WorldMany people do not understand what the Internet is the power that it has overthe world. The Internet is an extraordinary learning and entertainment toolthat, when used properly, can significantly enhance a user’s ability to gatherinformation.
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) started the Internet. Itwas a project under taken by the Department Of Defense (DOD) in 1969. Itstarted as an experiment to link together DOD and military research includingUniversities doing military-funded research.
“The reliable networking part involved dynamic rerouting.” (Levine 12) If oneof the computers was under enemy attack, the information could be automaticallytransferred to other links. Fortunately, the Net is not usually under enemyattack.
The ARPANET was very successful, and every university in the country wanted tosign up. Because so many people wanted to use the Net, ARPANET started gettinghard to manage, especially with many university sites on it. Therefore, it wasbroken into two parts: MILNET, which had all the military sites, and ARPANET,which had all the nonmilitary sites.”The two networks remained connected,however, thanks to atechnical scheme called IP (Internet Protocol), which enabled traffic to berouted from one net to another as needed. All the networks connected by IP inthe Internet speak IP, so they can all exchange messages.” (Levine 12)Even though there were only two networks at that time, IP was made to allowthousands of networks. The IP is designed so that every computer on an IPnetwork is compatible. That means any machine can communicate with any othermachine.
The Internet, also called the Net, is the world’s largest computer network.
The Internet is the “network of all networks.” (Levine 7) The networks areconnected to big companies like AT&T, as well as to home computers.About1,000 networks join each month.
Every computer that is attached to the Internet is called a host. Hosts can besuper computers with thousands of users, regular PC’s with only a couple ofusers, or specialized computers, like routers that connect networks together orto terminal servers that let terminals dial in and connect to other hosts.
Each computer has its own host number. “Being computers, the kind of numbershosts like are 32-bit binary numbers.” (Hayden 32) Here is an example of abinary number:1011010010010100100100101000Binary numbers are easier to remember by breaking them up into eight 4-bitgroups. “Then each group is translated into it’s Hexadecimal equivalent.”(Levine 18) So the number above would translate into this:B.49.49.28This number is easier to use and remember.
Every four digits in the binary number stands for one hexadecimal number.
Below is a list of each four binary numbers and its hexadecimal equivalent.
To figure out the binary number in the example into its Hex equivalent is inthis way:1011 is the first four digits of the binary number. Looking at the table, itcan be determined that its hexadecimal equivalent is a “B”. The second set offour binary numbers is 0100. That changes into 4 and so on.
The first four numbers of a host number tells you what class the network is.
The chart bellow states classes and sizes:Class First Number Length of First No Max No of Hosts A1-1261 16,387,064B128-191 2 64,516C192-223 3 254 Big companies like IBM and Apple usually have class A networks. “For example,IBM has network 9, and AT&T has network 12, so a host number 18.104.22.168 wouldbeat IBM, and 22.214.171.124 would be at AT&T.” (Levine 19) Medium sized companiesand universities have class B networks. “Rutgers University has network 128.6and Goldman Sachs has network 138.8” (Levine 19) Small organizations use classC networks. Network 192.65.175, for example, is used by a single IBM researchlab.
To make it easier the Internet uses names, not numbers. “For example, themachine we have heretofore referred to as 126.96.36.199 is named chico.” (Levine21)When ARPANET first came out, they had simple names; the machine at Harvard wascalled HARVARD. But since there are millions of names on the Net they hadtrouble coming up with different names.
To avoid this problem they created the Domain Name System (DNS). Host namesare strings of words separated with dots. For example, MILTON.IECC.COM.
The part at the right of an Internet name is called a zone. In this examplethe part at the right is com. Com means it is a commercial site, rather thaneducational, military, or some other kind of zone.
The next part of the name is iecc. IECC is the name of the company. The partto the left of the company name is the name of the host machine inside thecompany. So a computer inside of IBM could be milton: milton.iecc.com.
Name zones are divided into two categories: the three-letter kind, and thefour-letter kind. The three letter zones are made by organizations. Below isa table stating all the zones:Zone MeaningComCommercial organizations eduEducational institutions govGovernment bodies and departmentsintInternational organizationsmilMilitary sitesnetNetworking organizations orgAnything else that doesn’t fit into any of the other categoriesThere are also two letter zones. These zones are for national countries. Someof these zones are AU for Australia and AT for Austria.
There are a few other zones. Even though the ARPANET is not in use any more, afew sites are still there for historical reasons. They have names ending inarpa. Names for some computers on the UUCP and BITNET networks, have namesending in UUCP and BITNET. These names are not real zones, but a lot ofsystems still route mail to them anyway. Any BITNET or UUCP site can getitself a real host name.
Some parts of the Internet have rules of conduct. The strictest rules are forthe NSFNET, which does not allow any commercial use. In late 1993, mosteducational places in the United States were attached directly to the NSFNET,but then they moved to commercial networks.
What the Internet does, is transmit data from one computer to another. Eachtime a host wants to send a message to another host, either the receiver is ona network where the first host is directly connected (then the message will besent directly). Otherwise the sender would send the message to a host that canforward it. The forwarding host delivers the message directly or they can passit to another host. Usually messages are sent to more than a dozen forwarderson its way from one part of the Net to another.
To transfer a file from one computer to another the file transfer is enabled.
There are two different kinds of programs available for this feature. Theyare: FTP and RCP. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) originated in 1971. TheInternet designers decided on a protocol to copy files from one place toanother on the net. Many people wrote programs that fulfilled the protocol andcalled them FTP. Another way is via Remote Copy Protocol (RCP)It is very easy to copy a file from one computer to another. It is done in thefollowing way: Log onto another computer from FTP and tell it what you want tocopy and where to copy it to.
The Internet has spread to many businesses and family rooms throughout theworld. Since computers mainly operate using the English language, the Internetusually does as well. For example, if you browse through a site located in theNetherlands, there will most likely be an option to change between English andDutch. This is usually the case throughout the world. An example of one ofthese sites is at http://www.dhp.nl/. This link will take you to the DutchHome Page.
Current events have showed that there are certain governments in Europe thatwish to have the language of the Internet changed to their own respectivevernacular. The ISP’s, Internet Service Provider which is a company that givesyou access to the Internet for a nominal fee, in these countries are willing toalter the language of the Internet to meet the governments desires. Thishowever would cost each user ten dollars more per month, therefore manyInternet consumers are weary of this plan.
One of the many great aspects of the Internet is that each user has the optionof remaining anonymous. Doing so would diminish the amount of prejudicedremarks said to one another. Therefore there could be no prejudices against aperson who is using the Internet.The Internet is a way for many differentreligions, societies, and races to meld together and share views, experiences,and new inventions across thousands of miles. Once you enter the Cyber-world,everybody is equal, deserves the same respect, and the same rules apply to allusers.
In my opinion the Internet is very resourceful. You can be entertained or itcan be used as a teaching aid. I use the Internet all the time to either talkto people, transfer files, or to look up information for school reports orprojects. There are many different ways that you can log onto the Internet.
The most commonly used is through an ISP. Some of which are AT WorldNet,Spectra.Net, and IBMNet. You can also access the Internet through on-lineprograms such as America On-line, Prodigy, or CompuServe. These three programsare the most popular and widely used. The Internet can be used by anyone whohas a computer, modem and an Internet program. The Internet is a necessarytool for any student who needs to do papers and reports that need theinformation that Internet can provide. Many schools have the Internet in classto learn from and have fun at the same time.
Work Cited1) Levine, John R. and Carol Baroudi. The Internet For Dummies. A.: IDG BooksWorldwide, 1993.
2) Hayden, Neil L. Surfing The Internet. NY: Putnam, 1992.