Who was the most successful Russia leader between 1855 – 1964? There were six leaders between the time period 1855-1064 and to determine who was the most successful we have to know how to measure successfulness. Successfulness is measured over a range of things such as achieving aims, economy, war and the public opinion and opposition to the leader in power. Firstly war was a crucial part of the time period 1855-1964 with Russia going though small wars to huge full blown World Wars. Stalin was clearly to most successful leader in terms of war as he won WWII with shear mass of soldiers nd equipment like tanks.
Stalin won with quantity rather than quality however came out of the war the victor and a hero to many Russians. Stalin led Russia into the Cold War against America and managed to take control Of much of Eastern Europe using East Germany an ‘iron curtain’ like Winston Churchill famously said. Khrushchev and Lenin wasn’t that unsuccessful either although Lenin did make Russia leave WWI he managed to perform a coup and get into power. Khrushchev received a bit of an unrest from attacking Stalin however it was soon interrupted and over.
Alexander Ill was areful and generally stayed out of wars meaning he didn’t lose any however he did win one in 1 887 against Turkey although he won he gained very little due to great powers intervening. Alexander II also tended to keep out of wars also however when he came into power he was half way through the Crimean War which had 500,00 casualties. The Russian soldiers only had 1 rifle between 2 and most of them were peasants. However what makes Alexander II more credible is that he improved the training of troops after the war and didnt enter Russia into any wars himself.
The most unsuccessful leader to do ith war is hands down Nicholas II who in 1904 enter Russia into the Russo- Japanese war and lost with the Russian naw nearly being completely wiped out. Further more in 1 905 Nicholas II was very close to losing power with events like Bloody Sunday on 9th January where armed soldiers were deployed and fired upon 150,000 demonstrators. Also in 1914 Nicholas II entered WWI where they received huge losses by 191 7 with 1. 6million dead and 3. 9 million injured. This could have partly been down to poor equipment with only 2 out of 3 soldiers having rifles.
Overall Stalin is clearly the most uccessful leader in a war time situation due to his persistence and sheer determination to win using a mass amount of people and equipment which wasn’t the most developed however effective. The economy is a huge factor of what makes a leader successful as if the mass of people have cash in their pocket and spare money to spend then they will be happy as it’s the biggest motivator. However this is not the case with most of the time through the time period as Russia is falling behind to the west as it is less developed.
All the leaders to some extent improved the economy in some way weather it as in agriculture or industry. One major way to improve the country was to increase the railway as this provided the means to move materials large distances which is important for the industry and manufacturing. Alexander II increased the railway from 2,200 miles to 14,200 by 1881. Nicholas II managed to increase the network rail to 59,616 Km in 1905. Bythe communist era the railway still grew yet it wasn’t as impressive as Russia had developed and thoughts turned more to industrialisation.
Industrialisation did happen in the time of the Tsar but only really under Nicholas II where in 91 2 there was 5738 of industrial output, also Russia provided 5. 6% of the worlds Pig Iron and 3. 66% of its Iron. In 1908 there was 39856 factories with 2,609,000 workers in factories. In Lenin’s short time in power between 1918 -1924 he created the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and war communism which he later removed due to an economic collapse in 1 921 and replaced by the New Economic Policy this managed to steady economic growth and also made the peasants happier as they could sell their materials for profit.
Lenin also nationalised all of the larger industries in contrast to Alexander II Lenin was uccessful as Alexander II made insufficient progress with agriculture and industry. Like Lenin, Stalin Was also somewhat successful as when the New Economic Policy didn’t really work he replaced it with the Five Year Plans which turned Russia from an agrarian society into a major economic power. During the first three five year plans there were impressive growth rates (1928-1940) this is particularly impressive as it was during the time of the great depression and of course during the war productivity and worker in factories was up considerably.
In terms of agriculture Stalin used collectivisation which wasn’t very successful. Khrushchev early on was successful in dealing with the economy and there was some optimism. When he introduced the sixth Five year plan was approved its forecast was very high and plan unfulfilled. However, between 1953 and 1958 GNP grew by 6. 7% per annum, a rate exceeded only by Japan and Western Germany among industrial countries. Collective farms stayed however and even though they didnt perform brilliantly peasant income increased dramatically.
This shows that Khrushchev was successful as he continued to modernise Russia and he focused more on industry which now included consumer goods. Finally Alexander Ill who did have the best agricultural policies with the famine of 1981 and huge food shortages however his industrialisation was better. In the early 1980’s he appointed Witte as minister of finance which dramatically increased the speed of industrialisation in the 1 890’s. This moves on nicely to public opinion and the oppositions the leaders had.
Alexander Ill or the reactionist for reversing his father’s reforms was a peace maker which made him generally well liked which is supported by Alexander Ill dying naturally (iidnr b rather than being assassinated. Although the Famine of 18 ecreased the popularity of the Tsar as there was a huge fc many people died. so there was a mixed opinion. Howevel a failed assassination attempted. In terms of opposition thi abroad or killed, Alexander Ill dealt with opposition very ef restored authority of the Romanov Dynasty.
Alexander II M himself and the Romanov Dynasty more popular he tried tl with emancipation in 1861, he tried to create a country run democracy with Zemstva’s and tried to make justice fairer Although Alexander II tried most his reforms were flawed widespread criticism. In general public opinion was against obviously means he has more opposition. In 1 866 there we attempt which led to reactionary methods but these were inefficiently liberal. Opposition came in the form . Narodnil Peoples’ Will from the mid 60’s onwards.
Alexander II was f by the Peoples’ Will in 1881 which had a membership of ju: This leads onto Khrushchev who also attempted reform an start after his speech attacking Stalin the people were agail shown clear with unrests. Khrushchev proves that reformir backwards and huge Russian Empire is a difficult act and d much of the people backing even though he did some goo( example a key event in the Cold War was the space race ar irst man into space ahead of the Americans. However in 1′ Missile Crisis it was seen as if he was humiliated and many didnt give him the support they gave the likes of Stalin.
Khl did use propaganda with the likes of parades of the weapo destruction although they didnt have many they sent the few times to make Russia look powerful and resourceful. Ir to resign and retired which was unique in Russia however i culture has changed and that he’s achieved something as il before in the time of the Tsar if you weren’t liked you woul’ assassinated. In terms of Khrushchev’s opposition he defu rivals but simply out-manoeuvring them. Possibly the mos would have to be Stalin for the simple reason that he won credit saying that it was all him and his tactics that worn.
In made Russia a world power and the Russia public see him as he got them to be the one of the two main world power: IJSA. Stalin took Russia into the Cold War and improved he education.