanced by elected functionaries ” ( Svara, 1985 ) . The boundary between elected council members and appointive directors is film overing and the interaction between policy and disposal is more and more common. Elected functionaries tend to examine into the deepnesss of disposal, and appointed directors inclined to affect into policy-making and end scene. The policy-administration duality theoretical account is reconceptualized as dichotomy-duality theoretical account ( Svara, 1985 ) .

However, despite the alteration of council-manager relation, the council-manager authorities persists and additions turning popularity. To cover with the relationship with council members has become metropolis director ‘s occupation itself and affects metropolis director ‘s work contents, public presentation, and satisfaction. As a effect, to analyze on the impacts of council-manager relation on metropolis directors is of great significance.

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Although inconsistent on whether or to what extent higher occupation satisfaction better occupation public presentation ( Brayfield and Crockett, 1955 ; Petty, McGee, and Cavender, 1984 ; Iaffaldano and Muchinsky, 1985 ) , Petty, McGee, and Cavender ( 1984 ) revealed a strong relationship between occupation satisfaction and public presentation. Furthermore, old surveies besides demonstrated that satisfied employees are more likely to hold lower absenteeism and turnover than those unsated 1s ( Locke, 1976 ; and Carsten and Spector, 1987 ) . Therefore, to analyze employees ‘ occupation satisfaction is of great significances.

However, the researches on occupation satisfaction either focal point on its impacts on job/organization public presentation, absenteeism and turnover, etc. ( Brayfield and Crockett, 1955 ; Petty, McGee, and Cavender, 1984 ; Iaffaldano and Muchinsky, 1985 ; Locke, 1976 ; and Carsten and Spector, 1987 ) , or other determiners of occupation satisfaction, such as authorization, participative direction, quality of work life, the function of directors, single features, work environment, etc. ( Bruce and Blackburn, 1992 ; Rainey, 1997 ; Kim, 2002 ) . A comparatively little literature appears to analyze on the determiners of occupation satisfaction of a specific topic, metropolis director. Even among the few researches concentrating on metropolis director, few of them have examined the possible effects of council-manager relation on employees ‘ occupation satisfaction ( Kim, 2002 ; DeSantis, Glass, and Newell, 1992 ) .

The intent of this survey is to research the impact of council-manager relation on metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction. This survey specifies research aim of public employees ‘ occupation satisfaction to metropolis directors and involves council-manager relation as the explanatory factor. Using “ 2007 Georgia City Manager Survey ” information collected by Dr. Yahong Zhang at Rutgers University-Newark, an empirical analysis is conducted to analyze the relationship. The ultimate purpose of this survey is to lend to the theoretical development of occupation satisfaction research through concentrating on council-manager relation and to suggest policy suggestion to practicians on how to manage council-manager relation in order to increase the metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction, which may hold positive influences on occupation committedness, turnover and absenteeism, and public presentation.

This article begins with a reappraisal of the literature on the development of council-manager relation and the determiners of metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction. In the following subdivision, I explore the theoretical model and present hypotheses of council-manager relation ‘s impact on metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction. In the last subdivision, I discuss research design/methodology.

Literature Review

Council-Manager Relation

Traditionally, metropolis director is hired by a bulk of the council to function the council and the community and brings to the local authorities the benefits of metropolis director ‘s accomplishments, preparation, and experience in disposal and direction. The primary duty of metropolis director is to “ fix a budget for the council ‘s consideration ; to enroll, engage, end, and supervise authorities staff ; to function as the council ‘s main adviser ; and to transport out the council ‘s policies ” ( ICMA ) . Council members and occupants count on the metropolis director to supply comprehensive and nonsubjective information about local operations. Meanwhile, the council chiefly takes duties in the community ‘s statute law and policy-making, such as approve the budget, find the revenue enhancement rate, set community ends, and see long-run growing planning.

Yet, matching to the dichotomy-duality theoretical account, the division of maps between council and director has been reframed to the form in which council is most involved in long-run goal/mission scene and policy preparation and blessing, but in which engagement additions over three other dimensions of the governmental process-policy execution, disposal, and direction every bit good. For illustration, council investigations into the deepnesss of disposal and direction, such as influence over hiring. However, the metropolis director ‘s engagement is the contrary of that of council members ( Svara, 1999 ) . Council progressively relies on metropolis director ‘s professional experience and accomplishments on policy-making and involves the metropolis director into policy-making procedure.

All in all, the interaction is common in policy and direction. City director gives suggestion and makes recommendations to council members, and council members exert influences on policy execution and everyday disposal. This alteration of council-manager relation has led to an vague boundary between the map of council and metropolis director, and has necessarily brought great impacts to both council members and metropolis directors and their work. For one manus, this complementary relation may increase occupation significance and undertaking lucidity to metropolis directors. Through engagement in policy preparation and devising, the work contents of the metropolis director is enriched and enlarged. At the same clip, it is easier for them to understand the intent of the policy and they may hold a clearer vision of execution as good, because the policy itself possibly an advice coming from the metropolis director. For another, the progressively obscure boundary between the map of council and metropolis director may besides do function struggles and deteriorate the relation between the council and metropolis director. For illustration, some council members may prefer a clear differentiation of policy-making and policy-implementation map between the council and metropolis director, instead than the overlapping functions. With the metropolis director ‘s turning engagement into policy-making procedure, no affair active or inactive, council members may experience menaces from the metropolis director, the relation between them may deteriorate, and few supports will be given to the metropolis director. It will finally impact working public presentation and emotions of the metropolis director, such as satisfaction degree, committedness to work, turnover and absenteeism, etc.

Job Satisfaction

Employees ‘ satisfaction with their occupations is an of import standard for rating organisational effectivity ( Choi, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Hoppock ( 1935, p.47 ) , occupation satisfaction is any combination of physiological, psychological, and environmental fortunes that causes a individual truthfully to state, “ I am satisfied with my occupation ” . Most common definitions are those that presume the being of demands ( in changing signifiers ) and by and large see occupation satisfaction as a consequence from the satisfied single demands by the occupation and its environment ( Hopkins, 1983 ) . However, Locke ( 1965 ) rejected the construct of need-satisfaction theoretical account and defined occupation satisfaction as the enjoyable emotional status caused by satisfaction or satisfaction about one ‘s occupation. “ The interaction of one ‘s values and one ‘s perceptual experiences of the occupation and its environment are two chief causes of occupation satisfaction ” ( Carroll, 1973 ) . In this survey, I chiefly rely on a modified need-satisfaction theoretical account, which combines single demands and work environment.

The earliest research surveies on occupation satisfaction were efforts to find the general proportions of satisfied and disgruntled workers. Then came more sophisticated efforts ( still really abundant in the most current literature ) to correlate certain features such as age, instruction, length of employment, public presentation, salary, ability, matrimonial position, and sex with the satisfied-dissatisfied duality ( Palola and Larson, 1965 ) .

The model of some early analysis effort to explicate occupation satisfaction in footings of basic psychological theories. Some research workers examined correlativities between expressed occupation satisfaction and variables related to both organisation policy and single features. In some instances, efforts have been made to explicate these correlativities in footings of the psychological theories noted antecedently ( Carroll, 1973 ) . Williamson studied occupation satisfaction in societal services refering with three types of variables: person ( worker ) features, intrinsic traits of occupations, and extrinsic traits of occupations. Basically, recent researches attempt a thorough integrating of these three attacks.

Individual features are those that are antecedent, or specify the worker before she or he enters the work state of affairs, such as demographic information and socio-economic position. Most surveies indicate that older people are by and large more satisfied with their occupations ( Form and Geschwender, 1962 ) , although the ground for the relationship has non clearly been determined ( William, 1996 ) . Closely related to age is the variable of term of office or length of service. Rachman and Kemp ( 1964 ) found the happiest purchasers were with the company for over 20 old ages. In comparing with the findings related to age and term of office, research on the importance of sex of worker to occupation satisfaction is less consistent. Some found the sex of a worker appears to hold small consequence on satisfaction. Others noted that general satisfaction was found to be low in divisions of a company which had a big proportion of male workers. But in a survey of sex differences in occupation satisfaction conducted by Hulin and Smith ( 1967 ) , a inclination was found for female workers to be less satisfied than male workers.

Among intrinsic factors which, when nowadays, do look to increase occupation satisfaction are: interesting work which provides liberty ( Vinokur Kaplan, Jayaratne, and Chess 1994 ) ; and efficaciousness ( Lawler and Porter 1967 ) . Porter and Lawler ( 1968 ) found that increased public presentation additions satisfaction.

Extrinsic or environmental variables are external work conditions which are by and large regarded as primary beginnings of occupation satisfaction ( Herzberg 1966 ) . These factors include salary, supervising, policy and disposal, and other on the job conditions. Satisfaction increased as workplace regulations were made more expressed.

Theoretical Framework and Hypotheses

Locke ( 1983 ) traces the beginnings of occupation satisfaction research to the early of Taylor ( 1911 ) on weariness, Mayo ( 1933 ) on communicating between labourers and direction, and Hoppock ( 1935 ) who conducted the first intensive survey of occupation satisfaction. From these traditions three schools of research emerged: 1 ) the Physical-Economic School ; 2 ) the Social or Human Relations School ; and 3 ) the Work Itself or Growth School ( Williamson, 1996 ) . This survey is an empirical trial corresponding to the societal or human dealingss school, particularly to the council-manager relation.

Herzberg proposed the Motivation-Hygiene Theory, besides known as the Two Factor Theory ( 1959 ) of occupation satisfaction. Harmonizing to his theory, people are influenced by two factors: Intrinsic Motivator, such as accomplishment, acknowledgment, the work itself, duty, and promotion ; Extrinsic Factors or Hygiene Factors, such as company policy, supervising, salary, interpersonal dealingss, and working conditions. He claimed that occupation satisfaction consequences from the presence of intrinsic incentives. And occupation dissatisfaction consequences from the absence of extrinsic factors.

Harmonizing to Herzberg ‘s theory, council-manager dealingss should be included into extrinsic/hygiene factors. However, as we discussed supra, to cover with council-manager relation has become work itself both for council members and the metropolis director. City directors are hired by the council and the primary duty is to implement council ‘s determinations and policies. Therefore, a good relationship between the council and metropolis director should hold a positive impact on metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction.

Harmonizing to DeSanitis, Glass, and Newell ( 1992 ) , council-manager relation is measured by three dimensions and is basically rely on: degree of support received from council, effectivity of council, and the nature of their relationship with council.

Council ‘s support

Some research workers emphasize on job-related factors ‘ impacts on occupation satisfaction, such as societal interactions ( Tinging, 1996 ) . Some surveies have demonstrated that relationships with colleagues and supervisors influence occupation satisfaction ( Brass, 1981 ; Daley, 1986 ; Emmert and Taher, 1992 ) . Oldman and Cummings ( 1996 ) claim that employees produce the most originative results when they are supervised in a supportive environment. Based on above literature, we could presume that council ‘s support to metropolis director is positively related to metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction.

H1: Council ‘s support to the metropolis director is positively associated with metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction.

Council ‘s effectivity

Task lucidity and societal interactions are demonstrated to positively impact employees ‘ occupation satisfaction ( Hackmand and Oldham, 1975 ) . A clear vision and an accurate apprehension of occupation undertakings helps employees to cut down occupation uncertainness and end ambiguity, which finally lead to increased occupation satisfaction ( Ting, 1996 ) . To accurately specify and quickly address public jobs ; develop executable public policies ; and give clear waies to metropolis directors manifest council ‘s high effectivity and contribute to metropolis directors ‘ apprehension of occupation undertakings every bit good. Therefore, council ‘s effectivity is supposed to hold positive impact on metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction.

H2: Council ‘s effectivity is positively associated with metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction.

City director participate in policy-making

Harmonizing to old researches, employees react to increased duty by demoing increased occupation satisfaction ( Golembiewski and Proehl, 1980 ) . Tinging ( 1996 ) claims that employees are motivated by undertaking significance. And Oldham and Cumming ( 1996 ) find that higher originative results are produced when employees work on complicated and disputing occupation. To affect metropolis directors into policy-making is to enrich and enlarge their occupations, and to increase occupation significance every bit good. A great sum of researches have demonstrated that engagement in policy-making has significant, positive impacts on satisfaction at work ( Kim, 2002 ; Bernstein, 1993 ) . Therefore, if council involves metropolis directors into policy-making, it would lend to an increased occupation satisfaction.

H3: Council involves metropolis directors into policy-making is positively associated with metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction.

Council ‘s Feedback

Emmert and Taher ( 1992 ) demonstrate that job-related feedback is an of import causing to occupation satisfaction for public professionals. Seasonably and appropriate feedback, such as formal rating and treatment on occupation public presentation, from supervisors and colleagues would take to critical psychological provinces, which may take to increased occupation satisfaction ( Hackman and Oldham, 1975 ) .

H4: Council ‘s feedback to metropolis director ‘s occupation public presentation is positively associated with metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction.

Research Design

An empirical survey based on “ 2007 Georgia City Manager Survey ” information will be conducted to prove how council-manager relation impact the metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction.


In 2007, Dr. Yahong Zhang conducted a three-round mail study on “ Georgia City Manager ” . The study questionnaire contains 51 inquiries in 11 classs, most of which are Likert Scale inquiries with 1 stand foring strongly disagree and 7 agencies strongly agree. Among the 505 metropoliss and towns in Georgia, 206 metropoliss or towns have metropolis directors. 160 metropolis directors responded the study. Therefore, the respondent rate is 77.67 % .


Dependent Variable

The dependant variable is the metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction. There are two basic ways of mensurating occupation satisfaction, facet-free and facet-specific steps. Although has been badly criticized for a figure of grounds ( Hopkins, 1983 ) , facet-free attack is easy to administrate and understand ( Kalleberg, 1974 ) , and it correlates extremely with more complex measurings of occupation satisfaction to utilize facet-free attack ( Robinson, Athanasious, and Head, 1969 ) . In order to mensurate occupation satisfaction, respondent is asked for their general attitude/satisfaction degree sing to their occupations. In the procedure of reacting to facet-free inquiries, employees tend to supply their ain agencies of summarize a assortment of different facets of their occupation into a individual reply ( Johns, 1981 ) . In the “ 2007 Georgia City Manager Survey ” information, Dr. Zhang used facet-free method to mensurate metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction. Therefore, this survey uses facet-free attack to mensurate occupation satisfaction and it is measured by an index variable made by the undermentioned three inquiries. Coefficient alpha mark will be used to mensurate its dependability.

Most yearss I am enthusiastic about my work

I feel reasonably happy with my present occupation

Trying to acquire my occupation done in this metropolis is a really frustrating experience ( Reverse )

Independent Variables

There are four independent variables: council ‘s support to metropolis director, council ‘s effectivity, council involves metropolis director into policy-making, and council ‘s feedback to metropolis director ‘s occupation public presentation. All the four independent variables are measured by study inquiries.

1. “ Council ‘s Support to City Manager ” is measured by an index variable of the following two inquiries:

The council by and large trusts me

My professional cognition and accomplishments are appreciated by the council

2. “ Council ‘s Effectiveness ” is measured by an index variable of the undermentioned five inquiries:

The council accurately defines public jobs

The council quickly addresses public jobs

The council develops executable public policies

The council gives clear waies

The council members good understand policy issues

Factor analysis and coefficient alpha mark will be used to prove the dependability to do index variable from the five inquiries.

3. “ Council Involves City Manager into Policy-Making ” is measured by an index variable of the following two inquiries:

The council prefers that I lead policy-making procedures

The council defers to my recommendations while doing policies

4. “ Council ‘s feedback to metropolis director ‘s occupation public presentation ” is measured by a individual inquiry:

The council conducts formal written rating on my public presentation

Control Variables

Besides the independent variables, there are other factors may hold impact on metropolis director ‘s occupation satisfaction harmonizing to old researches, which should be included into the arrested development theoretical account:

City Manager ‘s Salary

City Manager ‘s Age

City Manager ‘s Gender

City Manager ‘s Education

City Population