1 ) Background Information
Basic informations and statistics on your state: size, population, clime, geographical facts, economic and societal features such as GDP, growing rate, per capita income, sectoral distribution of national income, function of external sector, degree of urbanisation, rural sector part to national economic system, etc.Vulnerabilities to natural catastrophes: reappraisal of chief natural jeopardies to which your state is vulnerable, through documented informations of the last decennary. The list may include such jeopardies as inundations, drouths, temblors, volcanic eruptions, land slides, forest fire, strong / terrible air currents.The background information portion shall non transcend 2 pages or 1200 words.
Basic Datas: Sri Lanka[ 1 ]
Entire Area: 65610km2Entire Population: 20,217,000 ( 2009 mid twelvemonth )Urban: 16.3 %Rural: 83.7 %GDP per capita: US $ 2012.51
Sectoral Distribution of GDP:
GDP-Agriculture: 10.8 %GDP-Industry: 33.8 %GDP-Service: 55.4 %Sri Lanka ( Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ) is a glorious island in the Indian Ocean, lying off the South-eastern tip of the Indian subcontinent. The Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar separate Sri Lanka from India.
The Arabian Sea lies to the West, the Bay of Bengal to the NorthEast, and the Indian Ocean to the South, Colombo, situated on the western seashore, is the largest metropolis and the commercial capital of Sri Lanka. The Administrative capital is Sri Jayewardenepura ( Kotte ) , located about 16 kilometers ( about 10 stat mis ) East of Colombo. The entire country of Sri Lanka is 65, 610 sq kilometer ( 25,332 sq.mi ) .
The greatest length, from North to South, is 440 kilometer ( 270 myocardial infarction ) . The greatest breadth from E to west across the island ‘s wide Southern part is 220 kilometer ( 140 myocardial infarction ) . Sri Lanka ‘s coastline extends to a length of about 1,300 kilometers ( about 830 myocardial infarction ) The lift of the encircled fields ranges from sea degree to 90m ( 300 foot ) . The fields are broadest in the North and North Central countries. The coastal belt rises about 30 m ( about 100 foots ) above sea degree. Lagoons, sand beaches, sand dunes, and fens predominate along the seashore, although steep bouldery drops are found in the Northeast and Southwest.
There are mountains in the cardinal hill state that rise up to 6000 pess.The population of Sri Lanka is about 20 million. Cultural groups are the Sinhalese, who form the bulk ( 74 % ) of the population the Sri Lankan Tamils ( 12.6 % ) , Tamils of recent Indian beginning ( 5.5 % ) , Sri Lanka Moors ( 7.7 ) , and other groups like Malays, and Burghers organizing the remainder. Agriculture is the largest sector of the economic system in footings of employment, but fabrication, particularly the garment industry generates the bulk of export net incomes.
Remittances from Sri Lankan expatriates peculiarly in the Middle and Gulf have late become an of import foreign exchange subscriber. Sri Lanka has a democratic political system, with a straight elected President as Head of State every bit good as a straight elected Parliament, a Prime Minister and a Cabinet of Ministers.Cyclones, inundations, landslides, lightning are the common natural catastrophes and 2004 Asian Tsunami was the annihilating event in the history. The extend of harm were stated asCatastropheDateKilledNo of AffectedEarthquake*200435,3991019306Flood1989325501000Flood2003235Mass mov. moisture199365Epidemic198753Flood198445Flood198643Epidemic199736Flood198234Flood199033
Brief Description of the Selected Disaster Event
Year of happening, type and badness of catastrophe, losingss and amendss including direct and indirect losingss, impact on national economic system, if any, trust on external aid, etc.The description portion should non transcend 1 page or 600 words.26th of December 2004, was an unforgettable twenty-four hours for all Sri Lankans every bit good as for the whole universe.
On that fsateful twenty-four hours, tidal moving ridges from the Indian ocean struck the Eastern and Southern seashores of Sri Lanka every bit good as parts of Northern and Western seashores brushing people off, doing implosion therapy and devastation of substructure. The tidal moving ridges were caused by a series of temblors, mensurating 8.9 on the Richter graduated table that occurred in the sea near Sumatra, Indonesia. It caused elephantine, lifelessly waves to crash ashore in about a twelve states, killing 10s of 1000s. A long stretch of Sri Lanka ‘s seashore was devastated by these slayer moving ridges, with more than 40,000 dead and reeling 2.5 million people displaced* . Although 1,600km from the epicenter, the moving ridges struck with immense force and swept inland every bit far as 5 kilometers. Waves every bit high as six metres had crashed into coastal small towns, brushing off people, autos and even a train with 1700 riders.
It was the worst human catastrophe in Sri Lanka history. Since many Sri Lankans did non hold any old experience of this nature, the harm caused to their lives were incredible. Thousands of people were displaced and disappeared or killed within a really short clip.
*Source: Annual Reports, Disaster Management Centre, Sri Lanka
3. In what manner and how this natural catastrophe affected your city/ region/ country/ continent?
– Which societal groups were badly affected by the Tsunami?Without sing the societal position of the people who lived in the coastal part, bulk of the people were the victims of the Tsunami.- What sort of impact, catastrophes had upon people?About 40,000 people lost their lives and about 2.5 million people who lived in the coastal part was displaced. Other than that harm to the belongingss including houses, concern premises, public and commercial establishments and substructure were estimated around US $ 500 million- Which societal and economic development sectors were badly affected?Tourism and Fisheries sector were badly affected. Hence it was estimated tsunami caused extended harm to the touristry sector amounting to around US $ 200 million in amendss to installations, with estimated Numberss of tourers in following twelvemonth, 2005 was drastically reduced.
For piscaries sector it was estimated the harm about 100 million US $ . The estimated sum doomed was 5 % from the national GDP.The human impact had been even more astonishing than the harm to substructure. It was reported in some coastal communities, full households, supports and societal webs have merely disappeared.The harm coursed by tsunami was non been limited to Sri Lanka, heavy harm was reported in many parts of Indonesia, India, Maldives and Thailand and the human and economic losingss were greater in Indonesia than anyplace else.
In visible radiation of the losingss and amendss you have described in the old reply, what type of actions would you urge to diminish the amendss from future catastrophes?
Since experience of Tsunami was new to Sri Lankan communities before this happened and the amendss of human lives could be minimised if there were proper early warning system. In the instance of any future event it was recommended to put a early warning system with coordination with the Asia-Pacific Tsunami warning Centre. It should include prediction, early warning and information airing.
For a long term catastrophe extenuation there should be preparedness to react to disaster when it occurred. There should be an exigency operation direction system to organize operations in the catastrophes, proctor activities and disposal. This should include direction of station catastrophe activities as good.
National Disaster Management System
You will show an overview of your state ‘s national catastrophe direction system, its basic features, organisational construction, bing statute law, policies, schemes and depict how power, duties and liabilities are distributed among different degrees of disposal ( centralized, decentralized, hierarchal, bottom-up, top-down, coercive, concerted etc ) . The overview should bespeak how cardinal elements of catastrophe hazard direction – hazard designation, extenuation, hazard transportation, readiness, exigency response and rehabilitation, and Reconstruction – are integrated in the national system. The description should include the function of public sector, private sector, NGOs, and communities in different stages of hazard decrease.The overview of national system shall non transcend 3 pages or 1800 words. You may include extra exhibits of the organisational system and constructions at the terminal of the instance survey.
Disaster Management Framework in the Sri Lanka:
Sri Lanka Disaster Management Act No.13 of 2005 was enacted in July 2005 which provides the legal footing for establishing a catastrophe hazard direction system in the state. The National Council for Disaster Management ( NCDM ) , is a high-ranking inter-ministerial organic structure. The Chairman and Vice Chairman of the NCDM are H.E. the President and the Hon.
Prime Minister severally. Other members are Leader of the Opposition, Ministers in charge of 20 selected capable countries, Provincial Council Chief Ministers and five members of the Opposition. The Act besides provides for set uping the Disaster Management Centre ( DMC ) under the Council to be the vertex organic structure for the intent of planning, co-ordinating and implementing of certain natural and other signifiers of catastrophes.Main Activities arePreparation of National Disaster Management Plan and National Emergency Operation PlanFacilitating, preparation of guidelines, organizing, directing and monitoring of readying of catastrophe readiness and response programs at provincial territory, local authorization, divisional and Grama Niladhari degreesReadiness for timely and effectiveA response, just alleviation distribution, rapid recovery, timely rehabilitation and Reconstruction at national and sub national degrees
Short term: cut down no of affected people for a catastropheLong term: Readiness of timely and effectual response.
1Disaster Management CentreMainstreaming catastrophe and decrease into development processes through community-based DRM and coordination2Landslide surveies and service divisionReadiness of landslide jeopardy zonation maps, Risk and exposure function3Medical research instituteReadiness of response programs and programmes sing wellness issues4Ministry of wellness and nutritionRisk appraisal, exposure function and early warning related to biological jeopardies and epidemics5Atomic Energy authorizationDevelopment of radiological exigency response program6Department of weather forecastingProvision of early warning services7Sri Lanka Land Reclamation & A ; Development CorporationReclamation and development of lands while guaranting a inundation free home ground8Colombo Municipal Council and other Municipal councilsService supplier on wellness, substructure, fire control, veterinary, societal public assistance9Geological Survey and Mines BureauMonitoring of temblor activities and tsunami conditions10Central Environment AuthorityImprove safety and readiness against industries and chemical jeopardies11Sri Lanka institute of Local GovernanceConducting consciousness and preparation programmes related to natural catastrophes and physical amendss12Water Resources BoardLand H2O geographic expedition and extraction in drought period13Urban Development AuthorityPreparation of urban development programs including districting programs, land usage programs14Irrigation DepartmentRegulation and control of inland H2O organic structures15Sri Lanka Red Cross SocietyCommunity based catastrophe programs, exposure and capacity appraisal, voluntary capacity edifice, rain H2O harvest home, first assistance preparation
Describe the mechanisms for counterbalancing catastrophe victims for their losingss.
Any individual who suffers loss or amendss to his or its belongings by ground of any catastrophe he or she shall be entitled to compensation in regard of any loss or harm caused, of an sum determined by the Divisional Secretary of the Division within which such belongings is situated. The divisional secretary may for the intent of finding the compensation collectible under aid of a authorities assessor. The sum of compensation paid for any loss or harm caused to belongings shall in instance of difference, be determined by the District Court within the legal power of which the belongings is situated.Beginning: Disaster Management Centre, Road Map for Safer Sri Lanka
Strengths and Failings of the National Disaster Management System
The treatment of the national system ‘s strengths and failings should be supported with illustrations related to the selected natural catastrophe event that has impacted your state, and should be made in the context of assorted factors described in the old subdivision. These can include the degree of centralisation, web connectivity, active engagement of public sector and private sector, maps of different degrees of disposal – cardinal, local – and function of communities and civil society.The treatment of strengths and failings shall non transcend 1 page or 600 words.The StrengthsIn July 2005 the Disaster Management Centre ( DMC ) was established under the National Council for Disaster Management ( NCDM ) to be functional under H.
E. the President.Puting up Disaster Resource Centres to each Districts ( 25 Centres for 25 territories ) which comes under direct influence of DMCThrough the DMCaˆ?Established baseline information for DRR ( database ) , including catastrophe and hazard profiles, national policies, schemes, capacities, resources and programme.aˆ?Identified marks, spreads, concerns and challenges and puting Forth accepted precedence countries in DRR ;aˆ?Developed result-oriented work program for National DM Coordination Committee to organize the DRR activities developed a “ Road Map for Disaster Risk Management ; towards a Safer Sri Lanka ”aˆ?Coordinating joint attempts among members of National DM Coordination Committee to cut down the exposure of people at comparatively high hazard ;aˆ?Monitoring, entering and coverage of DRR actions at national and community degreesaˆ?Started Community Based/Led Disaster Management ( CBDM ) attack at national degree to beef up community ‘s determination devising procedureaˆ?Initiate and organize foreign assisted undertakings for catastrophe extenuation, response and recoveryaˆ?Early warning airing ( 13th July 2010 completed Tsunami bore in 14 territories )aˆ?Supervision of the activities of non-governmental organisations and societal public assistance voluntary bureaus in relation to disaster direction, commissariats of alleviation and publicity of human Rhode IslandApart from that there were separate catastrophe direction ministry which was under the direct supervising of H.E. President and it maintainaˆ?Emergency Operation Unit at the Ministryaˆ?Implementation of Disaster Mitigation Programmes to cut down Risk and Vulnerability in catastrophe prone countries eg: Construction of rain H2O reapingaˆ?Establishment of Disaster Response Teams at the school degreeaˆ?Setting up Disaster Management Coordinating Committees to each Divisional Secretariatsaˆ?Preparation of Divisional Level Disaster Response and Action Plan to each Divisional SecretariatsThe Weaknessaˆ?Even thought through DMC, Sri Lanka were able to develop solid national degree catastrophe direction program, when it comes to the execution it was non fast as planning. It was a rather slow procedure.aˆ?We have subdivisions of catastrophe direction Centre in each and every territory but, when it comes to the community degree, the entire engagement for the community degree activities including community planning is reasonably less.
aˆ?Still the DMC is non started be aftering based on the degree of jeopardy prone. In Sri Lanka we have different countries prone to different types of jeopardy ( Hil state – prone to land slides, low state – inundations, Dry zone – drouth..
. .etc ) .
Maping hazard specif countries is non able to finished yet ( harmonizing to my understanding DMC started mapping inundation prone countries in Kaluthara District… .
Please rectify me if I ‘m incorrect ) . There will be much work on this country.
Recommendations for Improvement
You should depict any proposed alterations to the present system that could better its efficiency, diminish your state ‘s exposure to natural jeopardies and cut down losingss from future catastrophe events. You should besides discourse whether these alterations are portion of the national docket due to the recent impacts of catastrophe, or due to other forces and factors.The shutting portion should non transcend 1 page or 600 words.