Last updated: June 15, 2019
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Arabidopsis thaliana is used as a theoretical account being for analysing familial and biochemical procedure in higher workss. Due to its little genome size ( Approximately 100 Mb ) and handiness, Arabidopsis is used as a theoretical account works for most of the experiments. In this experiment we have analyzed the map and place of ERECTA cistron with regard to look of trait and genotyping. Genotyping was carried out utilizing PCR analysis. The function was done for the whole genome of Arabidopsis RIL ‘s utilizing the indel markers. By utilizing the recombinant inbred lines of Ler and Col the phenotype and genotype informations were compared manually.

Furthermore, the QTL analysis was used to place the location of ERECTA cistron on the chromosome along with the aid of markers. From the consequences it is seen that the ERECTA cistron is located at the 2nd chromosome of Arabidopsis thaliana between the markers m220 and m251 ( ~between 22.6 centimeter and 37.8 centimeter ) . However marker m226 was besides found to hold minimal control on the look of the trait ( silique and pedicle length ) .

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Cardinal words: Arabidopsis thaliana, ERECTA, QTL, PCR, marker

3. Introduction

Arabidopsis thaliana is a widely distributed works which is besides used as a theoretical account being in works scientific discipline research. Arabidopsis thaliana has more than 700 natural accessions around the universe. Among the ecotypes of Arabidopsis Ler and Col are the most common ecotypes which are used for familial and molecular surveies ( Anderson and Mulligan, 1992 ) . Among those Ler is isolated from mutagenized seed populations of Arabidopsis ( Redei, 1992 ) and it lacks ERECTA cistron. The ERECTA cistron controls many physiological procedures during Arabidopsis works development such as blossoming, internodes and pedicel elongation and foliage and siliquas morphogenesis ( Scott J. Douglas, 2002 ) . From the familial control surveies, the root development with Arabidopsis mutant ( erecta ) has reduced internode length ( Hanzawa et al.

, 1997 ) which leads to cut down works tallness. These basic morphological characters are used to distinguish the ecotypes. In this experiment our chief purpose is to place the place of the ERECTA cistron and its linked marker in the genome ( five chromosomes ) of Arabidopsis. By utilizing the ERECTA mutated ecotype Landsberg erecta and normal ecotype Columbia the Recombinant inbred lines are produced. The phenotyping ( morphological character ) and genotypic correlativity of inbred lines is compared with the molecular markers and the location of the ERECTA is identified. The chief application for this type of experiments is to place the location of familial factors ( quantitative trait venue or QTLs ) on the genome utilizing molecular markers and used while doing choice and genteelness determinations to increase the choice efficiency of the trait.




The two Arabidopsis ecotypes Landsberg erecta ( Ler ) and Columbia ( Col-0 ) were used as parents to organize Recombinant inbred lines.


The initial cross with Ler and Col was done to organize F1 coevals. After that the F1 went 8 coevals of recurrent inbreeding to increase homozygosity. The fig.1 shows the systematic diagram of RIL.Fig 1.

The recombinant inbred line population.


The different RIL samples were collected for DNA extraction. Collected works samples were grinded in eppendorf tubing by puting them in liquid N.

500 Aµl of extraction buffer was added and incubated at 650 degree Celsiuss for 20 proceedingss. The extraction buffer contains 100 millimeter Tris ( =Trizma base ) ; M=121.14 gi?-mol-1, 1.4 M NaCl ; M=58.442 gi?-mol-1, 20 millimeter EDTA ( C10H16N2O8, M=292.24 or C10H14O8N2Na2A·2H2O 372.24 gi?-mol-1 ) , 2 % v/v CTAB ( N-Cetyl-N, N, N- trimethylammoniumbromide, M=364.

46 gi?-mol-1 ) . Then 500 Aµl of phenol- chloroform-isoamyl intoxicant was added in the ratio of 25:24:1 and centrifuged at 13000 revolutions per minute for 5 proceedingss. The supernatant was transferred to another tubing. Equal volume of chloroform- isoamyl intoxicant was added in the ratio of 24:1 and centrifuged at 13000 revolutions per minute for 5 proceedingss. 300 Aµl of supernatant was transferred to a new tubing. 30 Aµl of Na ethanoate and 750 Aµl of 100 % ethyl alcohol were added. The tubings were placed at -200 degree Celsius for 10 proceedingss and centrifuged at 13000 revolutions per minute for 15 proceedingss.

The ethyl alcohol was decanted. To the sample 175 Aµl of 70 % ethyl alcohol was added and centrifuged at 13000 revolutions per minute for 5 proceedingss. The extra ethyl alcohol was removed utilizing velocity vacuity.

The pellet was re-suspended in 50 Aµl of H2O. The concentration and pureness of the DNA sample was measured on a Nanodrop.


The genotyping of Ler, Col and their recombinant inbred lines ( 00, 03, 11, 15, 21, 27 and 51 ) were analyzed by utilizing the known interpolation or omission markers.

The markers and the primers with their base brace look are given in table 1.


Forward primer

Change by reversal primer

Col-0 ( bp )

Ler ( bp )



The 12x concentration of buffer, H2O, dNTP, polymerase and primers ( Table 2.1 ) were added to a PCR tubings along with the Deoxyribonucleic acid of different genotypes. The tubings were assorted good ( without air bubbles ) and placed in ice. Water is used as a negative control. The PCR plan was set as shown in table 2.

2. The tubings were placed in PCR machine and allowed to run for 35 rhythms.

NEB Taq DNA Polymerase



10x ThermoPol buffer2.

5 Aµl30 AµldNTP ( 10mM )0.5 Aµl6 AµlTaq polymerase ( 5U/Aµl )0.2 Aµl2.4 AµlPrimer 1 ( 10AµM )0.6 Aµl7.2 AµlPrimer 2 ( 10AµM )0.

6 Aµl7.2 AµlDeoxyribonucleic acid templet0.5 AµlWater20.1 Aµl241 Aµl96 A°C5 min


94 A°C30 sec


60 A°C30 sec35 rhythms72 A°C1.5 min


72 A°C10 min


4 A°CclaspTable 2.1 The reagents for PCR Table 2.2, PCR plan


5 Aµl of lading dye was added with the merchandises obtained from PCR.

The samples were so loaded into agarose gel. Deoxyribonucleic acid ladders were added to the first and last lanes of the gel. The gel was run at 100 V for 1-2 hour.


From the adult RIL and ecotypes of Arabidopsis the phenotyping was done. The morphological characters such as short works, siliqua breadth, compact blossoming and short siliqua length, pedicel length and petiole length contained workss were considered as landsberg erecta. For the Columbia ecotype tall works, long silique length, pedicel length, petiole length, thin siliquas breadths and with disperse blossoming considered as phenotypic characters. The phenotypic information was compared with genotypic informations obtained from the cataphoresis. Then the phenotypic information was compared with standard marker informations and marking was done.



The widely-used methods for observing QTLs such as single-marker analysis, simple interval function ( Liu, 1998 ) were used to happen, whether the marker is linked to a QTL and the place of the QTL on the map.

5. Result



The Deoxyribonucleic acid of ecotypes and RIL were analyzed by utilizing the interpolation and omission markers with the aid of cataphoresis ( Fig.2 ) and the informations obtained was given in table 3. Based on the size of the DNA the ecotypes were differentiated as shown in fig 2.

For DNA size refer table 1. For many of the markers there was no DNA set observed for the Parents and RIL ‘s.Fig 2.

The gel image of Arabidopsis ecotypes and their RIL ‘s harmonizing to the marker.From the tabular array ( Table 3 ) it ‘s clear that some of the markers such as m600, m555 and 457 were more different from the phenotype. Some of the other markers like m220, m213 and ERECTA do n’t hold clear genotypic consequences to compare with phenotype. However the marker m457 consequences have closely related to the phenotypic consequence. So there may be taint or practical mistakes be occurred during the DNA analysis.




RIL 00

RIL 03

RIL 11

RIL 15

RIL 21

RIL 27

RIL 51




















Table3. The consequence signifier agarose gel cataphoresis and phenotyping.



The morphological characters such as type of blossoming ( compact or dispersed ) , works tallness, silique length, siliqua breadth, pedicel length and petiole length was analyzed from the recombinant inbred lines of Ler and Col ( Table 4 ) . As it was said earlier ( methods ) , based on the morphological characters, the ecotypes were differentiated and noted down. Form the consequence it was observed that most of the RIL ‘s expressed Ler phenotype.

RIL ‘s



Silique length

Siliques width

Pedicle length

Leaf shape





5114131LirTable4. The morphological characters of RIL of Ler and Col. In blossoming 1 denote compact blossoming and 0 denote disperse blossoming. For leaf form 0 and 1 indicates presence and obscene severally. Like that, Silique length was besides denoted by 0 and 1.The genotype of the markers was scored with the aid of phenotypic informations ( Table 5 ) . In the tabular array the phenotype observed was compared with the genotype informations, by foregrounding the similarity between phenotype and genotype.

Form the table5 marker m220 had highest value of 37 followed by m251with 36 and m216 & A ; m326 severally with 29.Table5. The information of scored marker with ascertained phenotypic informations of RIL ‘s. Foregrounding indicates genotype and phenotype were fiting.


The QTL consequences based on individual marker analysis and interval function are shown in Fig.3.1, 3.

2, 3.3, 3.4. The QTL analysis for tallness, siliqua and pedicel length indicated that ( Fig.3.1, 3.2 & A ; 3.3 ) marker m220 had peak above the threshold degree.

For silique length and pedicel length the QTL showed ( Fig 3.2 & A ; 3.3 ) two extremums ( high and low ) above the threshold degree for the markers m220 and m226 severally.

Fig. 3 ) 3.1.The QTL of works tallness with extremum on m220 ( indicated by pointer, 3.2 & A ; 3.3, QTL of siliqua length and petiole length with two extremums above threshold degree on m220 and m226 and 3.4, the marker map of Arabidopsis demoing the topographic point of ERECTA cistron.

6. Discussion

The genotype consequence gave an thought to extinguish the marker which was non closely related to phenotype such as m600, m555 and 457. But, the genotype consequence did non given clear decision about the marker that closely related to ERECTA cistron. The genotype information of m220, m213, m457 and ERECTA did non show DNA set for most of the RILs ( Fig.

2 ) . However, the mark obtained from the comparing of phenotype with standard genotypic informations provide some grounds of the location of ERECTA cistron when compared with molecular map of Arabidopsis thaliana. It showed that m220, m251, m216 and m226 were closely related to the ERECTA cistron.

Still we can non state clearly that ERECTA is located someplace between m220, m251, m216 and m226 because the marker m226 and m326 were located at 3rd chromosome of Arabidopsis thaliana. Additionally, the markers m326 and m226 showed some effects on siliqua and pedicel length which were observed in both QTL analyses and RILs marking. So it can be said that these cistrons besides have a small consequence on commanding the look of siliqua and pedicel length of Arabidopsis thaliana.

By utilizing QTL analysis the finest inside informations about location of ERECTA cistron was obtained. From the QTL informations it was clearly shown that the ERECTA cistron is located between m251 and m220 ( Fig. 3.4 ) .


We thank Tom Martin, Jonas Ross and Luisa Ghelardini for supplying proficient support and appraisal during the experiment.